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Sampling Techniques

LEARNING OBJECTIVES :

After studying this module, participants will be able


to :
1. Identify and define the population to be studied.
2. Identify and describe common methods of sampling.
3. Discuss problems of bias that should be avoided when selecting a
sample.
4. Use random number tables and
5. Use random allocation (randomization) in experimental studies /
clinical trials.
Sampling
Research Problem

Study Population

Study Units

the selection of a number of study units from a defined


study population
Research Question :
1. To assess the magnitude of health problem or health factors
2. To assess the efficacy of an intervention
3. To assess the causal relation between one factor or set of
factors and the disease or outcome of interest; or
4. To assess the natural history of disease
Population :
The whole collection of units (individuals, cases, events) from
which a sample may be drawn; and which must be defined
geographically and temporally.

Reference Population :
This is abstract concept of the people to whom the researcher
wishes to refer results. Also known as the target population.

Source Population :
This is where the population that is included in the study
actually comes from and its specifications will be more limited
than the reference population.
Sampling Frame (kerangka sampling):
Daftar dari unit sampling yang akan dipilih.

Sample :
Sebagian yang diambil dari populasi.

Study Sample (unit Sampling) :


Unit terkecil yang akan dipilih secara sampling, misal orang,
kepala keluarga, desa, dsb.
Reference Population

Source Population

Sampling Frame

Sample
Contoh :
A researcher wants to study the prevalence of hearing
defects in Indonesian High School Children.

Reference Population :
Source Population :
Sampling Frame :
Sample :
Sample Subjects :
Examples
Problem Study population Study unit

Malnutrition related to All children 6-24 One child between 6


weaning in District X months of age in and 24 months in
District X District X
High drop-out rates in All primary schools One primary school
primary schools in in District Y in District Y
District Y
Inappropriate record- All records on One record on a
keeping for records on hypertensive hypertensive patient
hypertensive patients patients in hospital Z registered in
registered in hospital hospital Z
Z
Main Principle

Research Methodology:
-Study Design
-Data Collection
-Sampling Representative
etc

Validity of Research Results/Conclusions


Sampling Techniques

I . Non Probability Sampling :

1. Convenience sampling
2. Quota sampling
3. Judgement/purposive sampling
4. Snowball sampling
II. Probability Sampling
1. Simple random sampling
2. Systematic sampling
3. Stratified sampling
4. Cluster sampling
5. Multistage sampling
CONVENIENCE SAMPLING is a method in
which for convenience sake the study units
that happen to be available at the time of
data collection are selected in the sample.

QUOTA SAMPLING is a method that ensures


that a certain number of sample units from
different categories with specific
characteristics appear in the sample so that
all these characteristics are represented.
Simple Random Sampling
This is the simplest form of probability
sampling. To select a simple random sample
you need to :
Make a numbered list of all units in the
population from which you want to draw a
sample.
Decide on the size of the sample (this will be
discussed later).
Select the required number of sampling units,
using a lottery method or a table of random
numbers.
Systematic Sampling
In a SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING
individuals are chosen at regular intervals
(for example every fifth) from the sampling
frame. Ideally we randomly select a number
to tell us where to start selecting individuals
from the list.
Stratified Sampling
the sample includes representative groups
of study units with specific characteristics
(for example, residents from urban and rural
areas, or different age groups),
the sampling frame must be divided into
groups, or STRATA, according to these
characteristics.
Random or systematic samples of a
predetermined size will then have to be
obtained from each group (stratum).
Cluster Sampling
The selection of groups of study units
(clusters) instead of the selection of study
units individually.
Multistage sampling
In very large and diverse populations
sampling may be done in two or more
stages.
This is often the case in community-based
studies, in which people to be interviewed
are from different villages, and the villages
have to be chosen from different areas.
BIAS IN SAMPLING

Bias in sampling is a systematic error in sampling


procedures that leads to a distortion in the results of the
study.
There are several possible sources of bias in sampling.
The best known source of bias is nonresponse.
There are several ways to deal with the problem and reduce
the possibility of bias :

- Data collection tools have to be pretested.


- If nonresponse is due to absence of the subjects, follow-up of

nonrespondents may be considered,


- If nonresponse is due to refusal to cooperate, an extra,
separate study of nonrespondents may be considered to
Random number tables :

How to use random number tables

1. First, decide how large a number you need. Next, count if it


a one, two, or larger digit number. For example, if your
sampling frame consists of 500 units, you must use three
digits.

2. Decide beforehand whether you are going to go across the


page to the right, down the page, across the page to the left
L, or up the page.
How to use random number tables :

3. Without looking at the table, and using a pencil, pen, stick,


or even your finger, pin-point a number.
4. If this number is within the range you need, take it. If not,
continue to the next number in the direction you chose
before-hand, (across, up or down the page), until you find a
number that is within the range you need.
Random Number (example) :
---------------------------------------------------------
Coloumn
---------------------------------------------------------
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4
---------------------------------------------------------
3 6 4 5 8 8 3 1 2 8 7 3 5 9
9 0 5 1 4 0 6 6 1 8 4 6 9 5
9 8 4 1 9 0 2 2 4 8 3 7 8 0
5 5 2 5 7 1 2 7 1 4 6 8 6 4
0 2 9 9 1 0 7 5 7 7 2 1 8 8
7 9 8 5 5 5 6 6 6 3 8 4 0 8
etc
---------------------------------------------------------
CLASS EXERCISES
Indicate and discuss an appropriate sampling procedure for use in the following situations
(also define : study population; study unit and sampling frame).

1. To estimate the prevalence of malnutrition of children under-five years of age in sub


district X.
If the population divided into 5 sub villages (each village is heterogenous), all of
children in the village are registered.

2. To estimate the regional distribution of patients who attended a big teaching hospital
in a 12-month period.

3. To select 25 % of patients for interview among those attending a physicians clinic in


a single day.

4. To estimate the proportion of family planning acceptors based on type of


contraception in West-Java.

5. How to make random allocation, if in the experimental study we have 2 treatments


and 30 patients. (use : simple randomization and random permuted blocks).

6. The same with no 5. but we have 3 treatments.


Random allocation

Random allocation : only in experimental study.

Rationale :
1. Avoid selection bias in treatment assignment
2. Distribute patients variables among treatment groups by
chance alone
3. Equal prognostic composition valid comparison
4. Permit use of statistical tests.
Random allocation

The basic types of randomization :


A. Fixed randomization
1. Simple randomization
2. Random permuted Blocks
3. Stratified randomization

B. Adaptive randomization
1. Number adaptive
2. Baseline adaptive
3. Outcome adaptive

C. Others