Sie sind auf Seite 1von 17

Override control System

by
Ashvani shukla
Dy.Manager (C&I)
BGR ENERGY SYSTEMS LTD.

1
i. INDEX

ii. Introduction.
iii. Definition.

iv. Block diagram.

v. Description of loop.

vi. Advantage.

vii. Disadvantage.

2
Introduction.

Override control are generally used for protection of system


during the surge in process. Override control is a control method
that is used to select the most critical value of process variable
from a set of measurement to control the output. Override
means to make preference over a pre-existing control loop or
bypass the running loop and take over the override control
depends upon criticalness of process. This situation usually
arises when two or more variables in a system have to be
controlled so that they do not surpass certain limits. These
constraints usually arise from safety concerns, issues with
efficiency, and economics of the process. these controllers are
used in case where a choice must be made between inputs, such
as emergencies that fix problems. Two signal selectors are used
in order to select an output will be minimum or maximum.

3
Definition
In a Override control process, a selector is used. The
two basic types of these override controllers(Selectors)
are high selectors and low selectors. They are generally
available as both electronic and pneumatic selectors.
Selectors are also available in a number of different
versions that will accommodate for varying amounts of
input signals. Two ormoreinputs are placed into the
selector and one output comes out depending on the
selector.
High Selectors
High selectors are designed so that they filter out all but
the highest value from a multiple input feed stream.
The selector then sends this single highest value
through to the output signal.

4
Continue
Input 1

Output

Input 2

HIGH SELECT SWITCH

5
Continue..
Low Selectors
Low selectors are designed so that they
filter out all but the lowest value from a
multiple input feed stream. The selector
then sends this single lowest value through
to the output signal.
Input 1

Output

Input 2

6
PUMP Discharge
SUCTION

PT

PV
Motor
M
PI
TANK C
sv
output

PY

7
Fig-1
ContinueDescription of
loop
Override controls
An override control strategy involves a selection between two or
more controlleroutputsignals , where only one controller at a time
gets the opportunity to exert control over a process. All other de-
selected controllers are thus overriddenby the selected controller.
Consider in Fig-1 the water pumping system, where a water pump is
driven by a variable-speed electric motor to draw water from a well
and provide constant water pressure to a customer.
Incidentally, this is an excellent application for a variable-speed
motor as the final control element rather than a control valve.
Reducing pump speed in low-flow conditions will save a lot of
energy over time compared to the energy that would be wasted by
a constant-speed pump and control valve. A potential problem with
this system is the pump running dry if the water level in the well
gets too low, as might happen during summer months when rainfall
is low and customer demand is high. If the pump runs for too long
with no water passing through it, the seals will become damaged.
This will necessitate a complete shut-down and costly rebuild of the
pump, right at the time customers need it the most.
8
PUMP Discharge
SUCTION

PT
LS

PV
Motor
M
PI
TANK C
sv

PY

9
Fig-2
Continue..
One solution to this problem in Fig-2 would be to install
a level switch in the well, sensing water level and
shutting off the electric motor driving the pump if the
water level ever gets too low.
This may be considered a kind of override strategy,
because the low-level switch over-rides the pressure
controllers command for the pump to turn. It is also a
crude solution to the problem, for while it protects the
pump from damage, it does so at the cost of
completely shutting off water to customers. One way to
describe this control strategy would be to call it ahard
overridesystem, suggesting the uncompromising
action it will take to protect the pump.

10
Continue..
A better solution to the dilemma would be to have the pump
merely slow down as the well water level approaches a low-
level condition. This way at least the pump could be kept
running (and some amount of pressure maintained),
decreasing demand on the well while maintaining curtailed
service to customers and still protecting the pump from dry-
running. This would be termed aSoft overridesystem.
From Fig-3 We may create just such a control strategy by
replacing the well water level switch with a
leveltransmitter, connecting the level transmitter to a level
controller, and using a low-select relay or function block to
select the lowest-valued output between the pressure and
level controllers. The level controllers setpoint will be set at
some low level above the acceptable limit for continuous
pump operation:

11
Continue.
If ever the wells water level goes below this set
point, the level controller will command the pump to
slow down, even if the pressure controller is calling
for a higher speed. The level controller will
haveoverriddenthe pressure controller, prioritizing
pump longevity over customer demand. Bear in
mind that the concept of a low-level switch
completely shutting off the pump is not an entirely
bad idea. In fact, it might be prudent to integrate
such a hard shutdown control in the override
control system, just in case something goes wrong
with the level controller (e.g. an improperly adjusted
set point or poor tuning) or the low-select function.

12
PUMP
SUCTION

PT
LT S
P
PV
M Motor
LIC PI
TANK C
sv

PY

13
Fig-3
Continue
From Fig-4 With two layers of safety control for the pump, this system
provides both a soft constraint providing moderated action and a hard
constraint providing aggressive action to protect the pump from dry
operation:
In order that these two levels of pump protection work in the proper
order, the level controllers (LC) set point needs to be set to a higher value
than the low level alarms (LAL) trip point. A very important consideration
for any override control strategy is how to manage integral windup. Any
time a controller with any integral (reset) action at all is de-selected by the
selector function, the integral term of the controller will have the tendency
to wind up (or wind down) over time. With the output of that controller de-
coupled from the final control element, it can have no effect on the
process variable. Thus, integral control action the purpose of which being
to constantly drive the output signal in the direction necessary to achieve
zero error between process variable and setpoint will work in vain to
eliminate an error it cannot influence. If and when control is handed back
to that controller, the integral action will have to spend time winding the
other way to un-do what it did while it was de-selected.
Thus, override controls demand some form of integral windup limits that
engage when a controller is de-selected. Methods of accomplishing this
14 function are discussed in an earlier section on limit controls.
PUMP
SUCTION

PT
LT S
P
PV
M Motor
LIC PI
C
sv
L
S
PY
TANK

15
Fig-4
SYMBOLS
PT, Pressure transmitters.
PV, Process variables.
SV, Set variables.
PIC, Pressure controller.
LIC, Level controller.
PY, Override control selector.
LT & LS, Level transmitter & Switch.

16
Advantages
Different switchover criteria can be used for an override control
scheme. It depends on the given application which switchover
logic is favorable.
Using the limiting control with selection via controlled variables,
a secondary controlled variable can be limited in both
directions, preventing violations of upper and lower limits.
Using an override control scheme with maximum/minimum
selection of the manipulated variables, the secondary controlled
variable can be limited only in one direction, either protecting
upper or lower limits. However this scheme avoids the limit
cycle when the secondary controller accesses the actuator.
Disadvantages
However this scheme should be applied only if the secondary
regulator is rarely needed.
It is used only when we required certain level of protection for
device.
We cant use it for continuous measurement.

17