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Water Use and Management

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Outline:

Water Availability and Use

Freshwater Shortages

Water Management and Conservation

Privatization of water

Water wars

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


WATER RESOURCES
Water, liquid and solid, covers more than
70% of worlds surface.
More than 370 billion billion gallons.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Hydrologic Cycle

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Sources of water

Surface fresh water:


3% of liquid water,
which is 13% of fresh water,
which is 2.4% of water

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Groundwater

Second largest reservoir of fresh water.


- Infiltration - Process of water percolating

through the soil and into fractures and


permeable rocks.
Zone of Saturation - Lower soil layers

where all spaces are filled with water.


Water Table - Top of Zone of Sat.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Groundwater

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Groundwater
Aquifers - Porous layers of sand, gravel, or
rock lying below the water table.
Artesian - Pressurized aquifer intersects

the surface. (Water flows without pumping)


Recharge Zone - Area where water infiltrates
into an aquifer.
Recharge rate is often very slow.

- Presently, groundwater is being

removed faster than it can be


replenished in many areas.
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Groundwater Aquifer

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Water diversions from rivers

Yellow River (Huang He) Colorado River Delta


In northern China in U.S./Mexico

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Diversion of rivers to the Aral Sea

Once the 4th largest inland


body of water in the world
A series of dams was built to
irrigate cotton.

Aral Sea reduced to about


25% of its 1960 volume,
quadrupled the salinity of the
lake and wiped out the fishery.
Pollutants became airborne as
dust, causing significant local
health problems.

The environmental damage


caused has been estimated at
$1.25 -$2.5 billion a year.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


U.S. Water Policy
Through most of US history, water policies
have generally worked against conservation.
In well-watered eastern states, water

policy was based on riparian use rights.


In drier western regions where water is

often a limiting resource, water law is


based primarily on prior appropriation
rights.
- Fosters Use it or Lose it policies.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Ogallala
Aquifer

High-
capacity
well
withdrawals

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Dried-up reservoir

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Western U.S. water conflicts
Klamath Basin, Oregon

vs.
Commercial fishers, Farmers.
Sport fishers, Ranchers.
Tribes, Wise
Environmentalists Users
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Bulk water transfers
River system diversions
(Canada-to-U.S.)

Water pipelines
(Canada/Great Lakes-to-Southwest)

Supertankers
(North America-to-Asia)

Canadian government
banned bulk transfers in 1999.
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Groundwater replenishing

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


WATER AVAILABILITY AND USE
Renewable Water Supplies
Made up of surface runoff and infiltration

into accessible freshwater aquifers.

Readily accessible, renewable


supplies are 400,000 gal /person/year.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Drought Cycles
Every continent has regions of scarce rainfall
due to topographic effects or wind currents.
Water shortages have most severe effect in

semiarid zones where moisture availability


is the critical factor in plant and animal
distributions.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Types of Water Use
Withdrawal - Total amount of water taken
from a source.

Consumption - Fraction of withdrawn water


not returned to its source.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Types of Water Use
Worldwide, humans withdraw about 10% of
total annual renewable supply.

Many societies have always treated water


as an inexhaustible resource.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Quantities of Water Used
Human water use has been increasing about
twice as fast as population growth over the
past century.

Average amount of withdrawn worldwide is


about 170,544 gal/person/year.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Global Water Use Growth

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Precipitation Patterns

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Water use

Agriculture

Industry

Household/municipal

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


FRESHWATER SHORTAGES
Estimated 1.5 billion people lack access to
an adequate supply of drinking water.
Nearly 3 billion lack acceptable sanitation.

A country where consumption exceeds more


than 20% of available, renewable supply is
considered vulnerable to water stress.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


A Precious Resource
45 countries have serious water stress, and
cannot meet the minimum essential water
requirements of their citizens.

More than two-thirds of worlds households


have to retrieve water from outside the
home.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Depleting Groundwater
Groundwater is the source of nearly 40% of
fresh water in the US.
On a local level, withdrawing water faster

than it can be replenished leads to a cone


of depression in the water table,
- On a broader scale, heavy pumping can

deplete an aquifer.

Mining non-renewable resource.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Depleting Groundwater

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Depleting Groundwater
Withdrawing large amounts of groundwater
in a small area causes porous formations to
collapse, resulting in subsidence.

Sinkholes form when an underground


channel or cavern collapses.

Saltwater intrusion can occur along


coastlines
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Saltwater Intrusion

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Domestic Conservation
Estimates suggest many societies could
save as much as half of current domestic
water usage without great sacrifice or
serious change in lifestyle.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Typical US Household Water Use

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


WATER WARS

By
Majority majority
Minority By
minority

12% of population uses 85% of water

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Price Mechanisms
Charging a higher
proportion of real
costs to users of
public water projects
has helped encourage
conservation.

Yet discriminates
against poor.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Global water Industry
Over $140 Billion a year

The World Water and Wastewater Utilities Market is


estimated at $142 billion US in 2000
(2000, $US)

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Water multinationals

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Public/private water in EU countries

100 100 100 100 100 100 99


100 98
95 96

90
90

82
80

70

63
60

50

Public
40 Private

30
25

20

12
10

0
Gr Ne Fin UK
De Fr Irel Ital Lu Po Sw
Be Sp ee the lan
nm an an y xe rtu ed
lgi Ge ain ce rla Au d
ark ce d mb gal en
um rm nd str
an ou ia
rg s
y

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Public and private prices in France

average annual price (FF) for yearly consumption of 120m3, water & sanitation
Source: DGCCRF
2,500

Municipal/Rgies
2,100 2,100

2,000 1,908
1,993
2,050
Delegated/Private
1,848 1,841
1,784 1,803
1,716
1,621
1,489
1,500

1,000

500

0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Water War in Bolivia

Cochabamba residents protesting


Bechtel privatization of
municipal water system, 1999
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Private and public: subsidies to and from water

Private Public

Subsidies from
Loss
taxation
leaders Water
services

Financing Financing other


other MNC public services
operations

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Alternative: Porto Alegre, Brazil

- Autonomous department
- Efficiency and public accountability

Participatory budgeting
- Decentralised democratic prioritising

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Alternative: Debrecen, Hungary

Preferred public to private

Cheaper

Financial comparison

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Safety of municipal
water supplies

Australia, 1998
(privatized system)

Wisconsin, 1993
Ontario, 2000
(govt had dropped
e-coli testing)
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Bottled water costs more than oil

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Bottled water quality in question

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Bottled water growth
8

4 Billions of gallons

0
1970 1980 2000

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Water
Privatization

Woodstock
Fewer Riot 1999
bubblers in
public
buildings?

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Perrier/Nestle in the U.S.

Texas Florida

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Perrier/Nestle in the Midwest

Wisconsin Michigan

Mecan Springs
(Waushara Co.) Protection of
1999-2000; rural supplies
Big Spring from high-
(Adams Co.), capacity wells
2000-2002 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
New Geography of Conflict

Possible flashpoint for resource conflict


Water systems & aquifers
Jordan
Nile
Tigris Euphrates
Amu Darya
Indus
Mountain Aquifer (West Bank/Israel)

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Middle East
Water Conflicts

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Israeli-
Palestinian
Water
Conflict

Israel uses 82%


Of West Bank
groundwater;
Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
charges Arabs 3x
Israels
boundary
with Egypt
and Gaza
(Palestine)

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Dead Sea
Shrinkage

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Tigris and Euphrates rivers

Turkey

Iraq

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


International cooperation on water use

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Websites
Water resources
http://www.worldwater.org/
http://www.groundwater.com/
Privatization of water
www.canadians.org/blueplanet
http://www.citizen.org/cmep/Water/
Bottled water
www.saveamericaswater.com
www.savemiwater.org
www.waterissweet.org
www.saveourspringsinc.org
Water Wars (books)
www.southendpress.org/books/waterwars.shtml
www.mapcruzin.com/rev_resource_wars.htm

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.