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COMPUTER BASICS

PART 1

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FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONIC DATA
PROCESSING (EDP)

WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING ?

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DATA :
Collection of facts
Raw information

INFORMATION :
Useful Information
Facts in organised manner

DATA PROCESSING :
Sequence of actions required to be performed on
data to convert it into results.

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Data Processing Operations
1. Recording and Storage
2. Verifying
3. Duplicating
4. Classifying
5. Sorting
6. Merging
7. Calculating
8. Searching and Retrieving
9. Summeriging and report writing
10. Communication

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METHODS OF DATA PROCESSING

1. Manual Data Processing


Penciland paper
Work sheets

Journals

Ledgers

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2. Mechanical Data Processing
Calculators

Adding Machines
Type writers

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3. Electromechanical Data Processing
Card punch machines
Electric type writers

Accounting machines Unit Record


Equipment

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4. Electronic Data Processing (EDP)
Calculators

Computers

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1.First Generation Computers
(1946 1959)
Major Components : Vacuum tubes.

First large scale vacuum tube computer


(1946) ENIAC (Electronic Numerical
Integrator and Calculator) was completed
in 1946 by John Manchly and Presper
Eckert at the Moore School of Electrical
Engineering (1500 Square feet, weight 30
tons, 19,000 tubes).

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EDSAC (Electronic Delayed Storage
Automatic Computer) (1949)
Completed in 1949 at Cambridge University,
England. First Computer to use the stored
Program concept.
EDVAC First American Computer to have
stored program feature.
EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable
Automatic Computer) completed in 1952.
1951 UNIVAC I become operational at
Census Bureau

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Manufacture Model

1. More School of Electrical ENIVAC, EDVAC


Engineering

2. Cambridge University EDSAC

3. UNIVAC UNIVAC-I, UNIVAC-II

4. Burroughs E101, Burroughs 2202

5. Honeywell Datamatic 1000

6. IBM Mark II, Mark III

7. National Cash Register CRC 102A, 102B


CRC
8. RCA BIZ MACI, II
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Second Generation Computers
(1959-65)
Solid state devices (Transistors)
1000 times faster than First
Generation Computers.

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Manufacture Model

Burroughs B5000, 200 series

Control Data CDC 1604, 160A

General Electric GE 635, 645, 200

Honeywell 400 Series, 800 series

IBM 7070, 7080, 7090, 1400


series 1600 series
RCA 501

Univac UNIVAC III, 5580, 5590, 1107

Philco 2000

NCR 300
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Third Generation Computer
(1965 - 1970)
IC - Integrated Circuits
Microsecond 10 -6
Nanosecond 10 -9
Seconding storage devices,
terminals

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Manufacturer Model
Burroughs 5700, 6700, 7700

Control Data 3000 series, 6000 series,


7000 series
Digital Equipment PPP-8 series, PDP II series

General Electric GE 600 series, GE 235

Honeywell 200 series, 60 series

IBM System / 360 series,


System / 370 series
RCA (increased by UNIVAC) Spectra 70 series

UNIVAC 1108, 9000 series

NCR Century series

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Fourth Generation Computers
(Since 1970)
Chip Technology
LSI - Large Scale Integrator Circuits
MSI Mass Scale Integrated Circuits
Size of Chip - square inch
Semiconductor Technology

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Fifth Generation Computers
AI Artificial Intelligence
Parallel Processing

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What is a Computer?
Computer

A device capable of
performing computations and
making logical decisions

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How to use a computer

andnotloseyourmind

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TERMINOLOGY

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Hardware
vs.
Software

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Hardware-The electronic
circuits,
memory and
input/output
components of a
computer system;
the tangible
objects
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Hardware
Memory
RAM
Hard Disk/Floppy Disk/CD
Tape
CPU/Motherboard
Modem
Power Supply

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RAM- Random
Access
Memory

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ROM- Read
Only
Memory

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CPU- Central
Processing
Unit

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Looking at the CPU

CD Rom drive
3 inch floppy
disk drive
On/Off button
Restart button

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Computer Structure
The Box
Input Devises
Keyboard
Mouse CPU
Joystick
Process Arithmetic
Control Unit Logic Unit
Output Devices
Monitor
Printer

Main Memory
(RAM)

External Storage
Hard disk
Floppy

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Computer Organization
Six logical units in every computer:
Input unit
Obtains information from input devices
(keyboard, mouse)
Output unit
Outputs information (to screen, to printer, to
control other devices)
Memory unit
Rapid access, low capacity, stores input
information

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Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)
Performs arithmetic calculations and logic
decisions
Central processing unit (CPU)
Supervises and coordinates the other
sections of the computer
Secondary storage unit
Cheap, long-term, high-capacity storage,
stores inactive programs

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CPU

Monitor(screen)

Mouse

Keyboard

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Units of Time

Unit Abbreviati Duration (seconds)


on
second sec/s 1
Millisecond ms 10-3 = 1/1,000
Microsecond s 10-6 = 1/1,000,000
Nanosecond ns 10-9 = 1/1,000,000,000
Picosecond ps 10-12 =
1/1,000,000,000,000
Femtosecond fs 10-15 =
1/1,000,000,000,000,000

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Software- A general term for
computer programs and
documentation involved
in the operation of
the computer

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Software
Program

Operating System
(OS)
DATA

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Program- A sequence of
instructions
directing a computer to
perform a particular
function; a statement
of
an algorithm in a
programming
language. 35
Operating System-

Interface between the Computer


and User.

A collection of programs for


operating the computer. Operating
systems perform housekeeping
tasks such as input/output between
the computer and peripherals, and
accepting and interpreting information
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Evolution of Operating Systems

Batch processing
Do only one job or task at a time
Multiprogramming
Manyjobs or tasks sharing a
computers resources
Timesharing
Perform a small portion of one users
job then moves on to service the next
user

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BOOTING
1. Operating System is loaded from
Secondary Memory to the Main
Memory. After loading of the OS, the
computer is ready for use.
2. ROM Bios instructions get executed.
Hardware check is performed.
3. IO.SYS and MS.SYS system files get read 38
Data Representation
Computer memory
Millions of switches (relays)
Two possible states
on or off
open or closed

charged or discharged (like a capacitor)

Each switch is a bit one binary digit


The on state is binary 1
The off state is binary 0

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Data Representation
Bits when grouped together can
Be used to represent any number using
the binary (base 2) number system
Bytes 8 bit groupings
Most fundamental measure of memory
256 Megabytes of memory
2,048,000,000 bits
1 Byte = 1 Character
K = 1024 bytes (K means Kilo)
M = 1024 x 1024 bytes (M means Mega)
G = 1024 x1024 x 1024 (G means Giga)

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Units of Size

Unit Abbreviat Size (bytes)


ion
bit b 1/8
byte B 1
kilobyte KB 210 = 1024
megabyte MB 220 = 1,048,576
gigabyte GB 230 = 1,073,741,824
terabyte TB 240 = 1,099,511,627,776
petabyteHow doPB 250
=
hard drive manufactures cheat you?
1,125,899,906,842,624

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Number Systems
People
work in base 10
Computers
work in base 2
Engineers
often
work in other groupings of
computer bits
Octal base eight
Hexadecimal base sixteen

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Number Systems
Base 2
Base 10
1012
12210
1 x 20 = 110
2 x 100
0 x 21 = 010
2 x 101
1 x 22 = 410
1 x 102
510

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Number Systems
3 binary digits can Decimal Octal Binary
0 0 000
be used to
1 1 001
represent eight
2 2 010
possible values
3 3 011
(octal)
4 4 100
5 5 101
010 = 0002 = 08
6 6 110
7 7 111
710 = 1112 = 78 8
9

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4. Computer Language : Why we need
computer language ? Because, computer
understands only the computer
language, the computer dont
understand our languages like English,
Hindi, Punjabi etc.
So we have to give instructions in one of
the computer languages ?
Program Instructions written in
computer language.

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Types of Computer Languages :-

A. Low level languages


B. High level languages
C. Data Base languages

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A) Low-level languages Historically Low-level languages
were developed first. Low level languages are machine
dependent. Every manufactures develop their own
language. The low-level languages vary from machine to
machine. If one learns and works on one machine, after
changing the computer, one has to learn again new
language for the new machine. That is why the
computer remains with the manufactures or with the
universities and with the research institutes. Low level
languages are of two types
a) Machine languages
b) Assembly languages

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a) Machine language : Strings of
numbers giving specific instructions.

Example :
+ 1300042774
+ 1450212674
+ 1303245574
These codes vary from machine to
machine. Learning of the machine
language is difficult.

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b) Assembly Language : (Symbolic
Language) Instead of numeric code,
some symbols are used.
Examples :
LOAD BASEPAY
ADD OVERPAY
STORE GROSSPAY
Symbols also vary from machine to
machine.
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B) High Level Languages : High Level
languages are machine
independent. These are more near
to our problems. Easy to learn and
with less time. We can learn anyone
high level language and that will
work on any computer of any
company in any part of the world.

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The various High Level Languages are :-
BASIC Beginners All Purpose Symbolic
Instruction Code
FORTRAN Formula Translation
COBOL Common Business Oriented
Language
PASCAL Named after Blais Pascal
C The latest and most powerful
language.

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TRANSLATORS
Actual Processing is done in only in
machine languages. All Assembly
language and High level language
programs have to be translated into
the machine language of that
particular machine.

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Translators are provided by the
manufacturers.
There are three types of translators
i) Assembler
ii) Interpreter
iii) Compiler
Translator first finds the grammatical mistakes
and if there is no grammatical mistake then
translate it into the machine language.

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i) Assembler : Assembler translates only the
assembly language program into the machine
language.
ii)Interpreter : Check and translate the high
level language programs into the machine
language line by line.
Interpreter is available only for BASIC
language
iii) Compiler : Reads the whole high level
program, if there is no grammatical error, then
it translates the whole program into the
machine language.

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Source Code : Program written in High-
level languages.
Object Code : Translated program in
machine language from
high level languages.
There are two types of Errors
i) Syntax Errors
ii) Logic Errors

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Syntax Errors : Every computer
language has its own grammer and the
rules of the language. If the program is
not according to the rules of the
language, those errors are called Syntax
errors (Grammatical Errors). Syntax
Errors are easy to detect and easy to
remove.

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Logic Errors If there is no Syntax error,
still program may or may not work. If our
method or logic is wrong, the program
wont work (GIGO).
eg. - Diversion by zero.
- Square root of negative
numbers.
- Number out of range, etc.

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5. Execution and Results :-
Object Program + Data Results
Actual processing is done with the
object program. Any change or
correction in the problem, has to be
made first in the source program,
then source program is translated
into the object program. No direct
change in the object program.

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If some logic error is there, you
may not get the result. You have to
first correct logic and then make
the necessary correction in the
source program and then translated
into the object program and finally
execution.

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C) Data Base Languages :
DBASE-III, IV
FOXPRO
ORACLE

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Data Base Languages are :
- Easy to use
- Much simpler
- Popular among non-professional
- Learning with less time
- Language as well as package

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Language Database languages have all
the features of high-level languages.
Package Database languages have some
command to do some jobs. Commands
can be used directly and there is no need
of any programming.
Other packages are :
- MS-WORD
- MS-EXCEL
- MS-ACCESS

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What is Data Base ?
Characters - A Z, 0 9 Special Characters
(Any character on the key
board)
Field / Data item - Collecting of Characters
Record - Collection of Data items
File - Collection of Records
Data Base - Collection of Files

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Example Data Base of Students :
Data Base Structure :
Field Name Type
Width
NAME Character 20
D-O-B Date 8
Address Character 30
City Character 15
PIN Numeric 6

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Example of Data Base : Student

NAME D-O-B ADDRESS CITY PIN


1. RAM 15/10/93 145/Sec. 15 Chandigarh
160015

2. SHAM 10/05/92 165/Sec.- 19 Chandigarh


160019

3. SITA 10/06/93 989/Sec.- 45 Chandigarh


160045

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Facilities available in Database Languages
1. Creation of Data Base and Data-Base Structure
2. Entering the Data Records
3. Editing the Data Records
4. Adding New Records
5. Deleting Records
6. Retrieving and Searching the records
7. Displaying the records
8. Preparing the reports
9. Quarries
10. Sorting etc.

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Continued .

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