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Manageme

nt

Organizational
Behavior
An Integrated
Perspective

Prepared by:
by Patricia Irene DC
Pangan

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Learning Objectives
1. Identify early pioneers in organizational behavior and
their contributions to the classical theory of
management.
2. Identify the major contributors to the behavioral theory of
management, their view of organizations, and their
contributions to the management literature.

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Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior studies organizations
from multiple viewpoints.
Two types of organizational behavior: Micro
refers to individual and group dynamics in an
organizational setting; Macro studies whole
organizations and industries.

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Behavioral School of Management
An organization was viewed as a social system
of people-to-people and people-to-work
networks in which employees have both social
needs and the desire to make meaningful
contributions toward the accomplishment of
organizational goals.

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Behavioral School Contributors
Robert Owen (17711858)
Progressive industrialist who recognized need for good
overall management of an organizations human
resources.
Hugo Munsterberg (18631916)
Father of industrial psychology and its use to enhance
organizational effectiveness.
Walter Dill Scott (18691955)
Advocated improving employee attitudes and
motivation as a means to increase worker productivity.

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Behavioral School Contributors
(contd)
Mary Parker Follett (18681933)
Asserted that managers influence and power should
flow from their knowledge and skill.
Chester Barnard (18861961)
Provided insight into the concept of formal (consciously
created) and informal (spontaneous) organizations
within firms.

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The Behavioral Science Influence
Behavioral science movement
A movement that stressed the need to conduct a
systematic and controlled field and laboratory studies
of workers and their motivation, attitudes, and behavior.
Introduced the growth model of the employee.
The movement eventually
gave rise to organizational
behavior as a discipline.

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Behavioral Science Contributors
Abraham Maslow (19081970)
Identified sets of basic human needs and suggested
that they could be arranged in a hierarchy based on
their importance to the individual.
Douglas McGregor (19061964)
Developed the Theory X (traditionalnegative
management approach) and Theory Y (positive
management approach) to workers and work
motivation.

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Behavioral Science Contributors
(contd)
Chris Argysis
Believed that the conflict between mature individuals
and bureaucratic organizations could be avoided by the
development of open and flexible organizations.
Rensis Likert
Stressed teamwork and a group approach to
organizational design and management, which he called
System 4.

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Organizational Humanism
A system that promoted an interest in
understanding the psychological forces tying
individuals to organizations.
A system that also promoted management
practices that lead to employee satisfaction
and well-being.

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Contributions and Limitations of the
Behavioral School
Contributions Limitations
Raised awareness of the Lacks a language for
need to design open, communicating its ideas
flexible organizations to managers
Introduced the growth Havent gotten top
needs model of the managements attention
employee and respect
Persistence in the belief
that there is one best
way to manage

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Dominant Features of the Behavioral
Model
Involvement-oriented management practices
Organic organization design
organization is a social system (human community)
involvement-oriented organization
flexible structure
dynamic tasks, loosely defined
consultative communications
authority flows from knowledge
and expertise vs. position
low levels of standardization
extensive use of groups/teams
open system

Model of the employee


human relations movementsocial being
human resource movementgrowth being
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Other Management Perspectives
Contingency perspective
The belief that the techniques appropriate for a manager
to use depend (are contingent) on the specific situation.
Contingency perspectives
Total quality management
Systems theory
Theory Z
McKinsey 7-S framework

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Demands on Effective Management:
Contingency Perspectives

Develop Diagnostic Identify Appropriate


Skills for Situational Style and Fit It
Awareness to Situation

Management
Challenges

Develop Capacity for


Flexible Behavior

FIGURE 25
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Total Quality Management
Perspective
Quality management perspective
An approach to management that has as its goal the
achievement of customer satisfaction by providing
high-quality goods and services.
Total quality management (TQM)
A management philosophy and way of managing with
the goal of getting everyone committed to quality,
continuous improvement, and the attainment of
customer satisfaction by meeting or exceeding
customer expectations.
TQM pioneers: Deming, Juran, Ishikawa

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Total Quality Management Perspective
(contd)
TQM assumptions
Quality products are less costly to produce than poor
quality products.
People (employees) care about quality and improving
the quality of their work.
Organizations are systems of interdependent parts and
quality problems cut across functional lines.
Quality and continuous improvement are the
responsibility of top (senior) management.
Continuous learning and improvement are vital to the
long-term health and survival of an organization.

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The Systems Perspective
Systems theory
A view of an organization as made up a number of
interrelated elements, each functioning to contribute to
the purpose of the whole organization which exists in
an interdependent relationship with the external
environment.

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The McKinsey 7-S Framework

Structure

Strategy Systems

Organization
Management
Skills Staff

Shared
Style
goals

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Contributions and Limitations of the
Contemporary Schools
Contributions Limitations
Unified the technical Contemporary approaches
side (classicists) and to management are more
the social elements of complex than the classical
organizations and behavioral
(behavioralists). approaches.
Showed that there is no No contemporary
one best way to management approach
manage in all has been thoroughly
circumstances. researched.

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Conclusion
Research shows that group formation is a beneficial but highly
dynamic process. The life cycle of teams can often closely
resemble various stages in individual development. In order to
maintain group effectiveness, individuals should be aware of key
stages as well as methods to avoid becoming stuck along the way.
Good leadership skills combined with knowledge of group
development will help any group perform at its peak level.
Teams, though similar, are different from groups in both scope
and composition. Groups are often small collections of
individuals with various skill sets that combine to address a
specific issue, whereas teams can be much larger and often
consist of people with overlapping abilities working toward a
common goal.

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