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2009

Design of
RF and Microwave Filters
Contents

1. Introduction ; types of Filters


2. Characterization of Filters
3. Approximate Design Methods
4. Lowpass Prototype Network
5. Impedance Scaling and
Frequency Mapping
6. Immittance Inverters

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 2


1. Introduction
1.1 Types of Filters
A. Lowpass Filters B. Highpass Filters

attenuation attenuation

passband transition stopband stopband transition passband


band band

freq freq
c ; cutoff cutoff

C. Bandpass Filters D. Bandstop Filters


atten atten transition
transition transition transition
band band band band

stop- pass- stop-


band band band pass- stop- pass-
band band band

freq freq
f1 f2 f1 f2

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2. Filter Characterization(1)
Two-port Network ;

Input H( ) Output

Fig. 1 Two-port Network

H ( ) H ( ) e j ( )

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2. Filter Characterization(2)
Characteristics of ideal bandpass filters ;
1 for f1 f f 2
H ( ) and ( ) d
0 for f f 1 , f f 2

lH( )l
1
Fig. 2 Characteristics of
ideal bandpass filter

( ) Freq.

not realizable
approximation required
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2. Filter Characterization(3)
Practical specifications ;
1) Passband
; lower cutoff frequency f - upper cutoff frequency f
1 2

2) Insertion loss : 20 log H() (dB)


; must be as small as possible
3) Return Loss : 20 log (dB)
; degree of impedance matching
4) Ripple
; variation of insertion loss within the passband

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2. Filter Characterization(4)

5) Group delay
d ()
d
d
; time to required to pass the filter

6) Skirt frequency characteristics

; depends on the system specifications

7) Power handling capability

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3. Approximate Design Methods

1) based on Amplitude characteristics


A. Image parameter method
B. Insertion loss method
a) J-K inverters
b) Unit element - Kuroda identity

2) based on Linear Phase characteristics

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3.1 Filter design(the insertion loss method)

Definition of Power Loss Ratio (PLR)


; impedance matching as well as frequency selectivity

P in
[S ij ] P
P refl
trans Fig. 3 General filter network

2 2
Prefl Pin S11 Pin
2 2
Ptrans T Pin S 21 Pin
Pin 1 N ( ) network synthesis
PLR 1
Ptran 1 2 D( ) procedures are required

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3.1 Filter Design(2)

Approximation methods :
1) Maximally Flat (Butterworth) response

2) Chebyshev response

3) Elliptic Function response

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3.2 Approximation Methods

A. Maximally flat response

2N
2
PLR 1 k
c

Where, k 2 ; passband tolerance


N ; order of filter
Usually k 2 1
degree of freedom=1 (order
N)
Fig. 4 Comparison Between Maximally
Flat and Chebyshev response

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3.2 Approximation Methods(2)

B. Chebyshev response
: equal ripple response in the passband

PLR 1 k T
2 2
N

0

TN : Chebyshev Polynomial of order N

T1 ( x) x, T2 2 x 2 1, T3 ( x) 4 x 3 3 x
Tn ( x) 2 xTn 1 ( x) Tn 2 ( x)

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3.2 Approximation Methods(3)
2
k ; ripple (0.01 dB, 0.1 dB, etc.)
N ; order of filter
degree of freedom=2 (ripple and order)
attenuation
P LR s

1+ k 2

-1 0 1 c
p s
Chebyshev Response, N=4
Elliptic function response N=5

Fig. 5 Chebyshev and Elliptic Function response

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3.2 Approximation Methods(4)

C. Elliptic Function response


equal ripple passband in both passband and
stopband

s : stopband minimum attenuation


s : transmission zero at stopband

degree of freedom=3 (order N, ripple,


transmission zero at stopband s )

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4. Lowpass Prototype Filter

RL g 0 1 , c 1 rad / s ; normalized to 1
R a gN g6 g4 g2
...

g5 g3 g1 g 0 =1

...
a'
R a g 7 g 5 g 3 g 1
...

g g 6 g4 g 2 g 0 =1
N

...
a'

Fig. 5 Lowpass prototype


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4. Lowpass Prototype Filter(2)
Maximally Flat response ;
PLR 1 2 N R L g 0 1
2i 1
g i 2 sin , i 1, 2, , N ( H , F )
2N

Equal Ripple response ;

1 N odd
PLR 1 k T ( ) RL g 0
2 2
N
2k 2 1 2k 1 k 2 N even

4ai 1 ai 2i 1 2
1 k 2 1
gi , ai sin , bi sinh , ln
bi 1 g i 1 2N 2N 1 k 2 1

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4. Lowpass Prototype Filter(3)

Type 0.1 dB ripple 0.5 dB ripple


Butterworth
Element No Chebyshev Chebyshev

1 0.6180 1.1468 1.7058

2 1.6180 1.3712 1.2296

3 2.0000 1.9750 2.5408

4 1.6180 1.3712 1.2296

5 0.6180 1.1468 1.7058

Table1. Element values for Butterworth and chebyshev filters

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping
5.1 Impedance Scaling
RL 1 RL 50
Impedance level 50
; same reflection coefficient maintained
series branch(impedance) elements ;
jg i j 50g i g i 50 g i

shunt branch(admittance) elements ;

jg r jg r / 50 g r g r / 50

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(2)

5.2 Frequency Expansion

cutoff frequency 1 lowpass cutoff frequency c

mapping function ; f ( ) c

series and shunt branch elements ;


jg i j c g i gi c g i

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(3)
P LR P LR

'
-1 1 -c c
(a) Lowpass Prototype response (b) Frequency expansion

P LR P LR


-c c -0 0
2 1 1 2
(c) Lowpass to Highpass transformation (d) Lowpass to Bandpass Transformation

Fig. 6 Various mapping relations derived from lowpass prototype network

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(4)
5.3 Lowpass to Highpass transformation
(lowpass cutoff freq. 1 highpass cutoff freq. c )
mapping function ; f ( ) c /
series branch(impedance) elements ;
jg i j ( c / ) g i gi 1 /( c g i )
shunt branch(admittance) elements ;
jg r j ( c / ) g r gr 1 /( c g r )
R g 5' g 3' g 1'
...

gN' g 4' g 2' R L =1

...
Fig. 7 Highpass filter derived from lowpass prototype

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(5)
5.4 Lowpass to bandpass transformation

(low cutoff freq. 1 , high cutoff freq. 2 )

0 0
mapping function ; f ( )
2 1 0

' 0 0
' 1 1 , 2
0 1 2 and 2 1

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(6)
series branch element : impedance
0 0 gi g i 02 1
jg1 jg i ; g i j jLs
0 j j C s

shunt branch element : admittance


0 0 gr g r 02 1
jg r jg r ; g r j jC p
0 j jL p

R L 5
C 5
L 3
C 3 L 1
C 1
...

L C L 4 C L 2 C 2 R L =1
N N 4

...
Fig. 8 Bandpass filter derived from the lowpass prototype

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(7)

Example : Design a bandpass filter having a 0.5dB


equal-ripple response, with N=3. The f0 is 1GHz,
bandwidth is 10%, and the input and output
impedance 50.
step 1 : from the element values of lowpass prtotype
(0.5dB ripple Chebyshev)
g1 1.5963, g2 1.0967, g3 1.5963, g4 1.0000

step 2 : apply impedance scaling


L1 g1 Z0 1.5963 50 79.815 H, C2 g2 / Z0 0.022 F ,
L1 g3 Z0 79.815 H

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(8)
step 3 : apply bandpass transformation

L1 ' L1 / 0 127 nH L3 ' , C1 ' / 0 L1 0.199 pF C3 '


L2 ' / 0C2 0.726 nH, C2 ' C2 / 0 34.91 pF
(2 1 ) / 0

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(9)

5.5 Lowpass to bandstop transformation


(low cutoff freq.1 , high cutoff freq. 2 )
1
2 1 0
mapping function ; f ( )
0 0
inverse of bandpass mapping function

' 0 0
' 1 1 , 2
0 1 2 and 2 1

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(10)
series branch element : admittance
-1
0 gi g i 02 1
jg1 jg i ; g i j j C s
0 0 j j L s
shunt branch element : impedance
-1
0 gr g r 02 1
jg r jg r ; g r j j L p
0 0 j j C p

R
L N ... L 4
L 2

C L L C
N 5
C 3 2 L 1
4
R L =1
C C 3 C
5 1
...

Fig. 9 Bandstop network derived from the lowpass prototype

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(11)
5.6 Immitance Inverters

Z in (or Y in
) K(or J) Z L (or Y L
)

immittance Fig. 10 Immitance inverter


inverter

K ; impedance inverter Z K 2 / Z
in L

J ; admittance inverter Yin J 2 / YL


ex. simplest form of inverter : /4 transformer
series LC J-inverter + shunt LC
shunt LC K-inverter + series LC

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 28


5. Impedance and freq. mapping(12)
5.7 Bandpass filters using J-, K-inverters

Lossless Lossless
g 0 Z in ( ) or Lowpass g n+1 R 0 Z in ' ( ) or Bandpass R n+1
low Network band Network

Fig. 11 Equivalent Network for lowpass prototype and bandpass network


Reflection coefficient ;

lowpass : Z in ( ' ) / g 0 1
Low
Z in ( ' ) / g 0 1
bandpass : Z ( ) / R0 1
Band in
Z in ( ) / R0 1
If (mapping relation)
Z in ( ' ) / g 0 Z in ( ) / R0 Low ( ' ) Band ( )

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(13)

R g g g
0 a 2 4
n
...
Z in ( ' g
g 1
g 3
g 5
n-
g
) 1
n+1

...
a'

R L 1 C 1 L 2
C 2
L n C n
0
...
Z in ( )
K 01 K 12L K n,n+1 R n+1
4

...

Fig. 12 Lowpass network and bandpass network

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(14)

From the partial fraction expansion including


bandpass mapping relation
R0W 0 L1 0 Li Li 1 Rn 1W 0 Ln
2

K 01 , K i ,i 1 W , K n ,n 1
g 0 g1 g i g i 1 g n g n 1

W : fractional bandwidth, 0: center freq.

In the same manner, J-inverter values are derived as

G0W 0 C1 0 C i C i 1 Gn 1W 0 C n
2

J 01 , J i ,i 1 W , J n ,n 1
g 0 g1 g i g i 1 g n g n 1

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(15)
Typical immittance inverters ;
-C -C -L -L

C L

K 1 / C K L

Z 0 X=negative Z X=positive
0

=positive =negative

Fig. 13 Impedance(K-) inverters

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5. Impedance and freq. mapping(16)
C L

-C -C -L -L

J C J 1 / L
/2 /2
/2 /2

B=positive B=negative
Y 0
Y 0

=negative =positive

Fig. 14 Admittance(J-) inverters

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6. LC filters, Distributed filters
6.1 LC filters
A. C-coupled bandpass filters
Y 0
...
C L C L C n
J 01 L 1 1 J 12 L
2 2 n
J n,n+1 Y
4 b

...

Fig. 14 Bandpass filter network using ideal J-inverters


C
Y 0
12

...
C L C Ln C n
J 01 L 1 1 2 2
J n,n+1 Y b
-C 12
...
J-inverter

Fig. 15 Bandpass filter network containing practical inverters

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6. LC filters, Distributed filters(2)
Y Y in2
in1

C 01
C 1 -C a '
Y a
J 01 Y a
C a' L1 L 1
C 1

Fig. 16 Inverter of first and last stages


2
J
Yin1 01 jC a '
Ya
2 C 01 / Ya jC 01
2
1
Yin 2
1 / Ya 1 / jC 01 1 C 01 / Ya 2 1 C 01 / Ya 2

By equating the real and imaginary part of Yin1 and Yin 2


C a ' C 01 , J 01 C 01 if C 01 Ya

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 35


6. LC filters, Distributed filters(3)
C 1 C 2 C 3
C n+1
......
Z a
C C C pn
p1 p2 Z b
L L L
p1 p2 pn Fig.17 C-coupled
Bandpass filter

B. L-coupled bandpass filter


L 1 L 2 L 3
L n+1
......
Z a C C C pn
p1 p2 Z b
L L L
p1 p2 pn Fig.18 L-coupled
Bandpass filter

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 36


6. LC filters, Distributed filters(4)

Design a LC bandpass filter. The f0 is 2.8 GHz,


bandwidth is 500 MHz, and the input and output
impedance 50.
step 1 : from the element values of lowpass
prototype
step 2 : apply impedance scaling
step 3 : apply bandpass transformation using
J-inverters
Step 4 : simulation

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 37


6. LC filters, Distributed filters(3)
Simulated results:

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 38


Step 5 : Realization
1 pF 0.5 pF 1 pF 0.5 pF 0.5 pF 1 pF 0.5 pF 1 pF

0.5 pF

0.5 pF
1 pF
1 pF
6.8 nH air-coil

6.8 nH air-coil

6.8 nH air-coil

6.8 nH air-coil
2.7 nH chip

2.7 nH chip

2.7 nH chip
2.7 nH chip

1.5 pF

1.5 pF
5 pF

5 pF
Insertion loss < 3.1 dB
Retrun loss > 15.5 dB
Attenuation @ 3.3 GHz : 15 dB

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 39


Step 6. improvement

1 pF 1.5 pF 0.5 pF 0.5 pF 0.5 pF 0.5 pF

1 pF
6.8 nH air-coil

6.8 nH air-coil

6.8 nH air-coil
2.7 nH chip

2.7 nH chip
2.7 nH chip
0.5 pF

0.5 pF
1.5 pF
9.5 nH air-coil 9.5 nH air-coil 6.8 nH air-coil
20 pF

6.8 nH air-coil

6.8 nH air-coil

6.8 nH air-coil
1 pF

1 pF

1 pF
C-coupling + L-coupling =
LC filter LC filter

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 40


Measured results

27 dB

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 41


6. LC filters, Distributed filters(3)

6.2 Distributed filters

At microwave frequencies :

Resonators made of Lumped elements are


lossy(low Q) or bulky Distributed Resonators

Distributed resonators ; quarter-wavelength or


half-wavelength transmission lines such as
microstrip lines, coaxial lines and waveguides

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 42


6. LC filters, Distributed filters(3)
A. Combline filters
: cellular base stations as well as portable phone

Fig. 19 (a) Top view of


Combline Filter

Fig. 19 (b) Side view of


Combline Filter

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 43


Instead of lumped element inductors distributed
inductors (L < /4) are used.
(Y oe -Y oo )/2

In Y oe
Y oe
Out

Fig. 20 Coupled line Fig. 21 Equivalent circuit of Fig.20

Overall equivalent circuit :


C 1
C 2 C 3 C 4
L L L c3 L L
c1 c2 c4 c5

C c1 C c2 C
Fig. 22 Equivalent circuit
c3
L L L
1 2 3 L 4
of Fig. 19

Microwave & Millimeter-wave Lab. 44