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Wireless Networks
Introduction IEEE 802.16
Fundamentals of WLANs Wireless PANs
IEEE 802.11 Standard HIPERLAN Standard

Introduction to Wireless Networks
What is a wireless network? It is a network that uses radio waves
instead of cables to relay information to and from.

Wireless networks take advantage of unlicensed airwaves to

transmit data at the 2.4 GHz frequency.

The most common application of wireless networks is to remotely

connect to the Internet from your laptop, but you can also use
wireless networks to send print jobs to remote printers or,
eventually, to connect all of your wireless devices (cell phones,
PDA's, etc) together.

Advantages and Disadvantages
ADVANTAGE: When properly set up, you can connect to the
Internet from any location.

DISADVANTAGE: Because wireless transmissions can pass

through walls, security is an issue. You will need to secure your
private wireless network, generally by password-restricting the
network and by using a firewall to prevent unwelcome visitors.

DISADVANTAGE: Wireless reception varies from area to area,

even within your own apartment. It's not always guaranteed that
you'll have a connection to the Internet.

A wireless LAN or WLAN is a wireless local area network that
uses radio waves as its carrier.

The last link with the users is wireless, to give a network

connection to all users in a building or campus.

The backbone network usually uses cables

Advantages and Disadvantages of WLANs
Flexibility: very flexible within the reception area
Planning: Ad-hoc networks without previous planning possible
Design: (almost) no wiring difficulties (e.g. historic buildings, firewalls)
Robustness: more robust against disasters like, e.g., earthquakes, fire or users
pulling a plug
Cost: Adding additional users to a wireless network will not increase the cost.
Quality of service: typically very low bandwidth compared to wired networks
(1-10 Mbit/s)
Proprietary solutions: many proprietary solutions, especially for higher bit-
rates, standards take time (e.g. IEEE 802.11). Now, 802.11g is a popular
Restrictions: products have to follow many national restrictions if working
wireless, it takes long time to establish global solutions like, e.g., IMT-2000
Safety and security: Precautions have to be taken to prevent safety hazards.
Secrecy and integrity must be assured.
Design goals for wireless LANs
Operational simplicity
Power-efficient operations
License-free operation: no special permissions or licenses needed
to use the LAN
Tolerance to interference
Global usability
Security: security (no one should be able to read my data), privacy
(no one should be able to collect user profiles),
Safety requirement (low radiation)
Quality of service requirements
Compatibility with other technologies and applications

WLAN Topologies

WLAN: Ad-Hoc:
peer-to-peer (P2P) on the fly

The network is the set of computers SERVER

No administration, no setup, no cost?

Centralized control unit (Access Point, local

Roaming between cells

Resource sharing and backbone connection
Infrastructure-based wireless network
Communication typically takes place
only between the wireless nodes and the
access point. Not directly between the
wireless nodes.
Access point: acts as a bridge
Access points with a fixed network can
connect several wireless networks to
form a larger network beyond the actual
radio coverage

Infrastructure-based wireless network
Design is simpler because most of the
network functionality lays within the
access point
Collision may occur if medium access of
the wireless node and the access point is
not co-ordinated
Useful for Qos guarantees such as
minimum bandwidth for certain nodes

Infrastructure-based wireless network
Lose some of the flexibility wireless
networks can offer, they cannot be used for
disaster relief
Cellular phone are typically infrastructure-
based networks for wide area
Also satellite-based cellular phone have an
infrastructure (the satellites)

IEEE 802.11 Standard
IEEE 802.11b is known as Wi-Fi (wireless Fidelity).
Mobile Stations (MTs) can operate two modes:
Infrastructure mode, in which MTs can communicate with one or more APs
which are connected to a WLAN.
Ad hoc mode, in which MTs can communicate directly with each other
without using an AP.
IEEE 802.11 supports two medium in the physical layer:
Radio wave
The physical layer is subdivided into physical medium dependent
(PMD) sublayer and physical layer convergence protocol (PLCP).
IEEE 802.11 used CSMA/CD for MAC.

802.11 - Architecture of an infrastructure
802.11 LAN Station (STA)
802.x LAN
terminal with access mechanisms to
the wireless medium and radio
STA1 contact to the access point
Portal Basic Service Set (BSS)
Point group of stations using the same
radio frequency
Distribution System
Access Point (AP)
ESS Point station integrated into the wireless
LAN and the distribution system
BSS2 Portal
bridge to other (wired) networks
Distribution System
STA2 802.11 LAN STA3 interconnection network to form
one logical network (EES:
Extended Service Set) based
on several BSS
802.11 - Architecture of an ad-hoc network
802.11 LAN
Direct communication
within a limited range
Station (STA):
terminal with access
mechanisms to the wireless
Independent Basic Service Set
group of stations using the
IBSS2 same radio frequency

STA4 802.11 LAN

IEEE standard 802.11
mobile terminal


access point
application application
802.11 MAC 802.11 MAC 802.3 MAC 802.3 MAC
802.11 PHY 802.11 PHY 802.3 PHY 802.3 PHY

The 802.11 Protocol Stack

Part of the 802.11 protocol stack. 15

WLAN: IEEE 802.11a
Data rate Availability
6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 Mbit/s, Some products, some vendors
depending on SNR Connection set-up time
User throughput (1500 byte packets): Connectionless/always on
5.3 (6), 18 (24), 24 (36), 32 (54)
6, 12, 24 Mbit/s mandatory
Quality of Service
Typ. best effort, no guarantees
Transmission range (same as all 802.11 products)
100m outdoor, 10m indoor Manageability
E.g., 54 Mbit/s up to 5 m, 48 up to
Limited (no automated key
12 m, 36 up to 25 m, 24 up to 30m,
18 up to 40 m, 12 up to 60 m distribution, sym. Encryption)
Frequency Special Advantages/Disadvantages
Free 5.15-5.25, 5.25-5.35, 5.725-5.825 Advantage: fits into 802.x
GHz ISM-band standards, free ISM-band,
available, simple system, uses less
Security crowded 5 GHz band
Limited, WEP insecure, SSID Disadvantage: stronger shading
Cost: Check market due to higher frequency, no QoS
adapter (a/b/g combo) $70, base station
WLAN: IEEE 802.11b
Data rate Connection set-up time
1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbit/s, depending on Connectionless/always on
Quality of Service
User data rate max. approx. 6 Mbit/s
Typ. Best effort, no guarantees (unless
Transmission range polling is used, limited support in
300m outdoor, 30m indoor products)
Max. data rate ~10m indoor Manageability
Frequency Limited (no automated key distribution,
Free 2.4 GHz ISM-band sym. Encryption)
Security Special Advantages/Disadvantages
Limited, WEP insecure, SSID Advantage: many installed systems, lot
Cost: Check market of experience, available worldwide, free
ISM-band, many vendors, integrated in
Adapter $30, base station $40 laptops, simple system
Availability Disadvantage: heavy interference on
Many products, many vendors ISM-band, no service guarantees, slow
relative speed only 17
WLAN: IEEE 802.11g
Data rate Availability
OFDM: 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 more products, more vendors
Mbit/s CCK: 1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbit/s
Connection set-up time
User throughput (1500 byte packets):
5.3 (6), 18 (24), 24 (36), 32 (54) Connectionless/always on
6, 12, 24 Mbit/s mandatory Quality of Service
Transmission range Typ. best effort, no guarantees (same
300m outdoor, 30m indoor as all 802.11 products)
E.g., 54 Mbit/s up to 5 m, 48 up Manageability
to 12 m, 36 up to 25 m, 24 up to Limited (no automated key
30m, 18 up to 40 m, 12 up to 60
m distribution, sym. Encryption)
Frequency Special Advantages/Disadvantages
Free 2.4 2.497 GHz ISM-band Advantage: fits into 802.x standards,
Security free ISM-band, available, simple
Limited, WEP insecure, SSID
Disadvantage: heavy interference on
Cost: Check market
ISM-band, no service guarantees
Adapter $50, base station $50
Wireless LAN Standard

Standard Modulation Spectrum Max physical Working

Rate distance

802.11 WDM, FHSS 2.4 GHz 2 Mbps 100 m

802.11a OFDM 5 GHz 54 Mbps 50 m

802.11b HR-DSSS 2.4 GHz 11 Mbps 200 m

802.11g OFDM 2.4 GHz 54 Mbps 200 m

Wireless LANS Devices

wireless router wireless network

card 20
Medium Access Control in Wireless LANs
Because there is higher error rate and signal strength is not
uniform throughout the space in which wireless LANs operate,
carrier detection may fail in the following ways:
Hidden nodes:
Hidden stations: Carrier sensing may fail to detect another station. For
example, A and D.
Fading: The strength of radio signals diminished rapidly with the
distance from the transmitter. For example, A and C.
Exposed nodes:
Exposed stations: B is sending to A. C can detect it. C might want to
send to E but conclude it cannot transmit because C hears B.
Collision masking: The local signal might drown out the remote
An early protocol designed for wireless LANs is MACA (Multiple Access
with Collision Avoidance).
Wireless LAN configuration

radio obstruction
Palmtop E

Server Base station/

access point


The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol

(a) The hidden station problem.

(b) The exposed station problem.
MACAW (MACA for Wireless) is a revision of MACA.
The sender senses the carrier to see and transmits a RTS (Request To
Send) frame if no nearby station transmits a RTS.
The receiver replies with a CTS (Clear To Send) frame.
see CTS, then keep quiet.
see RTS but not CTS, then keep quiet until the CTS is back to the
The receiver sends an ACK when receiving an frame.
Neighbors keep silent until see ACK.
There is no collision detection.
The senders know collision when they dont receive CTS.
They each wait for the exponential backoff time.
MACA Protocol

The MACA protocol. (a) A sending an RTS to B.

(b) B responding with a CTS to A.
802.11 MAC Sublayer
MAC layer tasks:
Control medium access
Roaming, authentication, power conservation
Traffic services
DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) (mandatory): Asynchronous
Data Service
Only service available in ad-hoc network mode
does not use any kind of central control
exchange of data packets based on best-effort
support of broadcast and multicast
PCF (Point Coordination Function) (optional): Time-Bounded Service
uses the base station to control all activity in its cell

802.11 MAC Sublayer
PCF and DCF can coexist within one cell by carefully defining
the interframe time interval. The four intervals are depicted:
SIFS (Short InterFrame Spacing) is used to allow the parties in a single
dialog the chance to go first including letting the receiver send a CTS and
an ACK and the sender to transmit the next fragment.
PIFS (PCF InterFrame Spacing) is used to allow the base station to send
a beacon frame or poll frame.
DIFS (DCF InterFrame Spacing) is used to allow any station to grab the
channel and to send a new frame.
EIFS (Extended InterFrame Spacing) is used only by a station that has
just received a bad or unknown frame to report the bad frame.
The result MAC scheme used in 802.11 is carrier sensing
multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) that is
based on MACAW.
Use NAV (Network Allocation Vector) to indicate the channel is busy.
The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol

Interframe spacing in 802.11.

802.11 MAC Sublayer
Access methods
DFWMAC-DCF (distributed foundation wireless medium access control-
Distributed Coordination Function) CSMA/CA (mandatory)
collision avoidance via randomized back-off mechanism
minimum distance between consecutive packets
ACK packet for acknowledgements (not for broadcasts)
DFWMAC-DCF w/ RTS/CTS (optional)
avoids hidden terminal problem
DFWMAC- PCF (Point Coordination Function) (optional)
access point polls terminals according to a list
Completely controlled by the base station. No collisions occur.
A beacon frame which contains system parameters is periodically (10
to 100 times per second) broadcasted to invite new stations to sign up
for polling service.
802.11 MAC Frame format
control frames, management frames, data frames
Sequence numbers
important against duplicated frames due to lost ACKs
receiver, transmitter (physical), BSS identifier, sender (logical)
sending time, checksum, frame control, data

bytes 2 2 6 6 6 2 6 0-2312 4
Frame Duration/ Address Address Address Sequence Address
Data CRC
Control ID 1 2 3 Control 4

bits 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Protocol To From More Power More
Type Subtype Retry WEP Order 30
version DS DS Frag Mgmt Data
MAC address format
to DS from address 1 address 2 address 3 address 4
ad-hoc network 0 0 DA SA BSSID -
infrastructure 0 1 DA BSSID SA -
network, from AP
infrastructure 1 0 BSSID SA DA -
network, to AP
infrastructure 1 1 RA TA DA SA
network, within DS

DS: Distribution System BSSID: Basic Service Set Identifier

AP: Access Point RA: Receiver Address
DA: Destination Address TA: Transmitter Address
SA: Source Address
Ad-hoc network: packet exchanged between two wireless nodes without a
distribution system
Infrastructure network, from AP: a packet sent to the receiver via the access
Infrastructure network, to AP: a station sends a packet to another station via the
access point
Infrastructure network, within DS: packets transmitted between two access31
points over the distribution system.
Special Frames: ACK, RTS, CTS
Acknowledgement 2 2 6 4
ACK Frame Receiver
Duration CRC
Control Address

bytes 2 2 6 6 4
Request To Send RTS
Receiver Transmitter
Control Address Address

bytes 2 2 6 4
Frame Receiver
CTS Duration CRC
Clear To Send Control Address

802.11 - MAC management
try to find a LAN, try to stay within a LAN
Synchronize internal clocks and generate beacon signals
Power management
periodic sleep, frame buffering, traffic measurements
sleep-mode without missing a message
Roaming for Association/Reassociation
integration into a LAN
roaming, i.e. change networks by changing access points
scanning, i.e. active search for a network
MIB - Management Information Base
All parameters representing the current state of a wireless station and an
access point are stored in a MIB.
A MIB can be accessed via SNMP.
WLAN: IEEE 802.11 Current and Future
802.11c provides required information to ensure proper bridge
802.11d: Regulatory Domain Update completed in 2001, amended in
802.11e: MAC Enhancements QoS ongoing
Enhance the current 802.11 MAC to expand support for applications with Quality
of Service requirements, and in the capabilities and efficiency of the protocol.
802.11f: Inter-Access Point Protocol completed in 2003
Establish an Inter-Access Point Protocol for data exchange via the
distribution system.
802.11h: Spectrum Managed 802.11a (DCS, TPC) completed in 2003
802.11i: Enhanced Security Mechanisms completed in 2004
Enhance the current 802.11 MAC to provide improvements in security and
replace Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP).
Introduction-IEEE 802.16
Goal: Provide high-speed Internet access to home and business
subscribers, without wires.
Base stations (BS) can handle thousands of subscriber stations (SS)
BS can control all data traffic goes between BS and SS through the
allocation of bandwidth on the radio channel.
802.16 is a Bandwidth on Demand system
Access control prevents collisions.
Legacy voice systems
Voice over IP
Applications with different QoS requirements.
Main advantage :
fast deployment, dynamic sharing of radio resources and low cost


Source: D. Miorandi Create Net

Uplink: direction from SS to BS

Downlink: direction from BS to SS 37
IEEE 802.16 Extension
802.16 standard was approved in 2001
802.16.1 (10-66 GHz, line-of-sight, up to 134Mbit/s)
802.16.2 (minimizing interference between coexisting WMANs.)
Support lower frequency 2 to 11Ghz both licensed and license-exempt
So reach more customers with less expensive
Lower data rates
Support Mesh-Network
Increase spectrum to 5 and 6GHz
Provide QoS (for real-time voice and video service)
Represents a 10 to 66GHz system profile
Improvement and fixes for 802.16a
Addresses on Mobile
Enable high-speed signal handoffs necessary for communications with users
moving at vehicular speeds
Focus on 802.16.1
SAP: Service Access Point
PDU: Protocol Data Unit

System access, bandwidth

allocation Accept, perform classification, process higher
connection establishment, PDUs
connection maintenance Deliver CS PDU to MAC SAP
Receive CS PDUs from the peer entity

Authentication, security
key exchange,

Multiple specifications
each appropriate to
frequency range (ex:
802.16.1 10-66GHz up to
134Mbit/s) and
IEEE Std 802.16 protocol layering, showing SAPs

Wireless Personal Area Networks

A WPAN (Wireless PAN) is a short-distance wireless network
specifically designed to support portable and mobile computing devices
such as PCs, PDAs, wireless printers and storage devices, cell phones,
pagers, set-top boxes, and a variety of consumer electronics equipment.

Bluetooth is an example of a wireless PAN that allows devices within

close proximity to join together in ad hoc wireless networks in order to
exchange information.

Many cell phones have two radio interfaces-one for the cellular
network and one for PAN connections.

WPANs such as Bluetooth provide the bandwidth
and convenience to make data exchange practical
for mobile devices such as palm computers.

Bluetooth overcomes many of the complications

of other mobile data systems such as cellular
packet data systems...

The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters.

A Bluetooth PAN is also called a piconet, and is composed of
up to 8 active devices in a master-slave relationship (up to
255 devices can be connected in 'parked' mode).

The first Bluetooth device in the piconet is the master, and all
other devices are slaves that communicate with the master.

A piconet typically has a range of 10 meters, although ranges

of up to 100 meters can be reached under ideal

A wireless PAN consists of a dynamic group of less than 255
devices that communicate within about a 33-foot range.

Unlike with wireless LANs, only devices within this limited area
typically participate in the network, and no online connection with
external devices is defined.

One device is selected to assume the role of the controller during

wireless PAN initialization, and this controller device mediates
communication within the WPAN.

The controller broadcasts a beacon that lets all devices synchronize with
each other and allocates time slots for the devices.

Each device attempts to join the wireless PAN by requesting a time slot
from the controller.

The controller authenticates the devices and assigns time slots for each
device to transmit data.

The data may be sent to the entire wireless PAN using the wireless PAN
destination address, or it may be directed to a particular device.


The 802.15 working group is defining different versions

for devices that have different requirements.

802.15.3 focuses on high-bandwidth (about 55M bit/sec),

low-power MAC and physical layers, while 802.15.4 deals
with low-bandwidth (about 250K bit/sec), extra-low power
MAC and physical layers.

(High Performance Radio LAN)

Two main standards families for Wireless Lan:

IEEE 802.11 (802.11b, 802.11a, 802.11g...)
ETSI Hiper lan (Hiper lan Type 1, Type 2, Hiper Access, Hiper Link...)
Hiper LAN Family

Hiperlan1 Hiperlan2 HiperAccess HiperLink

Description Wireless WirelessATM WirelessLocal WirelessPoint
Ethernet Loop toPoint

Freq.Range 5GHz 5GHz 5GHz 17GHz

PHYBitRate 23.5Mbps 6~54Mbps ~25Mbps ~155Mbps

(datarate) (datarate)
Motivation of Hiper LAN

Massive Growth in wireless and mobile communications

Emergence of multimedia applications

Demands for high-speed Internet access

Deregulation of the telecommunications industry

The History, Present and Future
Hiper LAN Type 1

Developed by ETSI during 1991 to 1996

Goal: to achieve higher data rate than IEEE 802.11

data rates: 1~2 Mbps, and to be used in ad hoc
networking of portable devices

Support asynchronous data transfer, carrier-sense

multiple access multiple access with collision
avoidance (CSMA/CA), no QoS guaranteed.
Hiper LAN Type 2
Goal: Providing high-speed (raw bit rate ~54Mbps)
communications access to different broadband core
networks and moving terminals

Features: connection-oriented, QoS guaranteed, security

mechanism, highly flexibility

Hiper Access and Hiper Link

In parallel to developing the HIPERLAN Type 2

standards, ETSI BRAN has started work on standards
complementary to HIPERLAN Type 2
Control Plane User Plane




HiperLAN Type 1 Reference Model

HiperLAN Type 2 Reference Model

MAC: Medium Access Sublayer EC: Error Control
CAC: Channel Access Control Sublayer RLC: Radio Link Control
PHY: Physical Layer RRC: Radio Resource Control
DLC: Data Link Control Layer ACF: Association Control Function
CL: Convergence Layer DCC: DLC Connection Control
CAC: Channel Access Control Sublayer

This sub layer deals with the access request

to the channels.

The accomplishing of the request is

dependent on the usage of the channel and
the priority request.
HIPERLAN2 Protocol Stack
DLC: MAC Sublayer

The medium access control creates frames of 2

ms duration as shown in Figure. With a constant
symbol length of four s this results in 500
OFDM symbols.
Each MAC frame is further sub-divided into four phases with
variable boundaries:

Broadcast phase: The AP of a cell broadcasts the content of the

current frame plus information about the cell (identification,
status, resources).

Downlink phase: Transmission of user data from an AP to the


Uplink phase: Transmission of user data from MTs to an AP.

Random access phase: Capacity requests from already registered

MTs and access requests from non-registered MTs.
HiperLAN2 defines six different so-called transport
channels for data transfer in the above listed phases.
These transport channels describe the basic message
format within a MAC frame.

Broadcast channel (BCH): This channel conveys basic

information for the radio cell to all Mobile Terminals.
This comprises the identification and current transmission
power of the AP. The length is 15 bytes.

Frame channel (FCH): This channel contains a

directory of the downlink and uplink phases (LCHs,
SCHs, and empty parts). This also comprises the PHY
mode used. The length is a multiple of 27 bytes.
Access feedback channel (ACH): This channel gives
feedback to MTs regarding the random access during the
RCH of the previous frame. The length is 9 bytes.

Long transport channel (LCH): This channel transports

user and control data for downlinks and uplinks. The
length is 54 bytes.

Short transport channel (SCH): This channel

transports control data for downlinks and uplinks. The
length is 9 bytes.

Random channel (RCH): This channel is needed to give

an MT the opportunity to send information to the AP/CC
even without a granted SCH. The length is 9 bytes.
DLC: Error Control
Acknowledged mode: selective-repeat ARQ
Repetition mode: typically used for broadcast
Unacknowledged mode: unreliable, low latency

DLC: other features

Radio network functions: Dynamic frequency selection;
handover; link adaptation; multibeam antennas; power control
QoS support: Appropriate error control mode selected;
Scheduling performed at MAC level; link adaptation; internal
functions (admission, congestion control, and dropping
mechanisms) for avoiding overload
Radio Link Control Sublayer
It offers connection oriented systems ,offering QoS.
Three main control functions

Association control function (ACF): authentication, key

management, association, disassociation, encryption

Radio resource control function (RRC): handover, dynamic

frequency selection, mobile terminal alive/absent, power saving,
power control

DLC user connection control function (DCC): setup and

release of user connections, multicast and broadcast
Convergence Layer
HiperLAN2 supports two different types of CLs: cell-based and

cell-based CL expects data packets of fixed size (cells, e.g., ATM


packet-based CL handles packets that are variable in size (e.g.,

Ethernet )
Wireless Local Loop
Presentation Outline
What is WLL?
Differences with mobile cellular systems
Why WLL?
System Analysis
The future of WLL
What is WLL?
- WLL is a system that connects subscribers
to the local telephone station wirelessly.

Systems WLL is based on:

Satellite (specific and adjunct)

Other names
Radio In The Loop (RITL)
Fixed-Radio Access (FRA).
A general WLL setup
WLL services
Wireless feature should be transparent
Wire line Custom features

Business related
Hunt groups,
Call transfers
Conference calling
Calling cards, coin phones
V.29 (9600bps)
ISDN (64kbps)
WLL should provide
Toll-quality service

Expand from a central office to about 5 miles

Low license cost

Subscriber costs equivalent or better than copper

Connection Setup

Transceiver WASU

Trunk Switch WLL AM Interface
function Controller HLR

Wireless Access Network Unit(WANU) Wireless Access Subscriber

Interface between underlying telephone Unit(WASU)
network and wireless link
consists of located at the subscriber
Base Station Transceivers (BTS) translates wireless link into a
Radio Controller(RPCU) traditional telephone
Access Manager(AM) connection
Home Location Register(HLR)
Important Results of Fixed to Fixed
Propagation in WLLs
Signal channel is not a Rayleigh fading channel:
Power control algorithms are simpler and can be utilized more

Channel Randomness is lost:

Makes analysis difficult

Path loss exponent is considerably smaller (Why?):

20dB/dec compared to 40dB/dec
Decreases cell capacity
Allows for larger coverage area
Fixed to Fixed Propagation(contd)
No handoffs necessary:
Decreases hardware costs and system complexity
Increases quality of service through accurate traffic predictions

Allows usage of directional antennas:

Can greatly reduce interference and increase cell capacity

30dB 10dB

-30dB -40dB
0o 60o 0o 120o 180o

BS antenna Subscriber antenna

In-Cell Interference (CDMA)

I = (Nh 1)S NhS

voice activity factor
h = total # of houses
S = power received at cell site from every house
Out-of-Cell Interference

Path loss: 20dB/dec as opposed to 40dB/dec

need to take in account more tiers

Only from houses whose antennas are directed at the

center cell base station
Interference from Another Cell
Blue area is region of
interferers for C
It is Not a perfect pie shape
If w = (1/2)*(antenna width)
(in radians)
W = w+2sin-1((R/D)sin(w/2))
If w<<1 and R<<D:
W = w (1+(R/D))
is the pie arc length
Per-Tier Interference
Integration over W and all the cells at tier n yields:
In = [NhSw/(3sqrt(3))][1/n]
for n>4
Interference is proportional to antenna width w and inversely
proportional to the tier number.

Decreasing the antenna width can greatly reduce interference.

As the number of tiers approaches infinity, so does the total

interference. Therefore, system capacity is a function of the
total number of tiers in the system.
WLL Mobile Wireless Wireline
Good LOS component Mainly diffuse components No diffuse components

Rician fading Rayleigh fading No fading

Narrowbeam directed Omnidirectional antennas Expensive wires


High Channel reuse Less Channel reuse Reuse Limited by wiring

Simple design, constant Expensive DSPs, power Expensive to build and

channel control maintain

Low in-premises mobility High mobility allowed, easy Low in-premises mobility,
only, easy access access wiring of distant areas

Weather conditions effects Not very reliable Very reliable

Examples of services provided
Marconi WipLL (wireless IP local loop)
Based on Frequency hopping CDMA
Internet Protocol 64kbps to 2.4Mbps rates Committed
Information Rate or best effort service

Lucent WSS (wireless subscriber system)

800 to 5000 subscribers per switch
Uses FDMA/FDD 12 Km to 40Km coverage

GoodWin WLL
DECT standards
9.6 kbps rate
Specified conditions -5...+55, 20...75% humidity
Future of WLL / Overview

Depends on
economic development
existing infrastructure of a region

market competition
quick deployment
relatively reliable service at low costs