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A Report on

Properties
of
CONTENTS

TOPIC PAGE NO.

INTRODUCTION
1-2

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
3-7

MAGNETIC PROPERTIES 8-
14

OPTICAL PROPERTIES 15-


18

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES 19-


25
INTRODUCTION

Nanotechnologyis the
collaboration of the
physics
,chemistry,biology,computer
and material sciences
integrated with engineering
entering the nanoscale.This
means science and
engineering focused on
making the particles,things
and devices at the atomic
and molecular scale.

Definition of Nano Particles:

Nanomaterialsor theNanoparticlesare the set of


particles or the substances where atlas one dimension is
less than approximately 100nm.
or it can be also classically illustrated as the follows:
Nanomaterialis an object that has atleast one dimension
in the nanometer scale approximately 1-100nm.

1
Classification of Nanomaterials

Due to the reduction in the spatial dimension ,


or confinement of particles or quasi particles in
a particular crystallographic direction within a
structure generally leads to changes in physical
properties of the system in that direction.
Hence classification of the nanostructured
materials and systems essentially depends on
the number of dimensions which lie within the
nanometer range.
a)systems confined in 3 dimensions[Zero
dimension structures]
Examples:Nanoparticles;Nanograins;Nanoshell
s;Nanocapsules;Nanorings;Fullerenes;collidal
particles;activatedcarbon; nanoporous
silicon;quasi crystals.
b)systems confined in 2 dimensions[One
dimension structures]
Examples:Nanorods;Nanofilaments;Nanotubes
;quantum wires;nano wires.
c)systems confined in 1 dimension.[two
dimension structures]
Examples:discs;platelets;ultrathin films;super
lattices;quantum wells.

In this report we have discussed mainly on on the following


properties of Nanomaterials:

Mechanical Properties
Magnetic Properties
Optical Properties
Electrical Properties

2
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Classic Mechanical Properties

Tensile test
Determination of
mechanical properties

Stress: = F/S

Strain: = l / l0

Tensile Test curve

Stress,
(Mpa)
Max Necking
stress :
Maxtensile
elasticity:
strength Fract
Yield ure
strength

Strain,
Elastic Plastic (%)
deformation deformation

3
Elastic
Deformation Hookes law: = E

E = Young modulus
(Pa)
Stress,

Stiffness of material
Modulus = slope

Non linear models


exist (visco-elastic
behaviour)
Strain

Mechanical properties

Yield strength: maximum stress before permanent


strain

Tensile strength: maximum stress

Ductility: measure of deformation (Lf Lo)/ Lo

Toughness: ability to absorbe energy: area under curve

Hardness

Resistance to plastic deformation

Measure of depth or size of


indentation

4
Nanostructured materials

Nanoparticles

Conventional materials: Grain size micron to mm

Nanoparticles increase grain boundaries

Influence on mechanical properties: Increased


hardness, yield strength, elastic modulus, toughness

Comparison tensile curves

Comparison:

Al Mg cryomilled
(20 nm)
Al Mg ultra fine
grain (80 nm)
Al Mg coarse (2
mm)

Cryomilling: Milling
in liquid N2

Ultrafine grain:
electrodeposition

5
Mechanical properties of nanomaterials
compared to coarse grain materials

Higher Young modulus and tensile strength (to 4


times higher)

Lower plastic deformation

More brittle

Strength and Hardness with


grain size

Strength and
Hardness of
nanostructured
material
increases with
decreasing size

Grain boundaries
deformation

6
Elongation nanostructured materials

Elongation decreased

Lower density of
mobile dislocations

Short distance of
dislocation movement

Comparison of Young modulus

Material Young modulus (GPa)

Rubber 0.1

Al 70

Fe 200

SiC 440

Fe nanoparticles (100 800


nm)
C nanotubes 1000

Diamond 1200

7
MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
Magnetic properties of nanoparticles

Each spin is a small magnet


Interaction between neighboring spins is dominated by the spin
exchange interaction.
In most materials J < 0 and the material is non-magnetic
(paramagnetic or diamagnetic)

Most people relate magnetics to


storage
One bit viewed by magnetic force
microscopy
Is it nano?
Well, overall size is ~1mm, but the bit
has smaller details.
Clearly, nano characterization methods
are being used to see this.

8
Apoferritin,
Quaternary structure of the protein.
your bodys The pieces make an open cavity
iron storage that can store thousands of Fe
protein and atoms

precision
magnetic
system.

Types of Magnetism
(Sibel Turksen Thesis)

9
General Hysteresis Plot

Magnetization
M

Magnetization
-M
in opposite direction

Paramagnet, Ferromagnet &


Superparamagnet

I think of the
superparamagnet as a
small ferromagnet.
Because of its small size,
the magnetic moment
wanders. When given an
order to align (when a
magnetic field is imposed)
it aligns with the same
enthusiasm that a
ferromagnet has, which 1
exceeds that of the 0
paramagnet.
Like the paramagnet, the superparamagnet
returns to zero magnetization when the field is
removed. It does so for a different reason: small
size, not intrinsically weak exchange between
the individual moments.

Superparamagn
Paramagne Ferromagn
et t et

Zero field

Applied
field

The bottom line is:

Nano scale has a big impact on the


magnetic properties!

In a normally ferromagnetic
material, nano scale reduces the
moment, but it can be restored by
applying a magnetic field.

The good news: switchable


interactions!

The bad news: There would seem


to be a lower limit to the size of a
magnetic particle that can hold an
alignment for data storage. 1
1
Superparamagnetic
nanoparticles

Stabilization
a) By surface coating using appropriate polymeric
stabilizers/surfactants (carboxylates, phospates,
cathecols)
b) By deposition of a layer of inorganic metals (e.g.,
gold), nonmetals (e.g., graphite), or oxides (e.g.
SiO2)
c) By generating polymeric shells that avoid cluster
growth after nucleation (composite particles,
nanocapsule).
d) By the formation of lipid-like coatings (e.g.,
liposomes/ lipid NPs) around the magnetic core.

1
2
MRI imaging

a) SPIO affects T2
b) Gd3+ affects T1
c) Core-shell nanoparticle
enable both imaging
modes.

T1 spin-lattice relaxation

T2 spin-spin relaxation

1
3
Suppose some particles do have magnetic moments.

N S N S N S N S

They will chain together!

The chain causes high viscosity.

Magnetorheological effect.

Magnetorheological Effect

A magnetic fluid.

Fluid becomes solidand


reverses! 14
Optical properties
So lets start with Optical properties. But first, let me ask you a
question. What is the origin of colour? Well its because of
SURFACE PLASMONS.

An SP is a natural oscillation of the electron gas inside a gold


nanosphere.
If the sphere is small compared to a wavelength of light, and
the light has a frequency close to that of the SP, then the SP
will absorb energy.
The frequency of the SP depends on the dielectric function of
the gold, and the shape of the nanoparticle. For a spherical
particle, the frequency is about 0.58 of the bulk plasma
frequency. Thus, although the bulk plasma frequency is in the
UV, the SP frequency is in the visible (in fact, close to 520 nm)

Metallic sphere
EM wave

Incident electric field is =E o exp(-i


w t)

Surface plasmon is excited when a long-


wavelength electromagnetic wave is incident
on a metallic sphere

15
Calculation of SP Frequency

Effective conductivity of a random metal-


insulator composite in the effective-medium
approximation

Effective conductivity of
a composite of Drude
metal and insulator:
dots, numerical; full
curves, effective-
medium approximation.

16
Nonlinear optical properties of nanomaterials

Suppose we have a suspension of nanoparticles in a host (or


some other composite which is structured on the nanoscale).
If an EM wave is applied, the local electric field may be hugely
enhanced near an SP resonance.
Ifso,one expects various nonlinear susceptibilities, which
depend on higher powers of the electric field, to be enhanced
even more.

The Kerr Susceptibility is defined by

where D is the electric displacement, E is the electric field, and


epsilon and chi are the linear and nonlinear electric
susceptibilities.
If the electric field is locally large, as near an SP resonance, then
its cube is correspondingly larger. Thus, near an SP resonance,
one expects a huge enhancement of the cubic nonlinear (Kerr)
susceptibility

Kerr susceptibility for a dilute


suspension of coated spheres

Cubic nonlinear (Kerr) susceptibility


for a dilute suspension of coated
metal particles in a glass host,
calculated in Maxwell-Garnett 17
approximation
Kerr enhancement factor for metal-
insulator composite

Kerr enhancement factor for a random metal-insulator composite,


assuming (left) metal and (right) insulator is nonlinear. Calculation is
carried out numerically, at the metal-insulator percolation threshold.

Faraday Rotation in Composites:


enhanced near SP resonance
Real and imaginary parts of the
Faraday rotation angle in a
composite of Drude metal and
insulator in a magnetic field (Xia,
Hui, Stroud, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2736
(1990)

1
8
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
Quantum confinement
In small nanocrystals, the electronic energy levels are not continuous as
in the bulk but are discrete (finite density of states), because of the
confinement of the electronic wavefunction to the physical dimensions of
the particles. This phenomenon is called quantum confinement and
therefore nanocrystals are also referred to as quantum dots (QDs).
In any material, substantial variation of fundamental electrical and optical
properties with reduced size will be observed when the energy spacing
between the electronic levels exceeds the thermal energy (kT).
Moreover, nanocrystals possess a high surface are and a large fraction
of the atoms in a nanocrystal are on its surface. Since this fraction
depends largely on the size of the particle (30% for a 1-nm crystal, 15%
for a 10-nm crystal), it can give rise to size effects in chemical and
physical properties of the nanocrystal.

19
Electronic band theory

Conduction
band
(empty)

band gap
band gap

Valence
band
(full)

Metal (conductor) Insulator


Semiconductor

Energy levels in metallic and


semiconductor nanoparticles

Density of states in metal (A) and


semiconductor (B) nanocrystals. In
each case, the density of
states is discrete at the band
edges. The Fermi level is in the
center of a band in a metal, and so
kT
will exceed the level spacing even
at low temperatures and small
sizes. Nevertheless, metal
nanoparticles of very small size 2
can exhibit insulating properties. 0
The properties like conductivity or resistivity are come
under category of electrical properties. These
properties are observed to change at nanoscale level
like optical properties. The change in electrical
properties in nanomaterials are:
1. Conductivity of a bulk or large material does not
depend upon dimensions like diameter or area of cross
section and twist in the conducting wire etc. However
it is found that in case of carbon nanotubes
conductivity changes with change in area of cross
section.
2.) It is also observed that conductivity also changes when
some shear force (in simple terms twist) is given to
nanotube.
3.) Conductivity of a multiwalled carbon nanotube is
different than that of single nanotube of same
dimensions.
4.) The carbon nanotubes can act as conductor or
semiconductor in behaviour but we all know that large
carbon (graphite) is good conductor of electricity.
These are the important electrical properties of
nanomaterials. The electrical properties of
the nanomaterial
triggered a response in the
mesenchymal (adult) stem
cells, which we sourced
from human bone marrow.
In effect, they became
electrified, which made
them morph into more
cardiac-like cells

21
Here we are to discuss about fundamentals of electrical
conductivity in nanotubes and nanorods, carbon nanotubes,
photoconductivity of nanorods, electrical conductivity of
nanocomposites. One interesting method which can be used
to demonstrate the steps in conductance is the mechanical
thinning of a nanowire and measurement of the electrical
current at a constant applied voltage. The important point
here is that, with decreasing diameter of the wire, the
number of electron wave modes contributing to the electrical
conductivity is becoming increasingly smaller by well-defined
quantized steps. In electrically conducting carbon nanotubes,
only one electron wave mode is observed which transport the
electrical current. As the lengths and orientations of the
carbon nanotubes are different, they touch the surface of the
mercury at different times, which provides two sets of
information: (i) the influence of carbon nanotube length on
the resistance; and (ii) the resistances of the different
nanotubes. As the nanotubes have different lengths, then
with increasing protrusion of the
fiber bundle an increasing number of carbon nanotubes will
touch the surface of the mercury droplet and contribute to
the electrical current transport.

2
2
Electrical conductivity of bulk metals is based on their
electronic band structures, and the mobility of
electrons is related to their mean free path between
two collisions with the lattice. The collective
motion of electrons in a bulk metal obeys Ohms law, V =
RI, where V is the applied voltage, R is the resistance
of the material and I is the current. As the electronic
band structure changes into
discrete energy levels, Ohms law is no longer valid. If one
electron is transferred to a small particle, the Coulomb
energy of the latter
increases by E C = e^2 /2C, where C is the capacitance of
the particle. If the temperature is low such that kT < e
2 /2C, single electron tunneling processes are
observed.*
* Thermal motion of the atoms in the particle can initiate a
change in the charge and the Coulomb energy so that
further electrons may tunnel uncontrolled
Hence, the I-V characteristic of a quantum dot is not
linear, but staircase-like. No current flows up to V C =
e/2C. If this value is reached, an electron can be
transferred. Following this,
an electron tunnelling process occurs if the Coulomb
energy of the particle is compensated by an external
I-U characteristic of ideal
voltage of V = ne/2C. This behaviour is called
single electron transport,
Coulomb blockade. The where Coulomb blockade is
charging energy increases with decreasing thestep
shown as the size of the
function.
quantum dot.

23
Experimental approaches to measure the Coulomb
blockade.
Two metallic leads with spacing of a few nm are
fabricated. An organic
monolayer is then used to bind nanocrystals to the leads.
When a nanocrystal
bridges the gap between the leads, it can be electrically
investigated.

(a) Field emission scanning electron micrograph of a lead


structure before the nanocrystals are introduced. The light gray
region is
formed by the angle evaporation and is 10 nm thick. The darker
region is
from a normal angle evaporation and is 70 nm thick. (b)
Schematic cross
section of nanocrystals bound via a bifunctional linker molecule to
the
leads. Transport between the leads occurs through the mottled
nanocrystal
bridging the Schematic
gap. illustration
of a single-electron tunnel
junction formed by a
nanocrystal held between
the STM tip and the
substrate.

24
(a) IV characteristic of an isolated 3.3 nm Pd nanocrystal (dotted
line) and the theoretical fit (solid line) obtained at 300 K using a
semiclassical model. (b) The size dependence of the charging energy.

In voltammetric experiments in solution, metal


nanoparticles behave as redox active molecules,
showing redox cascades that are well known in
inorganic and organometallic electrochemistry

25