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# KING FAISAL UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
ChE 303 Separation
Processes I
Lecture 03: Flow Through Packed Beds

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Flow past a single particle Flow past particles
uo
FD / A P drag force / projected area
CD 2
Dp
u o / 2g c velocity head

u o Dp 24
FD 3 CD
gc Re p

_ _
FD f ( , V o , D p , s , , L,...)

FD f ( , uo , D p ,...)

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Flow through particles
The resistance to flow through the voids in a bed of solids is the
resultant of the total drag of all particles in the bed
To find the resistance, the total drag on the solid boundaries of the
tortuous channels through the particles must be calculated
The channels are irregular in shape, have a variable cross section and
orientation and are highly inter-connected
Assumption: It assumed that the channels between the particles are
a set of uniform circular channels. The total surface area and void
volume of these channels are equivalent to those of the particles.

Deq
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CASE 1: Laminar flow
From fluid mechanics: for Laminar flow in circular and straight pipes:
_
32L V ?
Ps
gc D 2

## The average velocity and equivalent

? diameter for the tortuous channels are to
be determined

Deq
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1. Sphericity, s:D2 / 1 D3 6 / Dp sp 6
s p 6 p

sp / v p sp / v p
v p s Dp

## 2. Equivalent Channel Diameter, Deq:

To determine the equivalent channel diameter , the surface
area of n parallel channels of length L is set equal to : the
surface-volume ratio times the particles volume
sp 6
surface area for particles .particles volume ( )( S o L(1 ))
vp s Dp
surface area for n parallel channels n(.Deq L) Particles

Deq
So
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2. Equivalent Channel Diameter, Deq:
To determine the equivalent channel diameter , the surface
area of n parallel channels of length L is set equal to : the
surface-volume ratio times the particles volume
6
nDeq L ( )(S o L( 1 ))
s D p

## Note : that void volume between particles = the total

volume of the n channels
1
S o L nDeq L
2

4
Therefore:
2
Deq s D p
3 1

Deq 0.44s D p
For a typical void fraction of 0.4,

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_
V : Average velocity in the channels
Q
_ V
V cross sectional area of voids

_
V o : Empty tower velocity
Q
Vo
Vo cross sectional area of entire
tower bed

## Dividing the two equations by each other:

_
_
cross sectional area of voids _ _ _
Vo
Vo V V V
cross sectional area of tower

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_
Vo
32L V V
Pressure drop for Laminar flow in pipes: Ps g D 2
c

2
Deq s D p
3 1
_ _
P 32 V 321 Vo (1 ) 2
For the channels:
L gc D 2
4
g c s D p
2 2 2

9
_ 1 : is a correction
P 72 1 Vo (1 ) 2
factor to account

L 2
gc s Dp
2
3
for the tortuous
From experiments: channels
_
P 721 Vo (1 ) 2

L 2
gc s Dp
2
3

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_
P 150 Vo (1 ) 2
Kozeny-Carman Equation:
L 2
gc s Dp
2
3

Vo DP
Condition for this equation: Re P 1
1

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CASE 2: Turbulant flow
Turbulent flow in circular and straight pipes:

P 2 f V 2 V
Vo f : friction factor

L D
2
Deq s D p
3 1

2 : is a correction
3 1
2
P V 3 f 2 V 1
2
2 f o o
factor to account
2s D p s D p 3
L for the tortuous
channels
P 1.75 Vo2 1 Burke-Plummer Equation.

L s D p 3 Vo DP
Condition: Re 1000
P
1

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Ergun equation: Entire range of flow rates
P 150Vo 1
2
1.75Vo2 1 P
k1Vo k 2Vo2
L 2 2 3
s D p s D p 3 L
Note: if fps units are used, the equation is divided by gc
Dp/D For for
spheres cylinders
Valid for: spheres, t

## cylinders, and granular 0 0.34 0.34

packing (: 0.3 0.6). 0.1 0.38 0.35
For a mixture of solid particles:
1 0.2 0.42 0.39
D p Ds
Dp
0.3 0.46 0.45
n
xi
i 1 i
0.4 0.50 0.53
Dt: 0.5 0.55
tower diameter 0.60

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Example: For the tower shown, Calculate P

## Solution: Dt = 0.61 m Spherical particle

L = 2.44 m DP = 12.7 mm
P 150Vo 1
2
1.75Vo2 1
= 0.38
2 2 3
L s Dp s D p 3

Dt2 Air
m& 0.358 kg/s = A cV o
V o V o 1 m/s0.358 kg/s
4
= 1.221 kg/m3
P 5 = 1.910-5 Pa.s
124.2 1913.99 P 0.0497 10 Pa
L

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_
Example: For the filter shown calculate
Vo.
Assume laminar flow Sand filter

Solution:
h= 0.4 m water
P 150Vo 1
2
1.75Vo2 1
2 2 3

L s Dp s D p 3
L = 1.5 m s = 0.9
_
P 150 Vo (1 ) 2 Deq = 0.006 m
= 0.42
L 2
gc s Dp
2
3
P gh 998 9.81 0.4 3916 Pa _
V o . = 998 kg/m3
Substitution gives: = 1 cp
2 2
_
P g c s D p 3
Vo 0.061 m/sec
L 150 (1 ) 2

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