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The Total Quality

Management (TQM)
Customer-Focused Principles
Where are You on this scale ?

What’s TQM
1
I’ve heard about TQM
2
I’ve read about TQM
3
I’ve attended some TQM training
4
I’ve used some TQM tools
5
I have lots of experience with TQM
6
I taught Dr. Deming everything he knows
7
about TQM
2
Industrial Paradigm
Production :
“Mass” “Lean” “Flexible” “Reconfigurable”
1913 1960 1980 2000

e n ess
v
Objective : ns i
spo
Re
ariety
V
“Knowledge
li ty Science”
Qu a
st Computerization
Co
Production Management

“Interchangeable Parts” Approach:


3
Competition
Strategy

Flexibility/
Cost Quality Delivery Responsiveness Innovation

1800 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

4
evolusi

TQM

Quality Assurance

inspection

foremen

operator

1900 1918 1937 1960 1980


5
QUALITY

Quality Control Quality Assurance

Total Quality Control

Total Quality Management


6
• Quality of design
• Quality of conformance

1. Performance
2. Feature
3. Reliability
4. Conformance
5. Durability
6. Serviceability
7. Aesthetic
8. Perceived quality
7
Quality
Control

Quality Assurance

PDCA

Quality Circle
8
• Top Management Commitment
• Customer Focus
• Performance measurement
• Participative Management
• Continuous Improvement

9
BASIC QUESTIONS IN THE TQM IMPLEMENTATION

• Who are my customer ?


• What are the products/services I provide to my customers ?
• What are their expectations of my product/service ?
• Does my product/service consistently meet or exceed
their expectations ?
• What tells me my product/service is improving ?
• How do my work activities add value to the process ?
• What actions are needed to improve my process ?

10
Quality Costs
Internal Failure Costs Decline

Continual Improvement
➤ Scrap ➤ Little or no
➤ Rework defective work

External Failure Costs Decline


➤ Warranty cost ➤ No dissatisfied
➤ Product liability customers

Appraisal Costs Decline


➤ Inspection costs ➤ Very little inspection

Prevention Costs Increase


➤ Process improvement ➤ An ounce of
➤ Product simplification prevention is worth
➤ Training costs a pound of cure
11
Quality Cost: Traditional View
Cost per good unit of product

Total
quality
Internal costs
and external
failure
costs

Minimum
total cost
Prevention
and appraisal
costs

0 Quality level (q) 100%


Optimum
quality level
12
EIGHT TQM TOOLS
1. CHECK SHEET

2. HISTOGRAM

3. DIAGRAM PARETO

4. DIAGRAM SEBAB AKIBAT

5. DIAGRAM TEBAR

6. STRATIFIKASI

7. PETA KONTROL

8. QUALITY FUNCTION
DEPLOYMENT (QFD)
13
SAMURAI WITH SEVEN PORTABLE
WEAPONS + 1 INTENTION
14
Hoyo (Hood) Kabuto (Helmet)

Gusoku (armor)

Tachi (long sword) Yumi (bow)

Katana (sword)

Ya (arrow)

AN INTENTION
7+ 15
CHECK SHEET
Fungs
i
Menyajikan data yang berhubungan dgn :

• Distribusi proses produksi

• Defective item

• Defective location

• Defective cause

• Check up confirmation
16
CHECK SHEET
Date :
Product : Plant :
Usage : Dept. :
Specification : Inspector :

Inspection Lot No. :


number :
Lot Size :
Supplier :
Measurement
unit :

Weight (g) Tally Frequency

Total

17
HISTOGRAM
1. Guna : menyajikan data secara visual sehingga lebih
mudah dilihat oleh pelaksanan
2. Mekanisme :
1. Kumpulkan data pengamatan (N)
∑ data : minimum  • rumus statistik
• tentukan
2. Pilih harga maksimum & minimum
a) Susun data dalam baris & kolom
b) Pilih angka max. Tiap baris
c) Pilih angka min. tiap baris
d) Tentukan max & min dari keseluruhan
2. Hitung range ( R ) = max ↔ min
4. Tentukan jumlah kelas ( K )
K = f(R) = 1 + 3.3 log R
Atau
K= N
atau
K = 10 ~ tentukan
18
5. Tentukan kelas interval ( KI)
KI = R/K
6. Tentukan batas bawah KI terendah
BB = min – KI/2
6. Tentukan BB, batas atas dan setiap nilai kelas

KI

K?

min max
NT

8. Kelompok data setiap kelas = f(data) nyatakan “tally – mark”


9. Hitung f ( frekwensi )
X (minus, 0, plus)
10. Hitung rata-rata & tandar deviasi

19
Gambarkan histogram dari data berikut ini :
Data max min
12 11 12.5 14 13.5 14 11
11 11.5 12 18 19 19 11.5
11 12 12 11.5 13 13 11
14 15 12 11 18 18 11
13 12 14.5 13.5 14.5 14.5 11.5
9 10.5 9.5 10.5 11 11 9
10 11 12 13 14 14 10
14 13.5 15 16 17 17 13.5
11 12 12 11.5 10 12 10

• R = max ↔ min = 19 ↔ 9 (19 – 9 = 10)


• K = N = 50/7 ≈ 7,…. 8
• KI = R/K = 10/7 = 13/7 ≈ 1.5
• BB = 9 – 1.5/2 = 8.25
• BA = 9.75 dst untuk setiap kelas.
20
Batas Kelas NT Tallies
8.25 – 9.75 9 II 2
9.75 – 11.25 10.5 IIII IIII 10
11.25 – 12.75 12 …… 17
12.75 – 14.25 13.5 …… 11
14.25 – 15.75 15 …… 5
15.75 – 17.25 16,5 …… 2
17.25 – 18.75 18 …… 2
18.75 – 20.25 19.5 …… 1
50
X
f
17

10 11
5
2 2 2 1 ≈ 10

8.25 20.25
X = 12.78 , SD = 2.31
21
DIAGRAM PARETO
~ Petunjuk hierarki kepentingan persoalan cacat
produk
~ Mekanisme
1. Buat klasifikasi cacat
2. Tentukan absis~ordinat
3. Buat diagram  % jumlah cacat
Kumulatif % cacat

a b c d e
~ manfaat
• membuat orang mau bekerja sama
• dampak perbaikan besar
• identifikasi tujuan terpilih
22
Pareto Diagram

Catatan produk cacat


Date : Jumlah yang diinspeksi N = 2160
Defective Item Number of Defectives Per cent Defective Per cent of
Compodition
Head defective (Hd) 99 4.6 % 47.4 %
Material defectives (Md) 13 0.6 % 6.2 %
Bolt defectives (Bd) 52 2.4 % 24.9 %
Corner defectives (Cd) 9 0.4 % 4.3 %
Length defectives (Ld) 36 1.7 % 17.2 %
209 9.7 % 99.9 %

(jumlah) 200 100 (%)

75

100
Jumlah

50
cacat

25

0
0 Hd Bd Ld Md Cd 23
C.E.
C.E. DIAGRAM
DIAGRAM
~ MANFAAT :
• mengarahkan diskusi faktor sebab domonan
• petunjuk pengumpulan dan pencatatan data
• menunjukkan kemampuan pekerja

Menggambarkan hubungan sebab~akibat


~ GUNA
• menganalisa kondisi aktual
 perbaikan mutu
 efisiensi sumber
daya
• eliminasi ⇓ biaya
 kondisi ~ cacat / keluhan konsumen
• standarisasi

24
TAHAPAN
1. Kelompok analisa masalah
2. Anak panah
3. “tulang”  penyebab
sebelah kanan  masalah
mutu
4. Identifikasi
5. evaluasi

25
Fishbone Chart
Airline Customer Service

26
SCATTERED DIAGRAM
~ MANFAAT :

• mengarahkan diskusi faktor sebab dominan


• petunjuk pengumpulan dan pencatatan data
• menunjukkan kemampuan pekerja

Melihat hubungan antar faktor

27
No. Reaction Temperature Yield Y (%)
1 72.5 91.1
2 73.8 90.8
3 73.2 90.8
4 72.1 91.3
5 73.0 91.0
6 73.0 90.6
7 74.3 90.6
8 71.5 91.6
9 72.9 91.2
10 73.6 90.8
11 74.2 90.8
12 74.9 90.3
13 73.7 91.0
14 72.1 91.5
15 74.3 90.5
16 74.5 90.7
17 72.8 91.4
18 73.7 90.5
19 72.8 90.9
20 72.0 91.3
21 73.1 91.4
28
22 73.5 91.2
X
X
X
X

X
X
Yield

Reaction Temperature
29
STRATIFIKASI
~ MANFAAT :

• mencari penyebab utama faktor kualitas


• memisahkan data (kategorisasi) sesuai dengan
kelompok datanya
• memudahkan pengambilan keputusan  peta
kontrol
• mempelajari secara menyeluruh masalah yang
dihadapi

30
Stratifikasi kategorisasi

Mencari faktor penyebab utama

Grade A
Ilustrasi :
Grade B

Grade C

Grade D

31
Quality Control Approaches
■ Statistical process control (SPC)
–Monitors the production process to
prevent
– poor quality

■ Acceptance sampling
–Inspects a random sample of the product
– to determine if a lot is acceptable

32
Statistical Process Control
■ Take periodic samples from a process

■ Plot the sample points on a control chart

■ Determine if the process is within limits

■ Correct the process before defects occur

33
Types Of Data
■ Attribute data
• Product characteristic evaluated with a
discrete choice
– Good/bad, yes/no
■ Variable data
• Product characteristic that can be measured
– Length, size, weight, height, time, velocity

34
SPC Applied To Services
■ Nature of defect is different in services

■ Service defect is a failure to meet


customer requirements

■ Monitor times, customer satisfaction

35
Service Quality Examples
■ Hospitals
–timeliness, responsiveness, accuracy
■ Grocery Stores
–Check-out time, stocking, cleanliness
■ Airlines
–luggage handling, waiting times, courtesy
■ Fast food restaurants
–waiting times, food quality, cleanliness

36
PETA KONTROL
~ MANFAAT :
• mengendalikan proses
• kecenderungan proses
• identifikasi kebutuhan konsumen

pH •
• •
• • • • • •
• •
• • • •

t

37
Process Control Chart
Upper
control
limit

Process
average

Lower
control
limit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Sample number
38
Patterns to Look for in
Control Charts

39
Flow Diagram:
Statistical Process Control Steps
Produce Good
Start
Provide Service
No
Assign.
Take Sample Causes?
Yes
Inspect Sample Stop Process

Create
Find Out Why
Control Chart

40
Constructing a Control Chart
■ Decide what to measure or count
■ Collect the sample data
■ Plot the samples on a control chart
■ Calculate and plot the control limits on the control
chart
■ Determine if the data is in-control
■ If non-random variation is present, discard the
data (fix the problem) and recalculate the control
limits
41
A Process Is In Control If
■ No sample points are outside control limits

■ Most points are near the process average


■ About an equal # points are above & below
the centerline
■ Points appear randomly distributed

42
The Normal Distribution

95 %
99.74 %

-3σ -2σ -1σ µ = 01σ 2σ 3σ

Area under the curve = 1.0


43
Control Chart Z Values
■ Smaller Z values make more
sensitive charts

■ Z = 3.00 is standard

■ Compromise between sensitivity


and errors
44
Control Charts and the Normal
Distribution
UCL

+3σ
Mean

-3σ
LCL

45
Types Of Data
■ Attribute data (p-charts, c-charts)
Product characteristics evaluated with a
discrete choice (Good/bad, yes/no,
count)

■ Variable data (X-bar and R charts)


Product characteristics that can be
measured (Length, size, weight, height, time, velocity)

46
Control Charts For Attributes

■ p Charts
–Calculate percent defectives in a sample;
–an item is either good or bad

■ c Charts
–Count number of defects in an item

47
p - Charts
Based on the binomial distribution
– p = number defective / sample size, n

– p= total no. of defectives


total no. of sample observations

UCLp = p + 3 p(1-p)/n

LCLp = p - 3 p(1-p)/n
p-Chart Calculations
Proportion
Sample Defect Defective UCL = p + 3 p(1-p) /n
1 6 .06 = 0.10 + 3 0.10 (1-0.10) /100
2 0 .00
3 4 .04 = 0.190
. . .
20 18 .18
200 1.00
LCL = p - 3 p(1-p) /n
100 jeans in each sample = 0.10 + 3 0.10 (1-0.10) /100
total defectives = 0.010
p =
total sample observations

= 200 =
20 (100) 0.10
0.2
0.18
0.16
0.14
Proportion defective

0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0

10

14

16

18
12

20
..

Sample number

50
c - Charts
■ Count the number of defects in an item

■ Based on the Poisson distribution


– c = number of defects in an item

– c = total number of defects


– number of samples

– UCLc = c + 3 c

LCLc = c - 3 c
c - Chart Calculations
Count # of defects per roll in 15 rolls of denim fabric

Sample Defects
1 12 c = 190/15 = 12.67
2 8
3 16
UCL = c + z c
. .
= 12.67 + 3 12.67
. .
= 23.35
15 15
190 LCL = c - z c
= 12.67 - 3 12.67
= 1.99
52
Example c - Chart
24

21

18
Number of defects

.
15

12

0
0

10

12

14
Sample number

53
Control Charts For Variables
■ Mean chart (X-Bar Chart)
–Measures central tendency of a sample

■ Range chart (R-Chart)


–Measures amount of dispersion in a sample

■ Each chart measures the process differently. Both the


process average and process variability must be in
control for the process to be in control.
54
Example: Control Charts for Variable Data
Slip Ring Diameter (cm)
Sample 1 2 3 4 5 X R
1 5.02 5.01 4.94 4.99 4.96 4.98 0.08
2 5.01 5.03 5.07 4.95 4.96 5.00 0.12
3 4.99 5.00 4.93 4.92 4.99 4.97 0.08
4 5.03 4.91 5.01 4.98 4.89 4.96 0.14
5 4.95 4.92 5.03 5.05 5.01 4.99 0.13
6 4.97 5.06 5.06 4.96 5.03 5.01 0.10
7 5.05 5.01 5.10 4.96 4.99 5.02 0.14
8 5.09 5.10 5.00 4.99 5.08 5.05 0.11
9 5.14 5.10 4.99 5.08 5.09 5.08 0.15
10 5.01 4.98 5.08 5.07 4.99 5.03 0.10
50.09 1.15
Constructing an Range Chart

UCLR = D4 R = (2.11) (.115) = 2.43

LCLR = D3 R = (0) (.115) = 0

where R = Σ R / k = 1.15 / 10 = .115


k = number of samples = 10
R = range = (largest - smallest)

56
3σ Control Chart Factors

Sample size X-chart R-chart


n A2 D3 D4
2 1.88 0 3.27
3 1.02 0 2.57
4 0.73 0 2.28
5 0.58 0 2.11
6 0.48 0 2.00
7 0.42 0.08 1.92
8 0.37 0.14 1.86
57
Example R-Chart
0,3 UCL
0,25

0,2
Range

0,15 R
0,1

0,05

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 LCL
Sample number

58
Constructing A Mean Chart
UCLX = X + A2 R = 5.01 + (0.58) (.115) = 5.08

LCLX = X - A2 R = 5.01 - (0.58) (.115) = 4.94

where X = average of sample means = Σ X/n


= 50.09 / 10 = 5.01
R = average range = Σ R/k = 1.15 / 10 = .115

59
Example X-bar Chart
5,10
5,08 UCL
5,06
Sample average

5,04
5,02
5,00 X
4,98
4,96
4,94
4,92 LCL
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Sample number

60
Penyebaran Fungsi Kualitas
Needs
1. Produsen mengharapkan
konsumen mengubah keinginan
menjadi permintaan yang dapat Requirement
dimengerti s

2. Konsumen menyatakan Needs


dengan baik keinginan
Build to
mereka tetapi produsen
Requirements
tidak memuaskan Requirement
keinginan mereka s
User
Specificati
on
Develop
er 62
CUSTOMER
Alat utama QFD INFORMATION

TECHNICAL
INFORMATION

Rumah
Kualitas

• Suatu proses perencanaan


• Input: keinginan dan kebutuhan konsumen
• Penggunaan matriks untuk mencatat informasi penting
• Memungkinkan analisa dan penentuan isu-isu utama
• Out put : isu-isu tindakan kunci untuk memperbaiaki
kepuasan konsumen berdasarkan input konsumen
63
Identifikasi keinginan
pelanggan
Mempelajari ketentuan teknis
dalam menghasilkan barang atau
jasa

Hubungan antara keinginan dan


ketentuan teknis

Perbandingan kinerja dengan


pesaing

Evaluasi Pelanggan

64
Trade off
Trade off

Karakteristik proses
Lakukan
H EVALUASI
PELANGGAN analisa
A
R MATRIKS HUBUNGAN
A
P
A
N
PERBANDINGAN KINERJA PERUSAHAAN
TINGKAT KEPENTINGAN
NILAI RELATIF
65
Mendengarkan Suara Konsumen (Voice of Customer)
untuk menentukan harapan pelanggan
Caranya:
Penentuan konsumen Judgement
ahli Sampling Pembobotan
Wawancara Hasil wawancara dengan
dengan
konsumen ahli : Atribut kualitas metode
perbandingan
Cara perhitungan pembobotan: berpasangan
Membuat skala perbandingan yang disebt skala fundamental yang
diturunkan berdasarkan riset psikologis atas kemampuan individu
dalam membuat suatu perbandingan secara berpasangan terhadap
beberapa elemen yang diperbandingkan. Skala perbandingan tersbut
adalah ;1: sama penting, 2: sedikit lebih penting, 5: lebih penting, 7:
66
jauh lebih penting, 9: sangat lebih penting, angka 2, 4,6,8 adalah nilai
atara
Cara Penentuan Hubungan Keterkaitan dan Trade
Roof

Brainstorming dengan manager ahli yang


mengetahui secara mendalam mengenai proses
produksi
1. Hubungan Keterkaitan

Hubungan antara harapan pelanggan dan karakteristik proses dapat


dinyatakan dengan menggunakan lambang-lambang tertentu untuk
menyatakan hubungan. Lambang dan nilai yang umum digunakan
adalah sebagai berikut.
= 10 = Hubungan Kuat

= 5 = Hubungan sedang

= 1 = Hubungan lemah
Penentuan kuat, sedang dan lemah dikerjakan dengan membuat
pertanyaan apakah dengan mengerjakan karakteristik proses ini
maka dapat memuasakan harapan pelanggan.
Harus diterapkan setiap kolom antara
satu karakteristik proses dengan
harapan pelanggan 67
+
+ + +
+ + + +
+ + + + + + +
: kuat (10) + + + + + + + +
: sedang + + + + + + + + + +
(5)
: lemah (1) +
+ + + + + + +
+ PT SM; Targe;
I II III IV V VI VII VIII PT A; Rasio
PTB
Kesegaran 6 5; 4; 5 5,1
Kebersihan 5 5; 4; 5 5,1
Keamanan pangan 5 3; 3; 3 4,1
Harapan
Warna 4 4; 3; 4 4,1
pelanggan
Daya tahanproduk 3 4; 4; 4 4,1
Ukuran seragam 2 4; 3; 4 4,1
Bentuk standar 1 4; 3; 4 4,1
PT SM 5 4 4 5 5 5 5
PT A 5 4 4 4 4 5 4
PT B 5 4 4 5 5 5 5
NILAI (Tingkat kepentingan) 12 0 230 55 150 205 230 125
Nilai Relatif 0.108 0.206 0.049 0.135 0.184 0.206 0.112

Keterangan :
I. BOBOT KONVERSI IV. PENERIMAAN VII. PENYIMPANAN
II. PENGADAAN BAHAN BAKU V. SORTASI VIII. DISTRIBUSI
III. PENANGANAN BAHAN BAKU VI. PENGEMASAN

68
Gambar Rumah Kualitas Sayuran Segar PT. SM
+
Rumah Kualitas Ban PT. G.Y + + : kuat (10)
+ +
+ : sedang (5)
+ + + + : lemah (1)
+ + + + +
+ + +
Atribut Proses Produksi PT Target ;
Pelanggan X;A;B;C Rasio
I II III IV V VI VII

Keselamatan 5 4; 4; 4; 4 4; 1

Kekuatan 4 2; 5; 4; 5 5; 2,5

Harapan Kenyamanan 3 3; 5; 4; 4 5; 1,66


pelanggan
Desain 2 4; 4; 3; 3 4; 1

Harga 1 4; 4; 4; 3 4; 1
3 4 4 4 3
PT .X 4 Keterangan :
PT. A 4 5 5 4 4 5 I Bobot Konversi
PT.B 4 5 3 4 II Pencampuran
5 4
III Pelapisan
PT.C 4 5 4 2 4 4 IV Penggabungan
NILAI (Tingkat kepentingan) 97 95 105 80 140 120 V Penyemprotan
Nilai Relatif 15,2 14,9 16,5 12,6 21,9 18,8 VI Pemasakan69
VII Pengujian
•Marimin, 2004, Teknik dan Aplikasi
Pengambilan Keputusan Kriteria Majemuk
Grassindo.

70
• Pilih kasus industri yang anda paling
kuasai
• Susun salah satu alur proses produksi
atau sistem pengelolaannya
• Rancang QFD-nya
• Diskusikan matrik QFD yang telah
anda rancang tersebut.
•Kendalikan respon teknik
71
dominan/kritis dengan Statistical