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Sistema de Combustible

Sistema de Control
Electronico
History of Common-rail System
Common-rail Engines

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

1CD-FTV

1CD-FTV (D-CAT)

1KD-FTV

2KD-FTV

1ND-TV

2AD-FTV

2AD-FHV
History of Common-rail System
Different variations on Common-rail
3 Generations

Diesel EFI Common-rail

1st-generation
1st-generation
Common-rail
Common-rail
HP2
HP2 Supply
Supply Pump
Pump 2nd-generation
Solenoid Injector 2nd-generation
Solenoid Injector
HP3
HP3 Supply
Supply Pump
Pump
Discharge
Discharge Valve
Valve 3rd-generation
3rd-generation
135 MPa
Injector
Injector Compensation
Compensation NSR
NSR + + DPNR
DPNR
Code
Code Piezo
Piezo Injector
Injector
Max. Common-
rail Pressure 135 - 160 MPa
160 - 180 MPa
History of Common-rail System
Different variations on Common-rail
1st-generation *: Data Matrix Code
Max. Injector
Number Discharge
Engine Model Pump Type Common-rail Compensatio
of SCV Valve
Pressure n
Pressure
NLP10 Bosch 1 Regulating 160 MPa A,B,C Mark
Valve
1ND-TV
Pressure
NDE120 Bosch 1 Regulating 160 MPa DMC*
Valve
CDT220, CLM20,
HP2 2 No 135 MPa Resister
1CD-FTV CDE120
CDT250, CUR10 HP3 1 Yes 160 MPa QR Code
1CD-FTV HP3 + Flow
CDT250 1 Yes 175 MPa QR Code
(D-CAT) Damper
KDJ90, KDJ12# HP2 2 No 135 MPa Resister
1KD-FTV KDJ12# (04 -) HP3 1 Yes 160 MPa QR Code
KUN#6 HP3 1 No 160 MPa QR Code
KLH1#,2#, KDN1##,
HP3 1 Yes 135 MPa Resister
KDY2#0
2KD-FTV
KUN1#,25,35,
HP3 1 No 160 MPa QR Code
KDH20#,212,22#
2AD-FTV ADT251 HP3 1 No 167 MPa QR Code
HP3 + Flow
2AD-FHV ADT251 1 Yes 180 MPa QR Code
Damper
System Overview
Common-rail System Diagram (for IMV)

NE Signal Engine
EDU
G Signal ECU
Other Injectors
Various
Signals
Pressure
Fuel Pressure Limiter
Sensor Common-rail

Injector
Pressure
Switch

Fuel Cooler
Fuel
SCV Fuel SystemFilter
Supply Pump Fuel Tank
Warning Light
Fuel System
Features

NE Signal Engine EDU Injector


Injector
G Signal ECU
compensation
compensation
Various Other Injectors code
code
Signals
Max.
Max. 160MPa
160MPa
Pressure
HP3
HP3 Type
Type
Fuel Pressure Limiter
Supply
Supply Sensor
Pump Common-rail
Pump

Injector

Pressure
Switch

Fuel Cooler
Fuel
Fuel cooler
cooler
Fuel cools
cools return
return
SCV Filter fuel
Warning Element fuel
Supplylight
Warning light
Pump Fuel System Element
Fuel Tank
for
for fuel
fuel filter
filter WarningDetects
Light
Detects replacement
replacement
clogging
clogging and and filter
filter type
type
fuel
fuel sedimenter
sedimenter clogging
clogging
Common-rail System
General
This system realize high injection pressure in all speed
range of the engine

NE Signal EDU
Engine
(Operates injector
G Signal ECU at high-speed)
Various
Signals
Fuel Pressure Pressure
Sensor Limiter
Common-rail

(Stores high-pressure fuel)

Injector
(Injects high-pressure fuel)

SCV
Supply Pump Fuel Tank
(Generates high-pressure fuel)

: High-pressure (Max. 160 MPa)


Common-rail System
EDU (Electronic Driver Unit)
Drive the injectors at high speed

EDU
Battery High
DC / DC Voltage
Converter

Command
Pulse
IJT
#1-4
Control
Circuit High-speed
IJF
operation
Confirmation
Engine Pulse Injector
ECU
ECD System Components (DENSO)
EDU (Electric Driver Unit)

[for Resister Type] Voltage


150V

0V Time

#1 IJT#1 INJ#1 Injectors


#2 IJT#2 INJ#2
#3 IJT#3 INJ#3
Engine ECU EDU
#4 IJT#4 INJ#4

INJF IJF COM1

RINJ1 RINJ2 RINJ3 RINJ4


ECD System Components (DENSO)
EDU
150V

Voltage
Battery 0V
EDU Time
+B COM1

High
Voltage
Generation
Circuit
High
Voltage
IJT#1
INJ#1
IJT#2
Control INJ#2
IJT#3
Circuit INJ#3
IJT#4
Engine INJ#4
IJF
ECU

GND GND
ECD System Components (DENSO)
EDU
Injector drive signals

IJT#1

IJF

COM1

INJ#1
System Overview
Main Components for Common-rail System
Shown for the 1KD-FTV engine on the IMV
Engine
Front

Injection Pipe Injector

Fuel Inlet Pipe

Common-rail
Fuel Pressure Sensor
Supply Pump Pressure Limiter
SCV (Suction Control Valve)
Fuel Temp. Sensor
System Overview
Features of Common-rail System

Injection pressure, volume and


timing are controlled electrically High accuracy engine control

High pressure fuel Higher atomization of fuel

High pressure injection in all


Stores high pressure fuel
engine speed range

High performance and fuel economy


Low noise and vibration
Clean emission
System Overview
Difference from Common-rail and Conventional Diesel
Common-rail Diesel Conventional Diesel
Constant high pressure Instantaneously high pressure
Common-rail Pressure
Sensor

System
SCV Governor
EDU Timer

ECU
Injection
Injector Pump
Supply Pump Nozzle
Injection Volume
ECU (Injector) Pump (Governor)
Control
Injection Timing
ECU (Injector) Pump (Timer)
Control
Injection Pressure According to rotational speed
Supply Pump (SCV)
Control and injection quantity
Pressurization Supply Pump Pump
Distribution Common-rail Pump
Injection Pressure Max. 160 MPa Approx. 15 MPa
Common-rail System
Injector
High pressure injection for higher atomization

Injector
Compensation
Code
Return to From
Fuel Tank Common-rail

0.14 mm
4.2. Product Information ( QR Code )
Upper Side

Picture from Upper Side


Injector
Compensation Code
30 digits

QR code
: Quick Response

0.14 mm
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Injector
Small injection hall (0.14
mm)

[Top of Injector]

0.14 mm
Influence on Injector caused by particulate (sand,dust) Fuel
Contamination Fuel Foreign Materials

Seizure of Valve
sliding sticking
surface
Piston Command
sticking

Needle Nozzle
sticking
Fluid Valve Seat
grinding poor seal

Orifice
change flow rate

Injection hole
change flow rate

Nozzle Seat
poor oil
tight
Clogging Injection hole
poor fuel spray
Refer to Case 1
4.2. Product Information ( Plunger Clearance )

X-Sectional
0.5 ~ 1 View of
Cylind m Human Hair INJECTOR
er (Magnification
)

Plunger 60 m
Case 1. Fuel Spray Change caused by Injection Hole Clogging
with Foreign Materials
Bottom view

Normal
Spray

Injection hole clogging

Foreign material
Injection Hole
Clogging
Common-rail System
Injector
Construction

Solenoid Coil

Return to From
Fuel Tank Common-rail

Piston

Nozzle
Spring

Nozzle
Needle
Common-rail System
Injector
Controlled by engine ECU signal

Solenoid
Solenoid

TWV
Small
Orifice Return
From
Common-rail Large
Orifice
Common-rail System
Injector
Pilot injection reduces NOx and engine noise

Main
Injection Pilot
Volume

NOx and
engine noise

Heat
Release
Value

TDC TDC

Pilot Conventional
Injection Control Injection Control
System Overview
Sensors and Actuators

Intake Restrictor
Air Flow Meter Valve (Step Motor)

Atmospheric Intake Air


Temp. Sensor Temp. Sensor

E-VRV (for EGR Turbo Pressure


Valve Control) Sensor

VSV (for EGR


VSV (for Turbo
Valve Close)
Pressure Sensor)

Camshaft
Position Sensor Glow Plug

Injector Water Temp.


Sensor
Crankshaft
Position Sensor

Illustration is for 1CD-FTV on CDE120


ECD System Components (DENSO)
Supply Pump
Supplies the high pressure fuel to the common-rail
HP2 HP3

Type HP2 (Outer Cam) HP3 (Inner cam)


Generation 1st 2nd/3rd
SCV 2 (Time controlled) 1 (Duty-cycle)
Plunger 4 (Radial Type) 2 (Opposite type)
Weight [g (lb.)] 6040 (13.32) 3800 (8.38)
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Supply Pump (HP3)
Construction

Check Eccentric and Delivery


Valve Ring Cam Valve

Plunger
Feed
Pump

Fuel Temp.
Sensor

SCV (Suction
Control Valve)
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Supply Pump (HP3)
Construction
To fuel tank (return)

Ring Cam

Plunger

Eccentric
Cam
Common-rail System
Supply Pump
Supplies the high pressure fuel to the common-rail
Driven by crankshaft

To Common-rail
(Outlet)
From Fuel Filter
(Inlet)

To Fuel Tank
(Return)

SCV
(Suction Control Valve)
Common-rail System
Supply Pump
Fuel flow
To common-rail

From fuel
tank
Common-rail System
Supply Pump Fuel flow
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Supply Pump (HP3)
Suction and pumping operation

Plunger A: Suction Plunger A: Pumping


Plunger B: Pumping Plunger B: Suction
Check
Valve
Plunger A

SCV

Plunger B

: From Feed Pump : To Common-rail


ECD System Components (DENSO)
Supply Pump (HP3)
Suction and pumping operation

Click!
Movie
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening small)
SCV fixed opening during suction stroke

Fuel
Pumping
Mass
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening large)

Fuel
Pumping
Mass
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening small)

Click!
Movie
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening large)

Click!
Movie
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Supply Pump (HP3)
The SCV opening regulates the pumping volume to
control fuel pressure

[Fuel Pressure Control]


Fuel Pressure
Sensor

Common-rail
pressure
SCV (Feedback)

Controls Crankshaft
SCV Calculation of Position Sensor
opening target injection
pressure
Accelerator Pedal
Engine ECU Position Sensor
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Supply Pump
SCV signals

HP3 HP2
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Common-rail
Stores high pressure fuel and supplies to injector
[Three kinds of common-rail]

Pressure
Fuel Pressure Limiter
Sensor

Pressure
Discharge
Valve

Pressure Fuel Pressure


Pressure
Limiter Sensor
Discharge Valve

Engine Stop Idling Full Load

Common-rail Pressure Gradually become 0 MPa 20 180* MPa

*: Depending on the engine types or generations


ECD System Components (DENSO)
Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PCR)
Detects the fuel pressure in common-rail and
provides feedback
To Injector From Supply Pump

Common-rail

[Fuel Pressure Sensor]


Pressure
Sensor Tip Limiter

Common-rail
Pressure
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PCR)

Output characteristic

Output Voltage (V)


4.2

1.0

0 160
Common-rail Pressure (MPa)
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PR, PR2)
With 2 different circuits for

Sensor Output characteristic


Tips

Output Voltage (V)


4.44
3.89
PR (Main)

1.40 PR2 (Sub)


0.85
0 190
Common-rail Pressure (MPa)
: Common-rail Pressure
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Injector
High pressure injection for higher atomization

Solenoid Solenoid
Coil From Coil
Common-rail
Return to
Fuel Tank
Control
Chamber
Nozzle
Spring

Click! Nozzle Piston


Movie Needle

Nozzle
Injector Hole 6 or 8 Spring

Injector Pressure 135 180 MPa


Nozzle
Voltage 150 V Needle
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Injector
Difference in the injection of gasoline and common-rail
[Gasoline Engine] [Common-rail Engine]

Engine
Engine EDU
ECU
ECU

Constant Low Variable High


Pressure Pressure
[Approx. 0.3 MPa] [30 160 MPa]

Injection
Volume
Injection Volume

High
Long
Common-rail
Electricity Time Electricity Time Pressure
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Injector
Injection volume correction
Injector compensation code

Injector
Compensation Code
QR Code Compensation Code Type (QR Code)

Injection Quantity
Activation Pulse Correction TQ

Laser Marking : Correction Point


ECD System Components (DENSO)
Injector
Injection volume correction
Difference between compensation code and one fixed
resistance value

Correction Resister Type Compensation Code Type (QR Code)


Injection Quantity

Injection Quantity
Activation Pulse Correction TQ Activation Pulse Correction TQ

: Correction Point
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Overview ECU Inputs

Basic Parameters
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (VA)
Injector
Correction Parameters
Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)
EDU
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Fuel Temp. Sensor (THF)
EGR Valve
Air Flow Meter (VG) Engine
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM) ECU

Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)
Fuel Pressure Sensor (PCR)
Ignition Switch (STA)
Blower Switch (BLW) DLC3
A/C Amplifier (AC)
Alternator (ALT)
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Overview ECU Outputs

Injector (Timing and duration)

Pressure Discharge Valve

Suction Control Valve

EDU (Power supply)


Various Sensor
Engine
Intake Restrictor Valve
ECU

VN Turbo (Nozzle vane control)

Glow Plug

EGR Valve

DLC3
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)

Crankshaft Position Sensor


ECD System Components (DENSO)
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (VPA, VPA2)

Magnets

Hall
ICs
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Air Flow Meter [Hot Wire Type] (VG)

Temp.
Sensing
Element

Intake Air
Temp. Sensor

Platinum Hot
Wire Element
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)

Turbo Pressure
Sensor

Engine
ECU

VSV (for Turbo


Pressure Sensor)
ECD System Components (DENSO)
EGR System
System diagram
Intake Restrictor Valve
Position Sensor
Crankshaft
Position Sensor
Accelerator Pedal
Intake Restrictor
Intake
Valve Control Motor
Position Sensor
Restrictor Engine Water Temp.
Valve ECU Sensor
Turbo Pressure
EGR Valve Vacuum Sensor
Position Pump Atmospheric Intake Air Temp.
Sensor Pressure Sensor
Sensor

Vacuum
Damper

EGR Valve
E-VRV
(for EGR valve control)
Engine
ECD System Components (DENSO)
EGR System
EGR valve (Step Motor Type)

EGR Valve
(Step Motor)

To Intake
Manifold
EGR
Valves
From
Exhaust
Manifold
ECD System Components (DENSO)
EGR System
EGR valve (Linear Solenoid Type)

EGR Valve
Position
Sensor

Linear
Solenoid

To Intake
EGR Manifold
Valves
From
Exhaust
Manifold
ECD System Components (DENSO)
EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Step Motor Type)

Air Out
Intake
Reduction Gears Restrictor Valve

Air IN
Step Motor
Throttle Valve Fully Opened Switch
ECD System Components (DENSO)
EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Rotary Solenoid Type)
A quick response and high precise are realized by
driving a direct valve shaft

Rotary Solenoid Type


Torque Motor
Intake Restrictor Valve
Position Sensor

Magnet
Steel Layer
Hall IC

Magnet
Magnet
ECD System Components (DENSO)
EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Rotary Solenoid Type)
Intake restrictor shutter valve position sensor

Magnet

Hall IC 5

Output Voltage (V)


VC 3.51

VLU
Engine
ECU 1
0.71
E2 0
0 20 70 100
(Full Close) (Full Open)
Intake Shutter
Intake Shutter Valve
Valve Position Opening Angle (deg)
Sensor
ECD System Components (DENSO)
Variable Nozzle Vane Type Turbocharger
Nozzle Vane Position Sensor
Non-contact type position sensor

Hall ICs
Output characteristic of
main, sub sensor

Output Voltage (V)


4.5

n
Magnets Ope
Cross-section 2.5 VN
se
N Cl o
0 V
0.5

-55 55 -55 0 55
Sensor shaft rotation angle ()
Common-rail System
Diagnosis
DTCs for common-rail system

Trouble Area Detection Condition Fail-safe

DTC No. Detection Item Trouble Area

Open or short in EDU circuit


P0200 EDU
Injector Circuit / Open
(97) Injector
Engine ECU

Open or short in (SCV) circuit


P0627 Fuel Pump Control Circuit
SCV
(78) / Open
Engine ECU

Short in supply pump (SCV) circuit


P1229
Fuel Pump System Supply pump (SCV)
(78)
Engine ECU

Injector Correction
P1601 Injector compensation code
Circuit Malfunction
(89) Engine ECU
(EEPROM)