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Mataria Faculty of Engineering Mechanical Power Department PUMPS Selection & Operation By Dr. Eng. Ahmed Abo-Habsa

Mataria Faculty of Engineering Mechanical Power Department

PUMPS

Selection & Operation

By

Dr. Eng. Ahmed Abo-Habsa

Chapter II

Dynamic Pumps Selection & Operation

 

1. Pump Data

 
 
  • Pump Flow Rate Q.

1.1

  • Pump Head H.

1.2

 
  • Speed of Rotation N.

1.3

 
  • Efficiency and Input Power P.

1.4

 
  • 1.1 1.1 Pump

Pump Flow

Flow Rate

Rate

Q in [m 3 /s]; [m 3 /h]; [GPM]; [L/min].

Q shall be estimated from the system demand. The system may be:

● Municipal water system (100-500 Liter/Person/day) ● Irrigation system (25-50 m 3 /feddan/day) ● Fire fighting system ● Liquid conveying system ● Any other system comprising liquids

Example-1

It is required to build a new pumping station to

irrigate an area of 42,500 feddans. The area is

cultivated with different crops. The plants water

requirements along the year are given in Fig(1).

Determine the number of pumps and the capacity

Example-1 It is required to build a new pumping station to irrigate an area of 42,500

of each pump for 24 hours daily operation.

Fig(1)

Solution

Plants peak water requirement= 30 m3/feddan/day

Operation time =24 hours/day

Maximum required flow rate= 42500*30/24/3600 =

The required flow rate

14.7 m /s

3

along the year is drawn in

fig(2)

3+1 pumps shall be selected

Each of a capacity of 5.0

  • m 3 /s

    • 3 pumps in operation

Solution Plants peak water requirement= 30 m3/feddan/day Operation time =24 hours/day Maximum required flow rate= 42500*30/24/3600
  • 1 pump stand by

The red line illustrates the operation sequence of pumps along the year.

One pump during Dec, Jan, Feb. Two pumps during Mar, Apr, Oct, Nov. Three pumps during May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep.

Fig(2)

1.2 Pump Head H

1.2 Pump Head H

p p

[m] [m]
[m]
[m]

The pump head H p is the energy added by the pump to the fluid per unit weight of the flowing fluid. H p [Nm/N] = [m]. The pump head is determined from the system requirement.

Applying the Bernoulli’s Equation:

p

1

g

Z

1

v

2

1

2

g

H

p

p

2

g

Z

2

v

2

2

2 g

2

1

h

L

Hence

H

p

p

 

Z

g

v

2

2 g

2

1

h

L

Two open Reservoirs System

H

p

p

2

p

1

g

Z

2

Z

1

v

2

2

v

2

1

2 g

2

1

h

L

H

p

 

Z

2

1

h

L

2

h

  • L h

L,Strainer

h

L,suction

h

L,Check

h

L,Gate

2 Reservoir B Discharge pipe Gate  Valve Pump Check Valve Suction pipe 1 Strainer Reservoir
2
Reservoir B
Discharge pipe
Gate

Valve
Pump
Check
Valve
Suction pipe
1
Strainer
Reservoir A
 h
 h
L,3Bends
L,Dis.

1

pipe

Valve

Valve

pipe

h

L,exit

Open Reservoir

& Nozzle System

 Nozzle Vj  Gate  Valve Hose Gate Valve Reservoir Pump
Nozzle
Vj

Gate
Valve
Hose
Gate
Valve
Reservoir
Pump

H

p

p

2

p

1

g

Z

2

Z

1

v

2

2

2 g

2

1

h

L

H

p

 

Z

v

2

j

2

g

2

1

h

L

2

1

h

L

h

L Entrance

,

h

L suction

,

pipe

h

L

,2

Gate

Valve

h

L Hose

,

h

L Noz

,

h

L Exit

,

  • 1.3 1.3 Speed

Speed of

of Rotation

Rotation [RPM]

[RPM]

Depends on the driver type

Electric

Motor

Internal Combustion Engine

Induction DC Diesel Gasoline
Induction
DC
Diesel
Gasoline

Reference speeds of rotation for the Induction Motors

1.3 1.3 Speed Speed of of Rotation Rotation [RPM] [RPM] Depends on the driver type Electric
  • 1.4 1.4 Efficiency

Efficiency and

and Input

Input Power

Power PP

Power absorbed by the pump shaft:

P

Q H

p

Where:

fluid specific gravity for water =9810 N/m 3 Q Pump Capacity m 3 /s H p Developed Head by

the pump H overall pump efficiency

1 Over 2000 m 3 /h 0.9 2000 m 3 /h 0.8 600 m 3 /h
1
Over 2000 m 3 /h
0.9
2000 m 3 /h
0.8
600 m 3 /h
200 m 3 /h
100 m 3 /h
50 m 3 /h
0.7
Pump Overall Efficiency h
0.6
25 m 3 /h
0.5
0.4
0.1
1
10

Shape Number WS

P in [W]=[Nm/s]= [J/s] kW=1000 W kW=1.36 HP

Pump efficiency versus Shape Number (Specific speed N S =S x 2733)

2. System Curve

Applying Bernoulli's Equation to any steady flow system

H

sys

p

  Z

g

v

2

2 g

2

1

h

L

Hsys 12 10 8 6 v 2 /2g+ h L System Head [m] 4 2 p/
Hsys
12
10
8
6
v 2 /2g+ h L
System Head [m]
4
2
p/
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300

Flow rate Q [m3/h]

2.1 Head losses in circular pipes

2.1.1 Darcy Weisbach Equation:

h

L

fL v

2

D

2 g

8 fL

2

π g D

5

Q

2

Where

h L

the head loss along the pipe [m]

  • L the pipe length [m]

    • V the mean velocity in the pipe [m/s] the flow rate in the pipe [m 3 /s]

Q

  • D the pipe diameter [m] the pipe friction factor, depends on the Reynolds number and the relative roughness of the pipe

f

The Moody diagram for pipe friction factor f

:The friction factor formula developed by Swamee and Jane is

 2  0.9      e   1   f
 2
0.9
 
e 
1
f
 1.325  ln
o
.27
5.74 
D
R
e
 
  
Where
e
the pipe absolute
roughness [m]
e [mm]
Pipe Material
0.9-9.0
D
the pipe inside
diameter [m]
the Reynolds Number
= ρ × v × D / µ
3-3.00.
Riveted steel
Concrete
0.25
Cast iron
R e
0.15
Galvanized &
welded steel
0.12
Asphalted CI
0.046
Commercial steel
0.0015
Drawn Tubing

2.1.2 The Hazen William’s equation

for h L calculations in the irrigation Main lines, Sub- mains & Laterals (PVC pipes & PE Tubing) it is preferable to use the Hazen William Equation as follows:

h L

10.675   

1.852

Q  

C

where

L

D

4.87

  • C Constant according to the pipe roughness For very smooth pipe C=150 For smooth pipe Rough pipe

C=140

C=130-100

Q [m 3 /s]; L [m]; D [m]

2.2.1 Steel Pipes

ND

OD

   

Sch.20

   

Sch.30

   

Sch.40

Inch

[mm]

t [mm]

ID

W[kg/m

t [mm]

ID

W[kg/

t [mm]

ID

[mm]

]

[mm]

m]

[mm]

1

33.4

       

3.38

 

1.25

42.2

       

3.56

 

1.5

48.3

       

3.68

 

2

60.3

       

3.91

52.48

2.5

73.0

       

5.16

62.68

3

88.9

       

5.49

77.92

3.5

101.6

       

5.74

90.12

4

114.3

       

6.02

102.26

5

141.3

       

6.55

128.20

6

168.3

       

7.11

154.08

8

219.1

6.35

206.40

33.25

7.04

205.02

36.76

8.18

202.74

10

273.0

6.35

260.30

41.73

7.80

257.40

50.96

9.27

254.46

12

323.9

6.35

311.20

49.68

8.38

307.14

65.14

10.31

303.28

14

355.6

7.92

339.76

67.96

9.52

336.56

81.21

11.13

333.34

W[kg/m

]

  • 26.64 2.50

  • 35.08 3.38

  • 40.94 4.05
    5.43
    8.62

11.26

13.56

16.05

21.76

28.23

42.49

60.24

79.71

94.31

2.2.2 PVC

Pipes

D

t

ID

t

ID

t

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

 
  • 20 17.0

1.5

   
 
  • 25 21.2

1.9

  • 1.5 22.0

 

2.4

  • 32 27.2

  • 1.8 28.4

 
  • 40 34.0

3.0

  • 1.9 36.2

1.8

 
  • 50 42.6

3.7

  • 2.4 45.2

1.8

 

4.7

  • 63 53.6

  • 3.0 57.0

1.9

 
  • 75 63.8

5.6

  • 3.6 67.8

2.2

 
  • 90 76.6

6.7

  • 4.3 81.4

2.7

110

8.2

93.6

  • 5.3 99.4

3.2

125

9.3

106.4

  • 6.0 113.0

3.7

160

  • 11.9 136.2

  • 7.7 144.6

4.7

200

  • 14.9 170.2

  • 9.6 180.8

5.9

225

  • 16.7 191.6

  • 10.8 203.4

6.6

250

  • 18.6 212.8

  • 11.9 226.2

7.3

280

  • 20.8 238.4

  • 13.4 253.2

8.2

315

  • 23.8 267.4

  • 15.0 285.0

9.2

355

  • 26.3 302.4

  • 16.9 321.2

10.4

400

  • 29.7 340.6

  • 19.1 361.8

11.7

450

 
  • 21.5 407.0

13.2

500

  • 23.9 452.2

14.6

560

  • 26.7 506.6

16.4

630

  • 30.0 570.0

18.4

710

 

20.7

800

23.3

900

26.3

ID

mm

36.4

46.4

59.2

70.6

84.6

103.6

117.6

150.6

188.2

211.8

235.4

263.6

296.6

334.2

376.6

423.6

470.8

527.2

593.2

668.6

753.4

847.4

2.3 Head Loss

in pipe Fittings

(minor losses)

h L = k (v 2 /2g)

Head Loss in

valves & pipe

couplings

h L = k (v 2 /2g)

3. Pump Characteristic Curves

H-Q Curve NPSH R -Q Curve

P-Q Curve

BEP
BEP

Three examples of characteristic curves for pumps of differing specific speeds. a: radial impeller, Ω s ≈ 0.5; b: mixed flow impeller, Ω s ≈ 2.0;

4. Pump selection

Example

It is required to pump 200 m 3 /h water from reservoir A to reservoir B. Select a suitable pump to do this job.

Solution

Applying Bernoulli’s Eq. between points 1 & 2

p

1

g

Z

1

v

2

1

2

g

H

p

p

2

g

Z

2

v

2

2

2 g

2

1

h

L

Z= 25 m

p/2.4x10000/9810= 24.5 m

  • v 1 =v 2 =0

h L = h L,Dischage + h L,Suction

PG-2=2.4 bar

2 Reservoir B 25 m Gate Valve Discharge Pipe Inside diam. = 150 mm Total Length
2
Reservoir B
25 m
Gate
Valve
Discharge Pipe
Inside diam. = 150 mm
Total Length = 100 m
PG-1
Pump
Check
Valve
Suction Pipe
1
Inside diam. = 200 mm
Total Length = 10 m
Strainer with foot valve
Reservoir A

For water =9810 N/m 3 (specific weight) = 0.000001 m 2 /s (kinematic viscosity) Q=200 m3/h= 200/3600=0.0556 m 3 /s

Discharge pipe ND=150 seamless steel Inside diameter d=159.3 mm V =4Q/d 2 = 2.79 m/s Re = Vd/= 444040 = 0.046 mm f = 0.0164 fL/d = 15.56 K D =Gate+Check+ 2 El+Exit

= 0.1+2+2*0.3+1= 3.7 h LD = (fL/d +K D ) * v 2 /2g

= 7.6 m

Suction pipe ND=200 welded steel Inside diameter d=210.1 mm V =4Q/d 2 = 1.6 m/s Re = Vd/= 336676 = 0.15 mm f = 0.0193 fL/d = 0.92 K D =Strainer + foot valve + El

= 0.8+0.7+0.25= 1.75 h LD = (fL/d +K D ) * v 2 /2g

= 0.35 m

Total required pump Head H p = 25+24.5+7.6+.35 =57.5 m Q = 200 m 3 /h

Characteristic Curves of a pump manufacturer

Characteristic Curves of a pump manufacturer

5. Operation Point

The pump operates at the intersection point between the pump H-Q curve & the system curve. It is a stable operation point.

Good selection

The operation point is

near from the best efficiency point PEP.

Bad selection

The operation point is far from the BEP

Head H [m]

Hp Hsys Eff. 50.0 2.00 45.0 1.80 40.0 BEP 1.60 35.0 Operation 1.40 Point 30.0 1.20
Hp
Hsys
Eff.
50.0
2.00
45.0
1.80
40.0
BEP
1.60
35.0
Operation
1.40
Point
30.0
1.20
25.0
1.00
20.0
0.80
15.0
0.60
10.0
0.40
5.0
0.20
0.0
0.00
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Overall Efficiency

Flow rate Q [m3/h]

Case 1

The System head losses were over estimated before purchasing the pump. The pump will operate at low eff.

Case 2

The System head losses were exactly estimated before purchasing the pump. The pump will operate at BEP.

Case 3

The System head losses were under estimated before purchasing the pump. The pump will operate at low eff.

Case 1 The System head losses were over estimated before purchasing the pump. The pump will

Hp

Head H [m]

Hsys-2 Hsys-1 Hsys-3 50.0 45.0 40.0 BEP 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 0
Hsys-2
Hsys-1
Hsys-3
50.0
45.0
40.0
BEP
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400

Flow rate Q [m3/h]

Other problems resulting from not operating at BEP Excessive wear due to incidence of separation & vortices. Motor overloading (radial flow impellers) The required flow rate is not fulfilled

6. Regulation

6.1 Regulation by throttling

Gate

Valve

Pump Check Valve
Pump
Check
Valve

Gradually closing the gate valve; at the pump discharge; will move the system curve from Hsys-1 to Hsys-2 then to Hsys-3 until the pump operates at the shutoff head by fully closed discharge valve.

Hp Hsys-2 Hsys-1 Hsys-3 50.0 Shutoff head 45.0 BEP 40.0 35.0 Head H [m] 30.0 25.0
Hp
Hsys-2
Hsys-1
Hsys-3
50.0
Shutoff head
45.0
BEP
40.0
35.0
Head H [m]
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400

Flow rate Q [m3/h]

6.2 Regulation by Varying the Speed

The H-Q curve of the pump is at constant speed n1. Changing the speed to n2 will result a new H-Q curve. The two curves are related to each other according the similarity laws:

Q

1

Q

2

   

n

1

n

2

  

H

1

H

2

   

n

1

n

2

2

  

1

2

Hp Hsys n2/n1=.8 n2/n1=.9 50.0 45.0 40.0 BEP 35.0 Head H [m] 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0
Hp
Hsys
n2/n1=.8
n2/n1=.9
50.0
45.0
40.0
BEP
35.0
Head H [m]
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
n1
n2
5.0
n2
0.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400

Flow rate Q [m3/h]

Example

When the pump runs at 1450 RPM in the system shown on the chart; it delivers 250 m3/h water and develops 28 m head. What is the speed at which the pump should run to deliver 200 m 3 /h?

Solution

Known: Q2=200 m3/h H2= 23 from sys curve at 200 m3/h n1 = 1450 RPM Unknown: Q1, H1, n2 Applying the similarity laws:

2

Q

1

Q

2

2

H

1

H

2

or

H

1

H

2

Q

2

2

2

Q

1

H

1

.000575

Q

  • 2 sim curve

1

.

The inter section point between the HQ- curve at n1 and the similarity curve will give Q1 and H1

Q1= 230 m3/h ; H1=30.4 m

Hence:

Hp (n1) Hsys Similarity Curve Hp (n2) 50.0 45.0 BEP 40.0 Head H [m] 35.0 30.0
Hp (n1)
Hsys
Similarity Curve
Hp (n2)
50.0
45.0
BEP
40.0
Head H [m]
35.0
30.0
n1=1450 RPM
25.0
System
20.0
15.0
10.0
n2
5.0
0.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350 400
450

n 2 n

1

200

230

0.8696 ; or

n

2

n

1

23 30.4
23
30.4

0.8698

Flow rate Q [m3/h]

n2=0.87 x 1450 = 1261 RPM

7. Cavitation

NPSH

p

s

v

2

s

2 g

 

p

v

applying Brenoulli s eq

'

:

p

1

Z

s

0

p

s

0

v

2

s

2 g

s

1

h

L

Hence

NPSH

A

p

1

p

v

Z

s

s

1

h

L

NPSH is given by the manufacturer

R

For no Cavitation :

NPSH

A

NPSH

R

Gate

Valve

Pump Ps Elev. Datum Check S Valve -Zs 1 Negative Suction Head
Pump
Ps
Elev.
Datum
Check
S
Valve
-Zs
1
Negative
Suction Head
1 Positive Gate Valve Gate Valve Ps Pump Datum Elev. Check S Valve
1
Positive
Gate
Valve
Gate
Valve
Ps Pump
Datum
Elev.
Check
S
Valve

+Zs

Suction Head

8. Parallel and series Operation

8. Parallel and series Operation Parallel Connection two Pumps one Pump two pumps one pump At

Parallel Connection

Q two Pumps =2 x Q one Pump

H two pumps = H one pump

At the same η

Series Connection

Q two Pumps = Q one Pump

H two pumps =

2

x H one pump

At the same η

8. 1 Two Identical Pumps

H-1 2 Parallel 2 Series Hsys-1 Hsys-2 70.0 Two pumps series 60.0 Rising sys curve 50.0
H-1
2 Parallel
2 Series
Hsys-1
Hsys-2
70.0
Two pumps
series
60.0
Rising sys
curve
50.0
Head H [m]
40.0
Flat sys curve
30.0
20.0
Two pumps
one
parallel
10.0
pump
0.0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800

Flow rate Q [m3/h]

Solved Problem

Fig.(1) shows the installation details of a deep well pump. The characteristic curves of the pump at a motor speed of 1460 rpm are shown in fig.(2) –Imp 7.688”. When the gate valve is full open and the pump runs at 1460 rpm, the pump delivers 100 m 3 /h of water into the reservoir. The water surfaces in both the reservoir and the well are subjected to the atmospheric pressure. Neglect the head loss in the discharge column and suction pipe.

a- Find the reading of the pressure gage P1. Estimate the brake-horsepower required by the pump at this operation point.

b- It is required to decrease the pump rate of flow to 80 m 3 /h. This can be obtained by partially closing the gate valve (pump throttling). Estimate the brake-horsepower required by the pump at the new operation point and find the new reading of the pressure gage P1.

c- If it is possible to regulate the pump by changing the speed while the gate valve is full open. Find the pump rpm, that will ensure a flow rate of 80 m 3 /h. Estimate the brake horsepower required by the pump at the new speed and find the reading of the pressure gage P1.

Fig.(1) Pump Installation

Fig.(2) Pump Characteristic curves

Fig.(2) Pump Characteristic curves The pump first operation point Discharge valve : Full Open N= 1450

The pump first operation point

Discharge valve : Full Open N= 1450 RPM Q= 100 m3/h H= 75 m = 0.75 The system curve with full opened valve meets the pump curve at this point.

H sys =Z+KQ 2 = H p =75 m z=10+40=50 m k =25/(100) 2 = 0.0025 A- the pressure gage reading at 1 st operation point Applying Bernoulli’s eq. between the water surface in the well and the pressure gage location 0+0+0+H p =p G /+10+v 2 /2g+h L

Neglecting h L, suction & D. column & v 2 /2g

p G =(75-10) x 9810/ 100000= 6.4 bar The pump shaft power

P=9810x100x75/(0.75x1000x3600)

=27.3 kW=37.0 HP

B- Gradually closing the discharge valve until Q=80 m3/h H= 90 m = 0.8

P=9810x80x90/(0.8x1000x3600)

= 24.5 kW=33.3 HP p G =(90-10)x 9810/10000= 7.8 bar

Hp Hsys Similarity n2 120 100 Head H [m] 80 60 40 20 0 40 50
Hp
Hsys
Similarity
n2
120
100
Head H [m]
80
60
40
20
0
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120

Flow rate Q [m3/h]

C- Changing the speed

Hence

Q 2 =80 m 3 /h H 2 =50+.0025 x 80 2 =66 m n 2 =? n 1 =1450 RPM Q 1 =?; H 1 =? Similarity curve H 1 =(H 2 /Q 2 2 ) x Q 1 H 1 =0.0103125 Q 1 Q1=90 m3/h H1=82 m

2

n 2

/n 1 =Q 2

/Q 1 =80/90=.89

n 2

/n 1 =(H 2 /H 1 ) ½ =0.89

n 2 = 1290 RPM

  • 2 1 =2 =0.78

P=9.81x80x66/(.78x3600)

= 18.4 kW=25 HP p G =0.0981x(66-10)=5.5 bar