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Chapter Objectives

Understand the behavior of columns and concept of


critical load and buckling
Determine the axial load needed to buckle a so-called
ideal column
Determine the effective length of a column with
various end-conditions
Design a realistic column against buckling
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In-class Activities
1. Reading Quiz
2. Applications
3. Critical Load
4. Ideal Column
5. Columns having various end conditions
6. Secant formula for design of a column subjected to
eccentric load

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In-class Activities (cont)
7. Inelastic buckling
8. Allowable stress in design practice
9. Design practice for a column subjected to eccentric
load
10. Concept Quiz

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READING QUIZ

1) When a long slender column subjected to an


axial compressive force equals to its critical
load,

a) the column is in stable equilibrium

b) the column is in unstable equilibrium

c) the column is in neutral equilibrium

d) there is only one possible deflected shape

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READING QUIZ (cont)

2) A long slender column

a) fails due to inelastic instability

b) will become unstable while the compressive stress remains


elastic

c) will never become unstable

d) has a very small slenderness ratio

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APPLICATIONS

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APPLICATIONS (cont)

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APPLICATIONS (cont)

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CRITICAL LOAD
Long slender members subjected to an axial
compressive force are called columns, and the lateral
deflection that occurs is called buckling.
The maximum axial load that a column can support
when it is on the verge of buckling is called the critical
load.

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CRITICAL LOAD (cont)
From the free-body diagram:
2 P tan F k k L / 2

For small , tan ,

2 P k L / 2
P kL / 4 (independent of )

Note:
This loading (Pcr = kL/4) represents a case of the
mechanism being in neutral equilibrium. Since Pcr is
independent of , any slight disturbance given to the
mechanism will not cause it to move further out of
equilibrium, nor will it be restored to its original position.
Instead, the bars will remain in the deflected position.
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IDEAL COLUMN
Ideal column
It is perfectly straight before loading
Both ends are pin-supported
Loads are applied throughout the centroid of the cross section

Behavior
When P < Pcr, the column remains straight.
When P = Pcr,
d 2v
EI 2 M Pv
dx
d 2v P
2
v0
dx EI
P P
v C1 sin x C2 cos
x
EI EI

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IDEAL COLUMN (cont)
Since v = 0 at x = 0, then C2 = 0

P
Since v = 0 at x = L, then C1 sin L 0
EI

P
Therefore, sin L 0
EI

P
Which is satisfied if sin L n
EI
n 2 2 EI
Or P 2
where n 1,2,3,...
L

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IDEAL COLUMN (cont)
2 EI
Smallest value at P is when n = 1, thus Pcr L2
2E
Corresponding stress is cr
KL / r 2
Where r = (I/A) is called radius of gyration

(L/r) is called the slenderness ratio.

The critical-stress curves are


hyperbolic, valid only for cr
is below yield stress

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EXAMPLE 1
The A-36 steel W200 46 member shown in Fig. 138 is to be
used as a pin-connected column. Determine the largest axial
load it can support before it either begins to buckle or the steel
yields.

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EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
From Appendix B,

A 5890 mm 2 , I x 45.5 106 mm 4 , I y 15.3 106 mm 4

By inspection, buckling will occur about the yy axis.

2 EI 2 200 106 15.3 10 4 1 / 1000


4
Pcr 2 1887.6 kN
L 42
When fully loaded, the average compressive stress in the column is
Pcr 1887.6 1000
cr 320.5 N/mm 2
A 5890
Since this stress exceeds the yield stress,
P
250 P 1472.5 kN 1.47 MN (Ans)
5890

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COLUMNS HAVING VARIOUS END-
CONDITIONS
Consider the moment-deflection equation for the
cantilevered column, which is fixed at the base.
d 2v
EI 2 P v
dx
P
EIV v where
2 2 2

EI

The solution is v C1 sin x C2 cos x

Since v = 0 at x = 0, so that C2

Also, v' C1 cos x C2 sin x

Since v = 0 at x = 0, so that C1 0

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COLUMNS HAVING VARIOUS END-CONDITIONS
(cont)
v 1 cos x x 0
Hence

Since v = at x = L, thus
cos L 0
n
cos L 0 or L
2

The smallest critical load


occurs when n = 1, thus
2 EI 2 EI
Pcr or Pcr with k 2
4L 2
kL 2

k is called the effective-length factor

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COLUMNS HAVING VARIOUS END-CONDITIONS
(cont)
k for various end conditions:

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EXAMPLE 2
A W150 24 steel column is 8 m long and is fixed at its ends as
shown in Fig. 1311a. Its load-carrying capacity is increased by
bracing it about the yy (weak) axis using struts that are
assumed to be pin connected to its mid-height. Determine the
load it can support so that the column does not buckle nor the
material exceed the yield stress. Take Est = 200 GPa and Y =
410 MPa.

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EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions
Effective length for buckling about the xx and yy axis is
KL x 0.5 8 4 m 4000 mm
KL y 0.7 8 / 2 2.8 m 2800 mm
From the table in Appendix B,

I x 13.4 106 mm 4
Iy 1.8310 mm
6 4

Applying Eq. 1311,

Pcr x

2 EI 2 200 13.4106
1653.2 kN (1)
KL x
2
4000 2

Pcr x

2 EI 2 200 1.8310 6
460.8 kN (2)
KL y
2
2800 2

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EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions
By comparison, buckling will occur about the yy axis.

The average compressive stress in the column is

Per 460.8103
cr 150.6 N/mm 2 150.6 MPa
A 3060
Since this stress is less than the yield stress,
buckling will occur before the material yields.

Thus, Pcr 461 kN (Ans)

From Eq. 1312 it can be seen that buckling will always


occur about the column axis having the largest
slenderness ratio, since it will give a small critical stress

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SECANT FORMULA

For design of a column subjected to eccentric load,


consider the moment-curvature equation
EIV ' ' M P e v
P
or v' '2 v' ' 2 e where 2
EI

The solution is v C1 sin x C2 cos x e

Since v = 0 at x = 0, so C2 = e
L L L
Since 1 cos x 2 sin 2 and sin x 2 sin 2 cos
2 2 2
L
C
So, 1 e tan
2

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SECANT FORMULA (cont)

Hence, v e tan sin x cos x 1
2

And vmax x L 2 e sec 2 1

Note: A nonlinear relationship occurs between the load


P and the defection v. As a result, the principle of
superposition does not apply here.

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SECANT FORMULA (cont)

Maximum moment occurs at the columns midpoint, i.e.


L
M P e vmax or M Pe
2
Hence the maximum stress is

P Mc P Pe c L
max sec
A I A I 2
P ec L P
Or, max 1 2 sec
A r 2 EA

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SECANT FORMULA (cont)

Design curves:
The above equation for maximum stress max is
transcendental, and cannot be solved explicitly.
Graphs to aid designer are available.

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EXAMPLE 3
The W200 x 59 A-36 steel column shown in Fig. 1317a is fixed
at its base and braced at the top so that it is fixed from
displacement, yet free to rotate about the yy axis. Also, it can
sway to the side in the yz plane. Determine the maximum
eccentric load the column can support before it either begins to
buckle or the steel yields.

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EXAMPLE 3 (cont)
Solutions
For yy axis buckling, it is subjected to an axial load P.
2 EI y 2 200 103 20.4 106
Pcr y 5136 kN
KL 2y 2800 2

For xx axis yielding, it is subjected to an axial load P and moment M.

P ec KL x Px


Y x 1 2 sec
A rx 2rx EA

1.895 106 Px 1 2.598 sec 1.143 10 3 Px
Px 419368 N 419.4 kN (Ans)

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INELASTIC BUCKLING

In engineering practice, column are generally classified


according to the type of stresses developed within the
column at the time of failure.

Long slender columns will become unstable when the


compressive stress remain elastic. It is referred as
elastic instability.

Intermediate Columns fail due to inelastic instability,


meaning that compressive stress at failure is greater
than the materials proportional limit (pl)

Short Column do not become unstable; rather the


material simply yields or fractures.

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INELASTIC BUCKLING (cont)

Consider a column having a slenderness ratio KL/r. The


formula for critical stress depends on the value of the
slenderness ratio.
When kL/r (kl/r)pl, apply the Enlans formula.
When kL/r (kl/r)pl, apply the Engessen formula.

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EXAMPLE 4
A solid rod has a diameter of 30 mm and is 600 mm long. It is
made of a material that can be modeled by the stressstrain
diagram shown in Fig. 1319. If it is used as a pin-supported
column, determine the critical load.

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Solutions
I / 415 4
The radius of gyration is r 7.5 mm
15
2
A

KL 1 600
The slenderness ratio is 80
r 7.5

2 Et
Engesser equation states that cr 1.54210 3 Et
KL r 2

150
For elastic critical stress, E 150 GPa thus cr 231.3 MPa
0.001

Inelastic buckling occurs since cr pl 150 MPa

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Solutions
From the second line segment of the graph,

270 150
Et 120 GPa
0.002 0.001

Applying the value, we have


cr 1.54210 3 120103 185.1 MPa

Since this value falls within the limits of 150 MPa and 270 MPa, it is
critical stress.

The critical load on the rod is therefore


Pcr cr A 185.1 0.015 131 kN (Ans)
2

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ALLOWABLE STRESS IN DESIGN PRACTICE

Practically, columns are not perfectly straight as


assumed in theory. By performing experimental tests
on a large number of axially loaded columns, the
results may be plotted and a design formula developed
by curve-fitting the mean of the data.

Note: The experimental curve is similar to that


determined from the secant formula. It accounts for the
influence of an accidental eccentricity ratio on the
columns strength.

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ALLOWABLE STRESS IN DESIGN PRACTICE
(cont)
For steel columns:

1 E 2 12 2 E KL KL
Y allow for 200
KL r c2 23 KL r
2
2 r c r

KL 2 2 E

r c Y
KL r
2
Y
1 2
2 KL r c
allow
5 3 3 8 KL r / KL r c KL r 3 / 8 KL r 3c

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ALLOWABLE STRESS IN DESIGN PRACTICE
(cont)
For aluminum columns:

KL
allow 195 MPa 0 12
r
KL KL
allow 214.5 1.628 MPa 12 55
r r
378125 KL
allow 55
KL r 2 r

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ALLOWABLE STRESS IN DESIGN PRACTICE
(cont)
For timber columns:

KL
allow 8.25 MPa 0 11
d
1 KL / d
2
KL
allow 8.25 1 MPa 11 26
3 26.0 r
3718 MPa KL
allow 26 50
KL d 2
r

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EXAMPLE 5
An A-36 steel W250 x 149 member is used as a pin-supported
column, Fig. 1324. Using the AISC column design formulas,
determine the largest load that it can safely support.

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EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Solutions
From Appendix B, A 19000 mm rx 117 mm ry 67.4 mm
2

KL 1 5000
Since k = 1 for both x and y axis buckling, 74.18
r 67.4
From Eq. 1322, we have
KL

2 2 E


2 2 200 103
125.66
r c Y 250

Here 0 KL / r KL / r c , so
KL r
2
Y
1 2
2 KL r c
allow
5 3 3 8 KL r / KL r c KL r / 8 KL r c
3 3
110 .85 MPa

The allowable load P on the column is therefore


P P
allow ; 110 .85 P 2106 kN (Ans)
A 19000
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DESIGN OF COLUMNS FOR ECCENTRIC
LOADING
Method 1: Use available column formula
P Mc
max where M = Pe such that max allow
A I

Method 2: Use Interaction Formula


a a
1 where a denotes the stress due to axial load,
a allow a allow b denotes the stress due to bending

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EXAMPLE 6
The column in Fig. 1329 is made of aluminum alloy 2014-T6
and is used to support an eccentric load P. Determine the
maximum magnitude of P that can be supported if the column is
fixed at its base and free at its top. Use Eq. 1330.

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EXAMPLE 6 (cont)
Solutions
From Fig. 1310b, K = 2.The largest slenderness ratio for the column is
therefore KL 1600
277.1
r 1 / 12 80 40 / 4080
3

By inspection, Eq. 1326 must be used (277.1 > 55). Thus,


378125 378125
allow 4.92 MPa
KL / r 277.1
2 2

The maximum compressive stress in the column is determined from the


combination of axial load and bending.
P Pe c
max 0.00078125 P
A I

Assuming that this stress is uniform over the cross section, we require
allow max ; 4.92 0.00078125 P P 6.30 kN (Ans)

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EXAMPLE 7
The timber column in Fig. 1331 is made from two boards
nailed together so that the cross section has the dimensions
shown. If the column is fixed at its base and free at its top, use
Eq. 1330 to determine the eccentric load P that can be
supported.

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EXAMPLE 7 (cont)
Solutions
KL 21200
Since K = 2, 40
d 60

Since 26 < KL/d < 50, the allowable axial stress is

3718 3718
allow 2.324 MPa
KL / d 40
2 2

With allow = max,

P Mc
allow
A I
P P
2.324
60120 1 12 600 120 3
P 3.35 kN (Ans)

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CONCEPT QUIZ

1) Which of the following statements is


incorrect?

a) As the slenderness ratio increases, eccentrically loaded columns


tend to fail at near the Euler buckling load.

b) Buckling will occur about the axis where the slenderness ratio
gives the greatest value.

c) Practically, a column will never suddenly buckle, instead it begins


to bend when an axial load is applied.

d) For an eccentrically column, the principle of superposition


applies as long as its compressive stress remains elastic.

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