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EATING

DISORDERS
Do you love food?
ANOREXIA NERVOSA
Anorexia nervosa- is an eating disorder
low weight
fear of gaining weight,
a strong desire to be thin,
and food restriction.
Although anorectics limit their intake or
refuse to eat, they generally do not lose
their appetites. They suppress their appetite
in an effort to remain thin or get thinner. In
fact, they think about food and eating much
of the time. Weight or shape is often the
most important influence on the eating-
disordered persons sense of worth. They
might deny that they are dangerously thin,
that their condition is problematic
DSM-IV-TR Criteria
for Anorexia Nervosa

Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimum


normal weight for age and height
Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, although
significantly underweight
Disturbances in the way in which ones body weight or
shape is experienced, overvaluing of shape or weight, or
denial of seriousness of low weight or weight loss
In women and female adolescent, the absence of at least three
consecutive menstrual cycles
a. Restricting type: during an episode of anorexia nervosa,
individuals do not engage in recurrent episodes of binge eating
or purging
b. Binge-eating or purging type: during an episode of anorexia
nervosa, individuals engage in recurrent episodes og binge
eating or purging
Anorexia is less common than bulimia, affecting up to 3.7 % of
women during their lifetime. Women account for approximately 90%
of reported cases of anorexia nervosa, although anorexia in men
appears to be increasing.
A common premorbid personality profile is that of a perfectionistic
and introverted girl with self-esteem and peer relationship problems,
but victims might also be accomplished and active in school
activities.
Objective Signs
the most observable behavior of anorexia nervosa is deliberate weight loss in an effort to control weight
through changing eating behaviors.

The restrictors are more


often young people in the
normal or slightly above
normal weight range for
height and build before the
eating disorder begins.
Restrictors often withdraw
The vomiters - purgers are more often overweight
to their rooms and avoid before eating disorder begins, and their weight tends to
fluctuate.
family and friends These anorectic patients commonly deny concerns about
weight and typically eat normally in social situations.
Subjective Symptoms
An outstanding feature of anorexia nervosa is the conscious fear
that these patients have losing control over the amount of food
eaten, resulting in becoming fat. Patients are concerned about
being obese, losing weight, or preventing weight gain. Some
patients even say that they would rather be dead than fat.
In addition to problems with eating behavior and weight
concern, anorectic individuals have other psychological
symptoms known to be consequences of semi starvation.
These patients exhibit depression, irritability, social withdrawal,
lessened sex drive, and obsessional symptoms, which are also
seen in research studies of starvation.
Etiology
The psychiatrist Hilde Brunch (1973) believed
that anorexia was caused by a number of
disturbances. Today, most experts agree that
eating disorders have multifactorial causes, with
significant variance among individuals.
Suggested contributing factors include biologic,
sociocultural, family, cognitive, behavioral and
psychodynamic factors.
Eating Disorder in Men
The incidence of eating disorders among men is currently 11% of the
eating disorder population, with speculation that this figure might
increase as men become more comfortable seeking treatment.
Most men with eating disorder have a history of obesity.
Men also tend to feel less guilt compared to women about bingeing
and purging.
Dieting or bingeing is more often related to a desire to build a lean
body.
Homosexuality among men might represent a risk factor for eating
disorder, because men might place particular emphasis on physical
attractiveness.
Areas that need particular focus with
men who have eating disorder

The excessive attention that boys can


place on attaining a masculine physique.
Dietary habits.
Expression of feelings and the exploration
of any underlying sexual identity concerns.
Binge- Eating Disorder
DSM-IV-TR lists BED as a condition that has not met
diagnostic criteria for inclusion in DSM manual but might
warrant for research.
BED shares many criteria with Bulimia Nervousa, but
without excess intake through purging, laxatives or
excercise.
Indiviaduals with BED tend to be overweight to a
moderate or greater degree and their weight tends to
fluctuate more compared to those with anorexia or
bulimia.