Sie sind auf Seite 1von 46


Kuliah Tamu
Teknik Kimia FTUI
Fresh Water
Cooling Water Inert Gas
Instrument / Plant Air Fuel Gas
Diesel Oil / Fuel Oil HVAC
Chemical Injection

LIFT PUMP(S) 7 - 10 Removal 95% COOLERS
Bara 4- over 120
18C mircons


40 - 60 m Material Selection
Typical Seawater System Cunifer (CuNi)
Stainless Steel
Seawater is supplied to the facility main deck level at Seawater is used for :
pressure of typically 7 - 10 Bara. Seawater supply Process Cooling (Oil / Gas) Fire Main
temperature ranges from 4 - 18C. The seawater is Pressurisation Desalination
dosed with hypochlorite to minimise marine growth then Chlorination Utility Stations Motor
filtered prior to distribution to the users. Coolers
Seawater Usage
Cooling Services
The seawater may be used for direct process cooling and/or cooling a closed loop cooling medium
Process Cooling - flowrate set by process requirements Equipment Cooling
- Motor specific
The seawater return temperature should not exceed approximately 30C in order to prevent scale
formation. When calculating the seawater cooling requirements, the maximum design seawater
temperature and specific heat capacity valve of 4.0 kJ/kgC should be used.
Service Water
Service water is utilised for line flushing, washdown purposes, etc. Typical intermittent flowrate
specified is 50m3/hr
Other Users Typical consumption rates Fire Main Pressurisation - 10
m3/hr HVAC - 30 m3/hr Chlorination -10m3/hr / 600m3/hr seawater Desalination
(Fresh Water) - 35 m3/hr
Seawater Lift
For seawater application, the vertical submersible type (as
shown on the right) or line shaft type pumps are generally used.
The difference between these types is that the position of the
electrical motor. For the submersible type the motor is located
below the pump whereas for the line shaft type, it is positioned
above and connected via a solid shaft.Submerged motor types
are usually preferred since they can be operated at higher
speeds than equivalent line shaft units which results in smaller
Design features of the submersible lift pump are:-
The lift pumps have centrifugal characteristics and provide
flowrates up to 3000 m3/hr and 7 -10 Bara at deck level.
A coarse strainer is fitted at the suction to prevent pump
damage from marine life / debris
The pump suction is located normally 40 to 60 metres below
sea level to minimise the impact of marine life on operation.
Sodium Hypochlorite is injected at the pump inlet to provide
impeller and motor protection against marine growth.
For seawater lift applications on FPSOs, the sea-chest pumps
used are horizontal centrifugal types.
Seawater Coarse Filtration
Seawater pumped to a facility requires filtration
prior to use. The seawater passes through a coarse
filter which will typically remove 95% of particle over
120 microns.
In the design shown, the seawater enters the base
of the strainer basket, passing radially outwards
through the strainer basket and leaves the vessel
via the outlet nozzle at the top.
On-line Cleaning
The filter will remain in operation during the back-
flushing operation. On automatic or manual
initiation, the back-flushing valve is opened and the
hollow shaft rotated, sweeping collector heads
around the inner face of the strainer basket. The
pressure differential between the vessel and back-
flushing system forces filtered water back through
the strainer element, washing the collected solids
down the hollow shaft to the disposal system.
Fresh Water
Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis
Unit 1 Unit 2
Seawater RO Unit 1 Permeate
In Permeate (Product Water)

Concentrated salt water
for overboard disposal
Potable Water Reverse Osmosis Unit

Fresh water is required for: Fresh water is supplied by supply boat or generated
Potable water (150 - 250 litres/day/person) offshore by:
Process users (15 - 25 m3/day) Vacuum distillation
Drilling operations (50 m3/day): Vapour compression; Note that these units are
cement mixing getting out of date and are being replaced by
membrane systems
mud mixing
Reverse osmosis (RO)
Fresh Water Contd
Potable water is used for:
Drinking and domestic water (after further Typical fresh water discharge pressures:
treatment by neutralising and ultra-violet Potable water transfer pumps: 6 barg
sterilisation) Service water transfer pumps: 4 barg
Safety shower supplies Service water injection pumps: 24 barg
Service water, i.e. desalting water, cooling Service water transfer pumps: 3.4 barg
medium make-up and drilling water
Accommodation sprinkler system
The storage capacity is usually based on
seven or fourteen days supply
For drinking and domestic purposes the
water is fed to neutralising columns, Typical storage capacities:
containing a granular lime based mineral Potable water tanks: 80 m3 each
to improve taste and impart a degree of (one on-line, one filling, one stand-by)
alkalinity thereby reducing the corrosivity Service water break tanks: 5 - 10 m 3
of the water Potable water header tanks: 4 - 5 m 3
Cooling Systems
General Cooling for process and utility systems
are required. The three types of cooling systems usually considered for use are :
Direct Seawater (Open Loop)
Closed Loop Cooling Water
Air Cooling
Direct Seawater (Open Loop) System
The open loop system uses raw seawater taken directly from the topsides distribution
system and routed to each cooler. The returned seawater is either dumped overboard or
routed to the water injection system. The seawater is normally treated with chemicals to
minimise corrosion and the exchanger material selection will have to be corrosion resistant.
Closed Loop system Closed loop cooling uses a
circulated cooling medium. Seawater is used to cool to returned cooling medium. The
medium normally consists of a glycol / water mixture (glycol concentration 30-40wt%).
Air Cooling System Air cooling is normally used
for cooling emergency generators and other essential equipment which must continue to be
cooled in the event of open /closed loop cooling system. Their application for process
cooling is normally found on onshore facilities due to the large footprint requirements.
Cooling Systems Contd
To Atmospheric Vent
Typical Closed Loop System
N2 Blanket
Design Rules of Thumb
Expansion Expansion Tank -2 mins. Residence time
Pump Capacity - 125% of design rate
Pump Configuration - 3 x 50%

Process Filter

Seawater Circulation
Coolers Pumps

Design Supply / Return Temperatures Temperature Approaches

Open Loop Supply - Max. Cooling water return temperatures should be
Ambient Return - 30-35C (Scale limited for practical operation purposes to
dependent) within :
Closed Loop Supply - 5C 8C of a hot process liquid temperature
above Seawater Temperature Return - 50C 5C of a hot condensing hydrocarbon outlet
Cooling Systems Contd
Open / Closed System Comparison

System Advantages Disadvantages

Open Loop - simple once through system - expensive exchanger materials -
less labour intensive - major constraint on applicable - lighter system
temperature range - potential for scaling
- limited choice of exchangers
Closed Loop - cooling water properties - additional equipment(CM system)
and conditions can be controlled - more labour intensive - less expensive
exchangers - heavier system (overall) - system availability

The selection of the cooling system is normally determined on a case by case basis since each system has its
benefits. The choice of system is decided by considering Capex and Opex costs over field life.
Instrument / Plant Air
Inert Gas Generation

Air Compressor Air Filter Drilling Instrument Air

Packages Packages
Instrument Air Instrument Air Header

Plant Air
Receiver Drilling Conveying Air
Black Start Air
Black Start Air Filter Package
Compressor Package Plant Air Header

Black Start
Air Receiver Drilling Plant Air

Typical Combined Instrument And Plant Air

Instrument air should be oil free, dust free and dry, Plant air does not have any particular specifications,
is typically provided at 7 - 9 barg and may be used is typically provided at 7 barg (minimum) and may
for: be used for:
Instrument actuators (largest user) Platform hoists

Motor purging/pressurisation Air driven tools

Flare ignition Paint spraying

Diving (air winches etc.)
Inert gas generation
Instrument / Plant Air Contd

Instrument Air: Plant air:

Consumption rates for instrument air should If no specific information is available, the
be based on all instruments operating plant air requirements may be taken to be
simultaneously and then applying a design equal to the instrument air requirements.
margin typically 30%. Typical consumption figures:
Grinder (6/8): 90 Sm3/h
Each instrument component: 8.5 Sm3/h
Sump pump: 130 Sm3/h
Motors, positioners and purge air: 5 - 18 Sm 3/h
Paint sprayer: 150 - 250 Sm3/h
Rotary drill (3/8) 40 - 75 Sm3/h
Typical instrument air requirements for a
large offshore type facility may be as Typically, the plant air requirements for a
follows (drilling excluded): large offshore facility may be as follows:
Air for instruments: 950 Sm3/h Platform hoists: 400 Sm3/h
Motor purging/pressurisation: 180 Sm3/h Air driven tools: 120 - 150 Sm3/h
Flare ignition (intermittent): 40 Sm3/h Paint spraying: 150 - 250 Sm3/h
Inert gas generation: 170 Sm3/h Diving: 300 - 1200
Instrument / Plant Air Contd

Air Compression: Air Receivers

The compressor types preferred are: Air receivers are necessary to damp pressure
Oil free centrifugal air compressors surges in the system and provide storage which
(2000 - 30000 Sm3/h) will maintain an air supply on compressor
Dry running oil free rotary compressor, failure
generally with two stages and intercooling The volume of storage required is given by:
(1000 - 5000 Sm3/h)
Oil injected rotary screw compressor (150 t Q
- 2500 Sm3/h)
57 P1 P2

Air Dryers: V Storage volume (m3)

P1 Normal operating pressure (bara)
Instrument air should be dried to a
P2 Minimum acceptable pressure (bara)
suitable dewpoint at operating
t Required duration of flow from storage (min)
pressure (typically minus 40oC)
Q Air flow required (Sm3/h)

The time allowed for start-up of a standby

compressor is typically five minutes
Diesel Systems
Crane Drivers
To Drill Packages Drill Package Diesel Drivers
To Drilling Burners Emergency Generators
Mud Mixing Black Start Air Compressor Driver

PC Chemical Injection
From Supply PC Auxiliary Fire Pumps
Heating Medium Heaters
PC Power Plant Main Turbines
Filter Coalescer
Diesel Fuel
Inlet Diesel Transfer Untreated Diesel PC
Strainer Pump Fuel Strainer Raw Diesel
Bulk Diesel
Centrifuge Centrifuged Coalesced
Storage Diesel Diesel
Storage Storage
Water Removal Tank Tank
Water Removal

Typical Flow Scheme for Diesel Distribution

Diesel may be used by: Quality Diesel Usage Rates:
Gas Turbine Generators 10 ppm free water, 1m solids Gas Turbines: 25 to 30% efficiency
Heating medium Heaters 200 ppm free water, 5 m solids on installed power
Diesel (emergency) Generators 10 ppm free water, 1m solids Engines: 0.25 kg/kWh
Diesel Firewater Pumps 200 ppm free water, 5 m solids Fired Heaters: 75 to 80% efficiency
Miscellaneous Diesel Drives 200 ppm free water, 5 m solids on thermal rating
Lifeboats 200 ppm free water, 5 m solids
Cranes 200 ppm free water, 5 m solids Storage Capacity:
Mobile/Temporary Users 200 ppm free water, 5 m solids Drilling: 5 to 7 days
Drilling Package Engines 200 ppm free water, 5 m solids Life support: 10 to 14 days
Drilling Operations No treatment (raw diesel) Production: 0 days
Inert Gas
To N2 Distribution


N2 Receiver
Instrument Air

Standby N2 Bottles

Typical N2 Generation Scheme (Membrane)

Inert gas is utilised for purging and blanketing purposes: The inert gas system should be sized to fully purge the largest
Purging of: section of isolated equipment within one shift, whilst meeting
gas compression trains blanketing requirements
gas pig launchers/receivers For pressure purge (typically 5 barg) the system is purged 2 or 3
Blanketing of: times. For sweep purging at atmospheric pressure, the inert gas
requirement is 3 times the system volume
produced water flotation units
Blanketing of flotation units typically requires 0.015 to 0.03 m 3/h
heating medium expansion tanks
per m3 of cell volume
lube and seal oil tanks
Source of inert gas:
Gas freeing of vessels for maintenance
Inert gas generator (diesel or gas fired; purity 0.5% O 2)
Snuffing of local vents
Pressure swing absorption (PSA; 0.5 - 3.0% O 2)
HP inert gas may be used to kick off wells, in which case
Membrane generated N2 (0.1 - 5.0% O2)
further HP compression is required
Air liquefaction (99.999+% N 2)
Inert Gas

Advantages of liquid nitrogen over the Disadvantages:

other sources: Not suitable when a continuous demand exists
Very pure nitrogen (99.999+%) Liquid nitrogen pods delivered by supply boats,
High inert gas rates achievable which must be well protected in a cradle
No gas compression required - pressure
vessel can operate at 10 barg
Low heating requirement - ambient air
vaporiser can raise temperature to within
10oC of ambient
No cooling water
Low maintenance

Nitrogen is stored in high pressure cylinders. Batteries consist of of 12 to 15 cylinders and are manifolded together to
provide 80 to 100 Nm3 of high purity nitrogen

Cylinders are usually chosen when no continuous inert gas flow is required and purging/blanketing flows are relatively small
Inert gas need not necessarily be Nitrogen. Tankers and FPSOs use combustion products from burning diesel as inert gas
for tank blanketing
Fuel Gas Systems

To Vent / Flare


Fuel Gas
Knockout To Fuel Gas
Fuel Gas from Drum Manifold
Supply Source
LC Fuel Gas Heater

To LP users
Power Supply
To Closed Drains

Typical Fuel Gas Conditioning Scheme

Fuel gas is used for/as: Usually two pressure levels:
Gas Turbines for Power Generation HP Gas Turbines (10 - 20 bar)
Gas Turbines for Compressor Drivers LP Fired Heaters, Blanket Gas, Purge Gas,
Fired Heaters Stripping Gas (0.1 - 2.0 bar)
Stripping Gas
Glycol Regeneration Some gas engines need very high inlet pressures
Blanket and Purge Gas (Foinaven, approx. 300 bar)
Fuel Gas Systems

The fuel gas quality is set by the user that demands the
highest specification, which normally is the power A fuel gas knock out drum should be provided upstream
generation or machinery drivers of the heater to remove any entrained particles
Solids content: < 30 ppm (wt)
Water content: < 0.25% water above saturation at the Fuel Gas Storage:
point of use The fuel gas knock out drum should be sized for a
Supply temperature: A fall in temperature of 11oC holding capacity of 20 seconds to enable automatic
should not result in condensation or hydrate formation changeover to liquid fuel in the event of loss of fuel gas
Calorific value: Ideally the net calorific value should be
between 33.5 and 41 MJ/Sm 3
Sulphur components: Moderate levels of sulphur Materials:
bearing components are not a problem provided that Normally carbon steel is adequate for fuel gas systems.
the temperature of the combustion products is If wet gas with carbon dioxide is expected, stainless
maintained above the acid gas dewpoint. steel may be required for equipment and pipework.
If hydrogen sulphide presence is expected, equipment
and piping should be designed in accordance with
Fuel Gas Conditioning: NACE std. MR-01-75
Fuel gas should be heated to approx. 20 oC above its Emissions
water and hydrocarbon dewpoints Fuel gas should preferably be treated in order to
Fuel gas should be filtered to remove 99.5% of minimise harmful combustion emissions eg. Remove
particles > 5 m any H2S to prevent SOx emissions
Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning
HVAC systems are designed to achieve the HVAC facilities contain:
following: Air conditioning systems
Ensure a safe environment under all working Supply air temperature range: 13.5 - 15.0oC
conditions Relative humidity: 35 - 65%
Ensure adequate standard of personnel Mechanical ventilation systems
comfort and equipment operating environment Supply air temperature range: 19.5oC max design
ambient ventilation only; 13.0oC ventilation with cooling
System to enable pressurisation of the modules
Air Inlet Controlled pressurisation levels of between 70 N/m 2
Fire & Gas
and 120 N/m2 above atmospheric pressure are
Fan Blade maintained by pressure control dampers, mounted in
Louvres the enclosure extract/relief systems
Natural ventilation system; A key variable in the
MCC Extractor Fan design of HVAC systems is the amount of air
Fan changes per hour.
Telecoms For respiration purposes a minimum of 12
liters per second per person should be
Fan Heating / supplied.
AC Unit For analyser houses/control rooms the
number should be 12 volume changes per
Recirculation Fan hour

Typical HVAC System

Chemical Injection
Chemicals are often required to ensure the satisfactory operation
of the process and utility systems installed on offshore platforms

Most chemicals are supplied in either 55 US gallon drums or 2

tonne bulk units

Chemical Injection Pumps:

positive displacement variable flow
spared for continuous or frequent duty Chemical Injection Skid
multiple heads for multiple injection points
IRCDS-system (Injection Rate Control + Distribution System)

Two storage or mix tanks should be provided for each chemical
Total volume should be sufficient for 10 - 14 days injection at
rated capacity
The tank size of a mix tank should be suitable for making up a
batch from a standard sized container

Chemical Injection Skid

Chemical Injection
Chemicals for Crude Oil Streams
Chemical (1) Typical Injection Points Typical Dosing Preliminary Notes:
Rates Rate Estimates
ppm ppm
Emulsion Breaker 1st Stage and Test Separator Inlets 10 to 60 25 1 Required chemicals depend on
Desalter Inlet 5 to 10 5 (2)
Atmospheric Separator Inlet 5 to 10 5 (2)
particular application
Coalescer Inlets 5 to 10 5 (2) 2 Replenishment to bring chemical
Anti-Foam 1st Stage and Test Separator Inlets 1 to 100 5 additive to effective dosage
Desalter Inlet 1 to 10 2 (2)
Pour Point Downhole Export Pump Inlet 50 to 100 100
Depressant 5 to 100 10 (2)
Scale Inhibitor Heater Inlets 1 to 5 2.5
Corrosion Inhibitor Downhole Export Pump Inlet 5 to 10 5

Chemicals for Water Injection Streams

Chemical (1) Typical Injection Points Typical Dosing Preliminary Notes:
Rates Rate Estimates
ppm ppm
Coagulent Filter Inlet 0.5 to 5.0 2.0 1 Required chemicals depend on
Anti-Foam Deaerater Inlet 0.1 to 5.0 1.0 particular application
Oxygen Scavenger Deaerater Outlet 5.0 to 10.0 5.0
2 Batch injection based on 4 hours
Scale Inhibitor Deaerater Outlet 5 to 15 5.0
Biocide Deaerater Outlet/ 50 to 200 50 (2) twice a week
Injection Water Filters/ 3 Batch injection based on 6 hours
Injection Pump outlet once a fortnight
Surfactant Water Injection wells 5.0 5.0 (3)
Corrosion Inhibitor Injection Pump Inlet 5.0 5.0
4 Batch injection based on 24 hours
Sodium Hypochlorite Injection Pump Outlet 30 30 (4) once a fortnight (alternative to
Chemical Injection
Miscellaneous Chemicals
Stream Chemical (1) Typical Injection Points Typical Dosing Preliminary
Rates Rate Estimates
ppm ppm
Produced Water Emulsion Breaker Produced Water Degasser Inlet 5 to 10 5
Ballast Water Anti-Foam Ballast Water Separators 5 to 10 5
Ballast Water Degasser Inlet 1 to 5 1
Coagulent Flotation Unit Inlet 5 5
Seawater Sodium Hypochlorite Lift Pump Suction 4 (2)
Scale Inhibitor Lift Pump Discharge 5 5
Cooling Medium/ Corrosion Inhibitor Circulation Pump Suction 1000 1000
Hot Water Circuits (top-up only)
Fresh Water Scale Inhibitor (Potable Grade) U/S & D/S of Potable Water 5 5
Chlorine/Hypochlorite D/S of Potable Water Makers 1 to 2
Gas Streams Corrosion Inhibitor Gas Pipeline 1 to 10 5
Methanol As required
Glycol System PH Control Chemical By Glycol Package Vendor
Anti-Foam By Glycol Package Vendor
Sludge Recovery Emulsion Breaker Upstream of Sludge Heater 5 to 10 25


1 Required chemicals depend on particular application

2 Typical regulatory requirement for cooling water discharge: < 1 mg/litre residual chlorine
Closed Drains System Open Drains System
Closed Open Drains Open Drains
To LP Flare Haz. Deck Area
Drains Safe deck Area

Closed Drains
Open Drains Open Drains
Vessel LC
Haz. Safe Modules
Closed Modules
Drains Chemical
Injection Vent
Purge Vent PurgeVent
O/Flow O/Flow
Return Oil To
Production To Sludge Seawater
Separators Cell Discharge
Reclaimed Oil Tank/Pumps Oily Water Tank/Pumps Oily Water Separator

Typical Drainage System

Closed Drains:
Hazardous Open Drains
To collect hydrocarbon drainage from
Drainage from hazardous areas, including
pressurised and hazardous equipment
fire water deluge drainage
Vapours from the closed drains vessel are
Gravity flow to oily water tank
routed to the LP flare
Non-hazardous Open Drains
Liquids from closed drains vessel are
either routed to the oily water tank or the Drainage from safe areas
production separators Gravity flow to oily water tank, including
fire water deluge drainage

Closed Drains: Closed Drains Headers:

All equipment drains should be protected by locked Sized to allow drainage of the largest vessel in one
closed block valves hour
Where there is a risk of blockage by sludge or If the capacity of the closed drains vessel is not
hydrates, individual drain lines from equipment up to greater than the largest vessel, the outflow line(s)
the drain headers should be rated for the same from the closed drains vessel should be sized for a
pressure as the equipment being drained higher capacity than the inflow
Where there is a possibility of hydrate formation,
lines should be heat traced and insulated Closed Drains Vessel:
The closed drains vessel may be designed as a two
Capacity of closed drains vessel = volume of
or three phase separator:
largest vessel + 10%
Three phase separator: water is directed to the
This size is generally impractical for large
oily water (open drains) tank for final clean up
production trains. Therefore, reduce the capacity
Two phase separator: oil/water returned by the storage volume in the reclaimed oil tank.
upstream of the last three phase production Further capacity reduction may be gained by
separator dumping the crude or sludge to storage cells
The reclaimed oil tank overflow may be directed to
the sludge cell in a GBS platform. Otherwise it
should be directed to a drains disposal caisson with
oil recovery pump
Accommodation Modules
An accommodation module usually contains:
A typical manning breakdown for a deepwater
Basic requirements e.g. beds; function of manning level and North Sea platform is as follows:
simultaneous operations, galley etc. Management Services 11%
Fresh water (250 litre/day/man) Catering 10%
Power supply (2.5 - 3.0 kW/man) Production 12%
Seawater Maintenance 23%
Cooling/Heating medium Construction 15%
Black water / Grey water disposal Drilling 21%
HVAC Visitors/Contingency 8%
ATK system
Sprinkler system

The utilities used in the accommodation blocks should be physically

separated from the process utilities
The accommodation often serves as temporary refuge and should
therefore be fire proofed
The accommodation should be remote from drilling and process areas
Onshore Utilities
Utilities required for onshore processing differ mainly due to the size of onshore
facilities and the extra space available. Some of the key systems are discussed
briefly below:-
Cooling Water
Most onshore facilities make use of a closed circuit cooling water system, with the
water cooled by fin-fan coolers or cooling water towers. If the location is suitable, use
may be made of water from sources such as rivers or sea.
Steam is normally used onshore as the prime form of heating medium. It as also
used for a number of other purposes eg. machinery drives, purging and inerting,
cleaning, snuffing. Steam is generated in the works power station, often using waste
heat as input. A key utility required for steam generation is boiler quality feed water.
This requires a significant amount of water treatment equipment (demineralisation
Onshore Utilities
Plant Air & Instrument Air
The plant and instrument air requirements for an onshore plant are very similar to
those of an offshore facility - simply more space to locate them.
Inert Gas
Most onshore facilities will provide on site Nitrogen generation. The method will
depend on the volume required. Liquid nitrogen plants are economic if the demand is
very high but for small to medium demands, Pressure Swing Absorption or
Membrane generation is more applicable.
Fuel Gas/Fuel Oil
Fuel is normally required for power generation onshore. If fuel gas from the
hydrocarbon stream being processed is available, this is treated and used in the
same way as offshore. Combustion emission constraints may be more strict onshore,
and power turbine and fuel gas requirements have to be designed to take account of
Where fuel gas is unavailable, storage of diesel/fuel oil is provided (SVT approx.
1000 m3 capacity).
Onshore Utilities
The design of an onshore facility drains system should be settled at an early stage as
it is not usually practical to increase drain capacity once installed. The intent of an
effluent drains system is similar to offshore in that discharges should be limited to
clean water. Onshore, however, the water quality constraints are much more
stringent. This leads to the use of settling tanks/ponds etc.
Drain systems need to be designed to avoid flooding of vulnerable points such as
pump pits etc. Flooding by rain water, and the potential for effluent carryover into
water courses etc should also be reviewed carefully.
Gaseous effluents onshore should be burnt or discharged from a tall stack so that
fumes are not obnoxious to the site or public. Flare stacks are normally sited long
way from the process plant and the immediate area around it is sterilised due to
high noise and radiation. Ground flares can also be used in areas where no visible
flame is required (eg Wytchfarm)
Drilling Requirements
Apart from the actual drilling equipment (rotary rig, drill string, Generally the difference in dry and operating weight
drill pipes etc.) a basic drilling system requires: on a drilling rig can be huge (stored mud etc.)

Drilling systems are usually designed by specialist

A drilling fluid or mud to cool the drill bit and remove the
cuttings. Drilling mud can be based on:
Oil (OBM) which is no longer considered
environmentally acceptable, or
Water (WBM), which is most frequently used
A mud circulation (clean up) system, which requires:
Shale shaker, to remove cuttings
Desander and desilter (hydrocyclone) to remove fine
Mud tanks, to store the cleaned mud (very large)
Mud pumps, to circulate the mud
A blowout prevention system (BOP) to control formation
fluids entering the wellbore
A cement system to provide support for the casing and
create a hydraulic seal between formation and casing
The usual utilities, i.e. diesel, seawater, potable water etc.
Drilling Rig
Drilling Requirements
Basic Mud Mixing Method
Drilling Requirements
High Pressure Mud Pumps
Drilling Requirements
Mud Processing Schematic
Drilling Requirements
Typical Bulk Cement System
Drilling Requirements
Cement Mixing System