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Algebra and Functions

This chapter focuses on Algebra and

Algebraic manipulation

We will also learn the Remainder and

Factor theorems
Algebra and Functions
You can simplify algebraic 7 x 4 2 x3 6 x
fractions by division
x
Sometimes you need to look
for common factors to each 7 x 4 2 x3 6 x
term
x
Cancel xs
In this case, every term,
top and bottom, contains an x 7 x3 2 x 2 6
1 Dont need
You can therefore cancel
to divide by
an x from each part 1!
7 x3 2 x 2 6

1A
Algebra and Functions
You can simplify algebraic 5x2 6
fractions by division
Split the
2x
fraction
Sometimes you will have to apart
break up the fraction 5x2 6

2x 2x
You may find that on one
Simplify
part, the letters can simplify, whatever
and on another part, it is the you can
numbers that simplify 5x 3

2 x

1A
Algebra and Functions
You can simplify algebraic 3x5 4 x 2
fractions by division 3x
Split the
fraction
Sometimes you will have to apart
break up the fraction 3x5 4x2

3 x 3 x
You can always simplify in Simplify
stages to make it easier to algebra 3x 4 4x
follow!
(3/-3 = -1)
3 3
(4/-3 = -4/3) 4 x
x
4
3
The minuses
cancel out! 4x
x
4
3 1A
Algebra and Functions
You may also need to use ( x 7)(2 x 1)
factorisation in the
simplifying process (2 x 1)

This equation has already ( x 7)(2 x 1)

been put into brackets
(2 x 1)
Cancel the
(2x 1)s
You can cancel out brackets
which are on the top and ( x 7)
bottom
1
Dont need to
divide by 1!

( x 7)

1A
Algebra and Functions
You may also need to use
factorisation in the ( x 3)
simplifying process
x 2 7 x 12
Two numbers that
Sometimes you will have to multiply to give +12
factorise one of the equations ( x 3)
first
( x 3)( x 4)
Once this is done, you can Cancel the
cancel out brackets as before (x + 3)s 1
( x 4)

1A
Algebra and Functions
You may also need to use
factorisation in the
x2 6 x 5
simplifying process
Two numbers that
x 2 3 x 10
Sometimes you will have to multiply to give +5
factorise both of the ( x 5)( x 1)
equations first
x 2 3x 10
Two numbers that
Once this is done, you can multiply to give -10
cancel out brackets as before ( x 5)( x 1)
( x 5)( x 2)
Cancel the
(x + 5)s ( x 1)
( x 2)
1A
Algebra and Functions
You may also need to use
factorisation in the
2 x 2 11x 12
simplifying process
Two numbers that ( x 3)( x 4)
multiply to give +12
Sometimes you will have to and add to give +11,
factorise one of the equations when one is doubled (2 x 3)( x 4)
first
( x 3)( x 4)
Cancel the
Once this is done, you can (x + 4)s
cancel out brackets as before 2x 3
x3

1A
Algebra and Functions
You can divide a polynomial 1 1 7
(an equation with a power of Finally,
First, How
Second, How
How
x in) by (x p) many 7s
700s
70s inin49
in119
800
7 8 1 9
7 0 0
First though, we will look at
numerical long division, and 7
1 1 1 9
what the process actually 7 0
means
We now take 4 9
away 7
1 xx 70
700
7 from
from
1) Divide 819 by 7
from we
we(49)
(119) 4 9
started with
So 7 divides into 819 0
exactly 117 times, with no
remainder

1B
Algebra and Functions
You can divide a polynomial 1 0 82
(an equation with a power of
x in) by (x p) 9 97 46
Finally,
Second,
Third,
First, How
How
How
Howmany
many
9000s9s
900s
90s
inin9000
in26
in746
746
90 00
First though, we will look at
numerical long division, and 746
what the process actually 0
2
0
8
1
means
746
1) Divide 9746 by 9 We now take away 720
away
1 x 9000
0 x 9
8
2 900
90
from
from
from
what
So 9 divides into 9746 from
what
we started
we
wewith
left
exactly 1082 times, with 8 left (746)
(746)
(26)
remainder
1 8
8

1B
Algebra and Functions
x2 + 5x - 2
You can divide a polynomial
(an equation with a power of x-3 x3 + 2x2 17x + 6
x in) by (x p) x3 3x2

We are now going to look at 5x2 - 17x + 6

some algebraic examples..
5x2 - 15x
Second,
Third,
First, Divide
Divide
Divide
x-2x
3
5x
byby
2
xby
1) Divide x + 2x 17x + 6 by
3 2 - 2x + 6
(x 3) x
- 2x + 6
x2
So the answer is x2 + 5x 2, 5x 0
-2
and there is no remainder
We then subtract
This means that (x 3) is a x2(x
We then
3) from
subtract
what
factor of the original equation
-2(x
we
5x(x
started
3)
3) from
from
withwhat
what
we have left

1B
Algebra and Functions
6x2 - 2x + 3
You can divide a polynomial
(an equation with a power of x+5 6x3 + 28x2 7x + 15
x in) by (x p) 6x3 + 30x2

We are now going to look at -2x2 - 7x + 15

some algebraic examples..
-2x2 - 10x
1) Divide 6x3 + 28x2 7x + 15 Third,Divide
First,
Second,Divide
Divide6x
3x-2x
3
by2 x 3x + 15
by (x + 5)
by x 3x + 15

So the answer is 6x2 - 2x + 3, 6x

3 2 0
and there is no remainder -2x

This means that (x + 5) is a We then subtract

factor of the original equation 6xWe
3(x
2
(x
+ 5)
+then
5)
from
from
subtract
what
what
-2x(x
we started
have + 5)
left
from
with what
we have left
1B
Algebra and Functions
Some things to be aware of x2 + 2x + 1
when dividing algebraically
x-2 x3 + 0x2 3x - 2
Always include all different x3 2x2
powers of x, up to the
highest that you have 2x2 3x - 2
First, divide
Second,
Third, divide
divide
xx3 2x
by2xby x 2x2 4x
Divide x3 3x 2 by (x 2)
x 2
You must include 0x2 in = 12x
x2 x 2
the division
0

So our answer is x2 + 2x + Then, work out 1(x

x2(x 2)
2x(x 2)
1. This is commonly known as 2) and
and subtract
subtract
from
from
what
the quotient whathave
you started
you left
have
with
left

1C
Algebra and Functions
Some things to be aware of 3x2 - 4
when dividing algebraically
x-1 3x3 - 3x2 4x + 4

Always include all different 3x3 3x2

powers of x, up to the 4x + 4
highest that you have
- 4x + 4
Second,
First, divide
divide3x-4x
3
bybyx x
Divide 3x3 3x2 4x + 4 by 0
(x 1)
==-4
3x2
So our answer is 3x2 4

Then,
Then,work
workout
out-4(x
3x2(x
1)

and
1) and
subtract
subtract
from
from
what
you
whathave
youleft
started with

1C
Algebra and Functions
Some things to be aware of 2x2 + 3x - 4
when dividing algebraically
x-4 2x3 - 5x2 16x + 10

Sometimes you will have a 2x3 8x2

remainder, in which case the 3x2 16x + 10
expression you divided by is
not a factor of the original Third,divide
First,
Second,divide
divide
2x
-4x
3xby
byby
3 2
xx 3x2 12x
equation x
-4x + 10
= -4
2x2 -4x + 16
Find the remainder when; = 3x
2x3 5x2 16x + 10 is -6
divided by (x 4) Then, work out -4(x
2x2(x
Then,
4) andwork
subtract
out 3x(x
from
So the remainder is -6. 4) andyou
what subtract
started
have left
from
with
what you have left

1C
Algebra and Functions
If f(p) = 0, then (x p) is a
factor of f(x) x3 + x2 4x - 4
Substitute
f(x) A function of x, any in x = 2
equation 23 + 22 (4x2) - 4
Work out
f(p) The function of x with each term
a value p substituted in
8 + 4 8 - 4
For example;

Show that (x 2) is a factor =0

of x3 + x2 4x - 4
So because f(2) = 0, (x 2)
is a factor of the original
equation
1D
Algebra and Functions
If f(p) = 0, then (x p) is a
factor of f(x) 2x3 + x2 18x - 9
Substitute in values of x to find a
f(x) A function of x, any factor
equation

f(p) The function of x with

x=1 2 + 1 18 - 9
a value p substituted in
= -24

Factorise 2x3 + x2 18x - 9 = -25

x=3 54 + 9 54 - 9
So (x 3) is a
factor =0
1D
Algebra and Functions
If f(p) = 0, then (x p) is a 2x2 + 7x + 3
factor of f(x)
x-3 2x3 + x2 18x - 9
f(x) A function of x, any 2x3 6x2
equation
7x2 18x - 9
f(p) The function of x with a
value p substituted in Third,divide
First,
Second,divide
divide
2x
3x7xby by
3 2
x 7x2 21x
x
3x - 9
For example;
=32x2 3x - 9
Factorise 2x3 + x2 18x 9 = 7x
0
Now we know (x 3) is a factor, Then, work out 3(x
2x2(x
3)

divide by it to find the quotient 3) and
Then,
and subtract
work
subtract
out
from
7x(x
from
what

what
3)
youand
have
you
subtract
left
startedfrom
with
The quotient is 2x2 + 7x + 3 what you have left

1D
Algebra and Functions
If f(p) = 0, then (x p) is a
factor of f(x) (x 3)(2x2 + 7x + 3)
You can also factorise
f(x) A function of x, any
the quotient
equation

2 numbers that multiply

f(p) The function of x with a to give +3, and add to
value p substituted in give +7 when one has
doubled
For example;
(x 3)(2x + 1)(x + 3)
Factorise 2x3 + x2 18x 9

(x 3) is a factor
(2x2 + 7x + 3) is the quotient

1D
Algebra and Functions
If f(p) = 0, then (x p)
4x4 3x2 + a
is a factor of f(x) If (x + 1) is a factor,
then using -1 will make
the equation = 0
Given that (x + 1) is a 0 = 4(-14) 3(-12) + a
factor of 4x4 3x2 + a,
Work out each term
find the value of a.
0 = 4 3 + a
Solve the equation to
find the value of a
0 = 1 + a

-1 = a

1D
Algebra and Functions
The remainder when f(x) is
divided by (ax - b) will be
given by f(b/a)

For example, to find the

remainder when f(x) is
divided by each of the
following

(x 4) Substitute x = 4 into the equation

(x + 2) Substitute x = -2 into the equation
(2x 1) Substitute x = 1/2 into the equation
(3x + 2) Substitute x = -2/3 into the equation
(5x + 6) Substitute x = -6/5 into the equation

1E
Algebra and Functions
The remainder when f(x) is divided
by (ax - b) will be given by f(b/a) x3 20x + 3
Substitute
in x = 4
Find the remainder when x3 20x + 3
is divided by (x 4) 43 20(4) + 3
Work out
each term
The remainder will be -13
64 80 + 3
(You can have a negative remainder,
as we do not know what the actual
numbers are) = -13

1E
Algebra and Functions
The remainder when f(x)
is divided by (ax - b) will 8x4 4x3 + ax2 - 1
Substitute
be given by f(b/a)
in x = -1/2
8(-1/2)4 4(-1/2)3 + a(-1/2)2 - 1 = 3
When 8x 4x + ax 1 is
4 3 2

divided by (2x + 1), the Work out

each term
remainder is 3. Find the
8(1/16) 4(-1/8) + a(1/4) - 1 = 3
value of a.

We will substitute in x = 1
/2 -1
/2 + 1/4a - 1 = 3
-1/
2
Group like
We will set the equation terms
equal to 3 1
/4a = 3
Multiply by
4
a = 12

1E
Summary
We have learnt how to divide
algebraically, having seen how it is done
numerically

We have looked at the factor theorem

and used it in solving equations beyond