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Poroelasticity

Poroelasticity

Poroelasticity is a continuum theory for the analysis of

a porous media consisting of an elastic matrix

containing interconnected fluid-saturated pores.

In physical terms, the theory postulates that when a

porous material is subjected to stress, the resulting

matrix deformation leads to volumetric changes in the

pores.

Since the pores are fluid-filled, the presence of the

fluid not only acts as a stiffener of the material, but

also results in the flow of the pore fluid (diffusion)

between regions of higher and lower pore pressure.

If the fluid is viscous the behavior of the material

system becomes time dependent.

Biot

Biot in a series of classic papers spread over

a 20 year period (Biot, 1941a, 1955, 1956a,

1962; Biot and Willis, 1957) proposed the

phenomenological model for such a material

generally adopted today.

The application of the theory has generally

concerned soil consolidation (quasi-static)

and wave propagation (dynamic) problems in

geomechanics.

Biot Diffusion-Deformation Model

The classical linear model of transient flow and deformation of a

homogeneous fully saturated elastic porous medium depends

on an appropriate coupling of the fluid pressure and solid stress.

The total stress consists of both the effective stress, given by

the strain of the structure, and the pore-pressure, arising from

the fluid.

The local storage of fluid mass results from increments in the

density of the fluid and the dilation of the structure.

The combinations of the fluid mass conservation with Darcys

law for laminar flow, and of the momentum balance equations

with Hookes law for elastic deformation, result in the Biot

diffusion-deformation model of poroelasticity.

Constitutive Equations

The poroelastic constitutive equations are simple

generalizations of linear elasticity whereby the fluid

pressure field is incorporated in a fashion entirely

analogous to the manner in which the temperature

field is incorporated in thermo-elasticity.

Two basic phenomena underlie poroelastic behavior:

solid-to-fluid coupling occurs when a change in applied

stress produces a change in fluid pressure or fluid mass;

fluid-to-solid coupling occurs when a change in fluid

pressure or fluid mass is responsible for a change in the

volume of the porous material.

Uncoupled Problem

The magnitude of the solid-to-fluid coupling depends on the

compressibility of the framework of the porous material, the

compressibility of the pores, the compressibility of the solid

grains, the compressibility of the pore fluid, and the porosity.

If only fluid-to-solid coupling were important, the flow field can

be solved independently of the stress field.

The stress field (and hence strain and displacement fields)

can be calculated as functions of position and time once the

flow field has been determined as a function of position and

time.

This one-way coupling known as the uncoupled problem and

allows some groundwater flow models to successfully predict

subsidence.

Coupled Problem

When the time-dependent changes in stress feed

back significantly to the pore pressure, two-way

coupling is important, and is called the coupled

problem.

Applied stress changes in fluid-saturated porous

materials typically produce significant changes in pore

pressure, and this direction of coupling is significant.

For this reason, it may be necessary to consider the

loading effects of large piles of waste materials in

groundwater flow models employed in the mining

industry.

Effective Stress

Before proceeding to general poroelasticity, we will

review the simple case of 1-D consolidation.

The effective stress principle gives:

= + p

where is the total stress, is the effective stress

and p is the pore pressure

Under constant total stress conditions, a change in

pore pressure generates an equal and opposite

change in effective stress:

d = d+ dp = 0

d= -dp = -wgdh

Water Compressibility

For isothermal compressibility of water:

w = 1/Kw = -(1/Vw)Vw/p

where w is the compressibility of water, Kw is the bulk

modulus of compression of water, Vw is the volume of

water and p is the pore pressure.

Mass conservation requires:

wdVw + Vwdw = 0

Using the definition of compressibility:

dVw = -Vwdw/w = -Vw wdp

dVw is the volume change due to compression of

water as a result of a pore pressure increase dp.

Pore Compressibility

The bulk compressibility of a poroelastic material

under one dimensional compression is given by:

b = 1/Kb = -(1/Vb)Vb/ = -(1/Vp)Vp/ = p = 1/Hp

where Vb is the bulk volume and Vp is the pore

volume. Kb is the bulk modulus of compression and

Hp is a vertical bulk modulus of pore compression.

For incompressible grains: Vb = Vp

For or a total volume change dVb:

dVb = dVp = -pVbd = pVpdp

dVp is the pore volume change as a result of an

effective stress change -d = dp

Total Volume Change

The total volume change is:

dVp - dVw = pVbdp + wVwdp

The water volume Vw = nVb so the volume change is:

dVp - dVw = pVbdp + nwVbdp = Vb(p + nw)dp

From the expression for total head where z is a

constant:

h = z + p/wg or p = wgh - wgz

dp = wgdh

Note the implicit assumption in this conversion is that

w is not a function of pressure.

Hence: dVp - dVw = Vb(p + nw)wgdh

Total Stress Change

The effective stress principle for hydrostatic

conditions gives:

= + p

Consider an excess pore pressure p as a result of

an applied total stress increment

+ = + (p + p)

Flow occurs in order to dissipate the excess pore

pressure increment p and over the drainage period

the effective stress is increased from to +

such that:

+ = + + p

Conservation Statement

In a deforming poroelastic medium there are two conservation

statements. One for fluid mass conservation and one for solid

mass conservation. Restricting the discussion to the 1-D case:

For the fluid mass: -[nwvw]/z = [nw]/t

For the solid mass: -[(1-n)svs]/z = [(1-n)s]/t

where vw and vs are the average velocities with respect to a static

frame of reference.

The Darcy flux is defined relative to the solid matrix so:

qz = n(vw-vs)

Now we introduce a material derivative (not a partial derivative)

that follows the motion of the solid phase (ie any subsidence):

dn/dt = n/t + vs n/z

The total change in porosity with time includes components due to

pore compression within the reference volume and pore

displacement with respect to the reference volume.

Grain Incompressibility

Now we assume the grains are incompressible, so s is

constant and all derivatives of s are zero and:

For the solid mass: -s[(1-n)vs]/z = s(1-n)/t

-[(1-n)vs]/z = (1-n)/t

-(1-n)vs/z + vsn/t = -n/t

(1-n)vs/z = n/t + vsn/t

(1-n)vs/z = dn/dt

For the mass fluid flux, derived from Darcy flux:

wqz = nw(vw-vs)

-(wqz)/z = -(nwvw)/z + (nwvs)/z

-(wqz)/z = (nw)/t + vs(nw)/z + nwvs/z

-(wqz)/z - nwvs/z = (nw)/t + vs(nw)/z = d(nw)/dt

-(wqz)/z - nwvs/z = d(nw)/dt

Approximate Conservation Equation

The two derived equations are:

(1-n)vs/z = dn/dt

-(wqz)/z - nwvs/z = d(nw)/dt

From the first equation: vs/z = [1/(1-n)]dn/dt

Substituting in the second equation:

-(wqz)/z - w [n/(1-n)]dn/dt = d(nw)/dt

-(wqz)/z = w[n/(1-n)]dn/dt + wdn/dt + ndw/dt

-(1/w)(wqz)/z = [n/(1-n)]dn/dt + dn/dt + (n/w)dw/dt

-(1/w)(wqz)/z = [1/(1-n)]dn/dt + (n/w)dw/dt

If the volumetric strain of the solid matrix is small, then the total

derivatives can be replaced by the partial derivatives:

-(1/w)(wqz)/z = [1/(1-n)]n/t + (n/w)w/t

Assuming w is independent of z, this reduces to

-qz/z = [1/(1-n)]n/t + (n/w)w/t

Consolidation Equation

Conservation Equation:

-qz/z = [1/(1-n)]n/t + (n/w)w/t

where the first RHS term represents pore volume change and

the second term represents fluid volume change

Rewriting the pore compression/expansion term:

-qz/z =p(p/t - /t) + (n/w)w/t

where p is the excess pore pressure increment as a result of the

(vertical) total stress increment

Rewriting the fluid compression/expanision term:

-qz/z =p(p/t - /t) + nwp/t

Rearranging:

-qz/z =p+ nw)p/t - p/t

This is a form of the 1-D consolidation equation in terms of the

pressure dependent variable.

Companion Strain Equation

1-D consolidation equation:

-qz/z =p+ nw)p/t - p/t

Rearranging again:

-qz/z =nwp/t p(/t - p/t)

-qz/z =nwp/t p( p)/t

-qz/z =nwp/t p/t

Recognizing the stress-strain relationship for pore

deformation, = /p where is the 1-D (vertical)

volumetric strain:

-qz/z =nwp/t /t

The is the companion equation to the 1-D consolidation

equation written in terms of strain.

More Familiar Forms

1-D consolidation equation:

-qz/z =p+ nw)p/t - p/t

1-D companion strain equation:

-qz/z =nwp/t /t

The equations become more familiar if we recognize:

qz = -Kzh/z = -(Kz/wg)p/z

1-D consolidation equation:

Kz2p/z2 =wgp+ nw)p/t - wgp/t

Kz2p/z2 =Ssp/t - wgp/t

Kz2h/z2 =Ssh/t - p/t

1-D companion strain equation:

Kz2p/z2 =n wgwp/t wg/t

Kz2h/z2 =nwp/t /t

General Poroelasticity

A more complete model assumes that all components of

the porous medium are compressible, the bulk volume

(b), the solid grains (s), the fluids (w), and the pores

(p = b - s).

The key concepts of Biots 1941 poroelastic theory, for

an isotropic fluid-filled porous medium, are contained in

just two linear constitutive equations, for the case of an

isotropic applied stress field .

In addition to , the other field quantities are the

volumetric strain = dV/V, where V is the bulk volume,

the increment of fluid content , and the fluid pressure p.

Rice and Cleary

Rice and Clearys 1976 reformulation of Biots

linear poroelastic constitutive equations has

been adopted widely for geophysical

problems.

Rice and Cleary chose constitutive

parameters that emphasized the drained

(constant pore pressure) and undrained (no

flow) limits of long- and short-time behavior,

respectively.

Alternate Formulations

Rice and Cleary defined fluid mass content (mf ) to be the fluid

mass per unit reference volume.

The change in fluid mass content relative to the reference state,

mf = mf - mfo

is related to increment of fluid content by:

=mf /fo

where fo is the fluid density in the reference state.

Fluid mass content is a state property, whereas the increment of

fluid content must be viewed in the hydrogeologic sense as the

volume of fluid transported into or out of storage.

Jacob (1940) also defined storage in terms of fluid mass.

The great advantage of the original Biot formulation using fluid

increment as a primary variable is that it is dimensionless, like

strain, and the constitutive equations do not have to include a

density factor.

Biot Formulation

The volumetric strain dV/V is taken to be positive in expansion

and negative in contraction.

Stress is positive if tensile and negative if compressive.

Increment of fluid content is positive for fluid added to the

control volume and negative for fluid withdrawn from the control

volume.

Fluid pressure (pore pressure) p greater than atmospheric is

positive.

The constitutive equations simply express and as a linear

combination of and p:

= a11 + a12p (1)

= a21 + a22p (2)

Generic coefficients aij are used in equations (1) and (2) to

emphasize the simple form of the constitutive equations.

Linear Equations

The first constitutive equation is a statement of the

observation that changes in applied stress and pore

pressure produce a fractional volume change.

The second constitutive equation is a statement of

the observation that changes in applied stress and

pore pressure require fluid be added to or removed

from storage.

This second statement implies that applied stress

and/or pore pressure might be treated as fluid source

terms in groundwater flow equations.

Poroelastic Constants

Poroelastic constants are defined as ratios of field

variables while maintaining various constraints on the

elementary control volume.

The physical meaning of each coefficient in equations (1)

and (2) is found by taking the ratio of the change in a

dependent variable () relative to the change in an

independent variable (p), while holding the remaining

independent variable constant:

a11 = /|p=0 =1/K = b constant pore pressure

a12 = /p|=0 =1/H = p constant total stress

a21 = /|p=0 = 1/H = p constant pore pressure

a22 = /p |=0 = 1/R = S = p + nw constant total stress (3)

Drained Compressibilty b

measuring the volumetric strain due to

changes in applied stress while holding pore

pressure constant.

This state is called a drained condition.

Therefore, b is the compressibility of the

material measured under drained conditions,

and K is the drained bulk modulus.

Poroelastic Expansion Coefficient p

encountered in ordinary elasticity.

It describes how much the bulk volume

changes due to a pore pressure change while

holding the applied stress constant.

It is the pore compressibility, that is, the drained

bulk compressibility less the grain compression,

1/Hp.

By analogy with thermal expansion, it is called

the poroelastic expansion coefficient.

Unconstrained Specific Storage Coefficient S

measured under conditions of constant applied stress;

it is the ratio of the change in the volume of water

added to storage per unit aquifer volume divided by

the change in pore pressure.

Here the specific storage coefficient at constant stress

is also called the unconstrained specific storage

coefficient and is designated S .

The specific storage (Ss) used in the familiar

groundwater flow and consolidation equations is given

by Ss = wgS

In soil mechanics Smay be better known as mw.

Biot Coefficients

The introduction of three coefficients :

drained compressibility

b = 1/K

poroelastic expansion coefficient

p = 1/H

unconstrained specific storage coefficient

S = 1/R

completely characterizes the poroelastic

response for isotropic applied stress. The Biot

formulation is both simple and elegant.

Coefficient Matrix

These three coefficients are the three independent

components of the symmetric 2 x 2 coefficient matrix

relating strain and fluid volume increment to stress and

pore pressure.

Using equation (3) in equations (1) and (2) yields:

b p p (4)

p Sp (5)

The drained compressibility (b) and the unconstrained

specific storage coefficient (S) are the diagonal

components.

The poroelastic expansion coefficient (p) is the off-

diagonal matrix component.

Constrained Specific Storage Coefficient S

is the specific storage coefficient at constant

strain.

It is called the constrained specific storage

coefficient and designated S.

It is convenient here define the constrained

specific storage Se as wgS in an exactly

similar manner to Ss.

S = p/|=1/M (6)

Skemptons Coefficient B

Skemptons coefficient (B) is defined to be the ratio of

the induced pore pressure to the change in applied

stress for undrained conditions - that is, no fluid is

allowed to move into or out of the control volume:

B = - p/|=0= R/H = p/S (7)

The negative sign is included in the definition

because the sign convention for stress means that an

increase in compressive stress inducing a pore

pressure increase implies a decrease in for the

undrained condition, when no fluid is exchanged with

the control volume.

Meaning of the B Coefficient

If compressive stress is applied suddenly to a small

volume of saturated porous material surrounded by an

impermeable boundary, the induced pore pressure is B

times the applied stress.

Skemptons coefficient must lie between zero and one

and is a measure of how the applied stress is

distributed between the skeletal framework and the

fluid.

It tends toward one for saturated soils because the fluid

supports the load. It tends toward zero for gas-filled

pores in soils and for saturated consolidated rocks

because the framework supports the load.

Biot-Willis Coefficient

The ratio of the pore compressibility to the bulk

compressibility p / b is known as the Biot-Willis

coefficient or Skemptons A parameter and represents

the ratio of the volume of water squeezed out of a rock

to total volume change for deformation at constant fluid

pressure:

= p / b = K / H = 1 - s / b (8)

Values of tend toward one for porous materials where

grain compressibilities are insignificant, such as

unconsolidated sediments, but tend towards much lower

values for consolidated rocks with more rigid skeletons

where pore compression is inhibited.

Specific Storage Coefficients

coefficient at constant strain (S) is

smaller than the (unconstrained)

specific storage coefficient at constant

stress (S) due to the constraint that the

bulk volume remains constant.

Algebraic manipulation shows that:

S = S + p (9)

Relationships

The following equations help to clarify the relationship

between S and S:

S = p + nw (10)

S = (1 - )p + nw (11)

Notice that S - S= p and that when approaches

one, as it does for many unconsolidated materials, the

constrained specific storage coefficient is simply nw.

When approaches zero, S approaches S, as is

the case for bedrock aquifers, rigid consolidated rocks

with low porosities.

Typical Values

Lithology b p S Ss B

-1 -1 -1 -1

Pa Pa Pa m Ratio Ratio

Clay 1.6E-08 1.6E-08 1.6E-08 1.6E-04 1.00 0.99

Mudstone 4.6E-10 4.4E-10 5.3E-10 5.2E-06 0.96 0.83

Sandstone 1.1E-10 7.8E-11 1.2E-10 1.2E-06 0.72 0.66

Limestone 3.0E-11 2.4E-11 9.4E-11 9.2E-07 0.80 0.25

Basalt 2.2E-11 5.1E-12 4.3E-11 4.3E-07 0.24 0.12

compressibilities of various materials from a large number of

sources. Palciauskas and Domenico (1989) and Kmpel (1991)

are the key references but Domenico and Schwartz (1997) is

the most accessible.

Flow Equations

Palciauskas and Domenico (1989) presented the flow

equations for completely deformable porous media.

Equation (12) incorporates stress changes over time (the

second RHS term) as a mechanism to generate excess pore

pressures:

p = [ K p] + B (12)

t Ss t

The companion equation (13) incorporates pore volume strain

(the second RHS term) as a mechanism to generate excess

pore pressures:

p = [ K p] + (13)

t Se St

Loading and Barometric Efficiencies

drained and undrained response of water

levels to loading.

Equation (12) predicts that loading efficiency

(tidal efficiency or pore pressure coefficient)

p/ = B and barometric efficiency (1 B) for

undrained conditions.

Equation (13) predicts the fluid pressure

response to earth tides p/ = Sat

constant fluid mass.

Tidal Fluctuations

Earth Tides

Barometric Response

1-D Consolidation Theory

Biot showed at an early stage that Terzaghis one-dimensional

consolidation problem is a special case of his theory. One-

dimensional consolidation theory (Terzhagi consolidation) assumes:

(1) the stress increment generating the excess fluid pressure is

vertical and

(2) the solid components of the rock/soil matrix are incompressible.

The first assumption is implicit in the three-dimensional forms given

in equations (12) and (13) since no shear stress-strain components

are included.

The second assumption means that bulk volume changes are

exactly equal to pore volume changes, that is, is one. These are

reasonable approximations for many practical purposes but neither

assumption is strictly true.

Modelling Subsidence

Most of the calculations used to estimate subsidence are

based on Terzaghis simple one-dimensional analytical

model (Poland and Davis, 1969). Terzaghis principle of

effective stress coupled with Hubberts force potential and

Darcys Law provided the basis for one-dimensional

subsidence modelling (Gambolati et al, 1974).

p = [ K p] + Q (14)

t Ss

When the change in mean total stress is assumed to be

negligible within a ground-water basin, equation (12)

reduces to equation (14) and becomes identical to the

traditional groundwater flow equation used in many models.

San Joaquin Valley

Settlement vs Water Level Decline

Terzhagis Equation

For the one-dimensional case writing Cv = K/Ss ,

reveals Terzhagis familiar consolidation equation:

p = K p = K p = Cv p (15)

t Ss z2 mwwg z2 z2

This is perhaps the most famous equation

incorporating poroelastic effects but it conceals a very

large number of assumptions and simplifications

which make it inappropriate as a starting point for a

more rigorous analysis.

Las Vegas Subsidence Profile

Modelling Total Stress Changes

Most numerical models used to simulate groundwater

flow (equation 14) were derived with the assumption

that the total stress imposed on the aquifer remains

constant with time.

If the aquifer is subjected to time-varying total

stresses (loading), these models are inappropriate.

In such cases, a more general model that accounts

for aquifer deformation is required.

The effect of changes in total stress on an aquifer

system has been considered by many authors for a

variety of applications.

Total Stress Change Examples

Gibson (1958) discusses the impact of increasing clay thickness

on the consolidation of a clay unit and introduces a source term to

the equation describing the excess pore-water pressure increment

associated with the loading.

Abnormal pressure, both over-pressure and under-pressure, in

both aquifers and oil reservoirs, has been studied by Bredehoeft

and Hanshaw (1968), Neuzil (1993), and Neuzil (1995).

For these systems, changes in the total stress applied to the

system occur as a result of the slow geologic processes of

sedimentation or erosion.

Provost et al. (1998) considered the preconsolidation pressures

induced by changes in total stress due to glaciation in a long-term

model for a proposed nuclear waste repository.

Gardner et al. (1998) found that inclusion of pore pressures

derived from tidal loading of peat in salt marshes was necessary in

order to match observed piezometric responses.

Rate of Pore Pressure Dissipation

Equation (15) is readily solved for constant head

conditions (Terzhagi, 1943) and an analytical

expression can be derived to predict the time needed

for dissipation of a specified percentage of any

increment of excess pore-pressure by vertical

drainage:

tp = d2SsTv = d2Tv (16)

K Cv

where tp is the time, d is the drainage distance, and

Tv is consolidation time factor.

Vertical and Radial Drainage

Setting Tv to a constant value corresponding to 90%

pore-pressure dissipation (average pore pressure over

the interval of thickness d ) gives:

t90 = 0.848 d 2 (17)

Cv

A similar analysis, for radial drainage, yields a similar

equation (after Carslaw and Jaeger, 1947) when the

consolidation time factor (Tr) for 90% dissipation is

somewhat lower:

t90 = 0.333 r 2 (18)

Cr

Constant Loading Rate

Abashi (1970) derived an addition useful analytic solution

for the vertical consolidation equation with a constant

rate of monotonic loading (rather than a constant

instantaneous load). The time factor Tc for 90%

dissipation is larger than for the instantaneous load case:

t90 = 0.946 d 2 (19)

Cv

The constant loading rate solution is not used as

commonly at the Terzhagi solution in practice, but is

valuable for the analysis of embankment construction

and pile building.

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