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Period 6:1865-1898

The transformation of the Unites States

from and agricultural to an increasingly
industrialized and urbanized society
brought about significant economic,
political, diplomatic, social,
environmental and cultural changes.

6.1 Industrialism in the Glided Age

Themes Industrialism

Industrialization radically transformed

the practices of labor and the condition
of American working people. But
despite frequent industrial strife and
the efforts of various reformers and
unions, workers failed to develop
effective labor organizations to match
the corporate forms of business.
Rise of the Labor Movement
Working Conditions:
Unskilled workers were expendable
Conditions dismal and impersonal
Federal Courts ruled in favor of Corporations
State Troops would break strikes
Yellow Dog or Iron Clad Oaths
Scabs or Strikebreakers
Rise of the Labor Movement
Demands of Workers: (Bread and Butter
8 Hour Work Days
Higher Pay
Improved Working Conditions
Rise of the Labor Movement
Tools Used by Workers:
Formation of Unions
Fought back w/ Picket Lines (Protesting)
Fought back w/ Strikes (Walk-Outs)
Fought back w/ Boycotts
Closed Shops (v. Open Shop)
Collective Bargaining
History of Unions
National Labor Union (1866-1870s)
Brought together skilled craft unions (trade
unions) into one large one.
Great Railroad Strike (1877)
First nationwide strike (100,000 workers)
President Hayes used Federal troops; establishing
a precedent for future federal intervention.
Knights of Labor (1870s-1890s)
Sought to include all workers in one big union
including skilled and unskilled/blacks and women.
Great Railroad Strike 1877
Great Railroad Strike 1877
Great Railroad Strike 1877
History of Unions
Knights of Labor
Fought for an 8hr work day and higher pay
Demise was the Great Upheaval (1886)
1,400 strikes involving 500,000 workers.
Haymarket Square Bombing Chicago
Anarchists used a dynamite bomb that killed 16
Five anarchists sentenced to death and resulted in
the first blown red-scare in our nations history.
Knights of labor became associated with anarchists
Haymarket Square Bombing
History of Unions
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Formed in 1886 by Samuel Gompers
Consisted of an association of self-governing
national unions with the AFL unifying overall
By 1900, 500,000 workers but did not include
Bread and Butter Issues
Other Strikes
Homestead Strike (1892)
Pullman Strike (1894)
Samuel Gompers
Homestead Strike - 1892
Homestead Strike 1892 State militia entering Homestead, Pa., to put down the strike
Pullman Strike 1894 Pullman Palace Car Company
Pullman Strike 1894 Pullman Company Town
Pullman Strike - 1894
Results of Union Efforts
1881-1900: 23,000 Strikes Occurred
6.6 Million Workers were involved
Yet, the biggest weakness was that the
strikes only included 3% of the workers
on the country.
However, the public finally began to
accept some demands: right to
organize, collect bargaining, and
strikes. Labor Day