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Comminution

Crushing Pressure Impact


Grinding Shear Friction

Crushing
1. Primary Crushing 100cm-10cm
2. Secondary Crushing 10cm-1cm
3. Grinding

Primary Grinding 10mm-1mm


Middle Grinding 1mm-0.1mm
Finely Grinding 100m-10m
Superfine Grinding 10m-1m
Forces for Breaking Ores


Pressure Chipping Fracture Stripping
Why Comminution need divide into several stage for breaking
1. limiting by machines strength
2. limiting by machines characteristics
3. limiting by Nip angle
4. different particle size needs different breaking force.
5. avoid over grinding

Breaking Forces

1. (Compression) One machine cannot


2. (Bending) produce all of different
3. (shearing) breaking forces,
4. (Impact) therefore, comminution
5. (Torsion) need divide into several
6. (Cutting) stage for breaking.
7. ( )
(abrasion)
Crusher/Mill
1. Primary Crusher
Jaw Crusher
Gyratory Crusher

2. Secondary Crusher
Cone Crusher
Rolls Crusher
Impact Crusher

3. Mill
Ball mill
Rod mill
Four type of Jaw Crusher
(1) Blake type

(2) Dodge type


(3) Single Toggle Type

(4) Horizontal Pitman Type


Specification of Jaw crusher

specification
GL (inch)
Mouth
l
S=Close Set
So=Open Set
So -S =W (Throw)
S G
So n= Nip Angle

Throat
l
n

S
The biggest particle size in Feeding
Reduction Ratio R.R
The biggest particle size after crushing

The thickness of biggest particle size in Feeding


Limiting R.R
The thickness of biggest particle size after crushing

The sieve size can be passed 80 wt% of particles in Feeding


80% R.R
The sieve size can be passed 80 wt% of particles after crushing
Reduction Ratio of Jaw Crusher is around 4~6, but generally
using 4

100cm size ore10cm using Jaw Crusher to crushing

100
25cm
4

25
6. 25cm
4

(Meets the requirements)


Gyratory Crusher

Reduction Ratio = 4
Cone Crusher
The cone crusher is a modified gyratory crusher

The throw of cone


crushers can be up to
five times that of
primary crushers

C.C RPM fast than


G.C
(C.C=250 RPM
G.C=150RPM)
Rolls Crusher

Roll crushers, or crushing


rolls, are still used in some
mills, although they have
been replaced in most
installations by cone
crushers. They still have a
useful application in handling
friable, sticky, frozen, and
less abrasive feeds, such
as limestone, coal, chalk,
gypsum, phosphate, and
soft iron ores.
Hammer Mill
Grinding

Gravity Separation 20~ 30mesh


Flotation 100~200mesh

Wear-resistant steel
Grinding Ball Pebble
media
ZrO2 Al2O3
Rod Wear-resistant steel
grinding media
Tumbling Mill Types

1. Ball Mill
2. Rod Mill
3. Pebble Mill
4. Autogenous Mill
Types of Tumbling Mill
Depending on the shape
1. Cylindrical Mill
2. Tube Mill
3. Conical Mill
4. Compartmented Mill

Depending on the media


1. Ball Mill
2. Rod Mill
3. Pebble Mill
4. Autogenous Mill
Method Of Discharge
1. Centre Discharge
2. Grate Discharge
3. Peripheral Discharge

1 2 3

Dry or Wet grinding


1. Wet grinding
2. Dry gringing
Hardinge mill
Several factors influence the efficiency of ball mill grinding.
The pulp density of the feed should be as high as possible,
consistent with ease of flow through the mill. It is essential that
the balls are coated with a layer of ore; too dilute a pulp
increases metal-to-metal contact, giving increased steel
consumption and reduced efficiency.

Ball mills should operate between 65 and 80% solids by weight,


depending on the ore. The viscosity of the pulp increases with
the fineness of the particles, therefore fine-grinding circuits may
need lower pulp densities.

The efficiency of grinding depends on the surface area of the


grinding medium. Thus, balls should be as small as possible and
the charge should be graded such that the largest balls are just
heavy enough to grind the largest and hardest particles in the
feed.
Ball Mill & Rod Mill
The Impact of Ball Mill & Rod Mill
Critical Speed The speed that when Centrifugal force equal to
gravity.

Trajectory of grinding medium in tumbling mill forces acting on the medium


C W
mv 2
C W mg
r
mv 2
mg
r
2
2 r Nk
m

60 mg g 32.2 ft / sec 2
r
54.2 76.7 r= radius of the inside cylinder wall(ft)
Nk Nk D=diameter
D= of the inside cylinder wall (ft)
r D

When the diameter of the rod, or ball, is taken into account, the radius of the outermost path is (D-
d)/2, where D is the mill diameter and d the rod or ball diameter in metres.

N Nk N Actual speed (rpm) %


= 0.4~0.6 Cascading Motion
= 0.6~0.8 Cataracting Speed
Animation of the charge motion
Ball distributions at selected times
A 5 m ball mill with 23 lifter bars The same mill filled with rocks (5 to
rotating clockwise at 80% of the 50 mm) and balls (50 to 200 mm)
critical speed filled with 75, 100 and rotating at 110% of critical shows
200 mm non-circular particles is very clear radial segregation
shown here. The non-circularity (77%).
causes dilation in the shearing
avalanche region.
Mill speed
Fill level
Lifter shape
Lifter pattern
A comparison of the full 3D streak pictures with the
experiments for three different mill speeds
Tumbling Mill Operations

1. Particle size of feeding


2. Amount of feeding
3. Pulp density
4. Amount of media
5. Rotating speed
6. Grinding time
7. Wet grinding or dry grinding
Wet grinding is generally used in mineral processing
operations because of the overall economies of
operation. The advantages of wet grinding are:

1. It consumes lower power per tonne of product


2. It has higher capacity per unit mill volume
3. It makes possible the use of wet screening or
classification for close product control
4. It eliminates the dust problem
5. It makes possible the use of simple handling and
transport methods such as pumps, pipes, and
launders
Agitating Mill
Bead Mill
Comminution Circuit
1. Open Circuit Comminution

Feed Crushing or GrindingProducts

2. Closed Circuit Comminution


Introduction of sizing device in an open circuit, avoid
over-grinding and increases the energy available for useful
grinding as long as there is an ample supply of unfinished
material present.
Open Circuit
Closed Circuit
Normal & Reverse circuit

Feed (F, f)
Feed(F.f)
Blend(B, b) Blend (B, b)

Size Reducer Size Separator


product(P, p)
Size Separator Oversize (S, s) Undersize (U, u)

Oversize Undersize Size Reducer Product (P, p)


(S,s) (U,u)

(normal circuit) (reverse circuit)


These two circuits can be used in secondary crushing or grinding process. Normal circuit
always used in the ore after blasting. It has less fine particle size ore. However, reverse
circuit always used when original ore has large amount of fine particle size ore.

From above process that we can obtain Returned Feed Ratio:

Tons balance
B=F+S=P P=S+U
Grade balance
Bb=Ff+Ss Pp=Ss+Uu BSF
Returned Feed Ratio Lc
Bb Ss Ff
S f b up Bb Sb Fb
Lc= = =
F b s = ps F ( f b) S ( b s)
Returned Feed

f b u p
S F S F
b s p s
F= feed weight
f= The weight % of particles less than certain particle size in feed
S= returned feed weight
s= The weight % of particles less than certain particle size in returned feed
P= crusher discharge weight
p = The weight % of particles less than certain particle size in crusher discharge
B= mixed weight
b=The
b= weight % of particles less than certain particle size in mixed

Calculation the amount of Returned Feed (S)

S
1 R 1 f F
R 1 s

R= the reduced % of the particles coarser than certain particle size, before and after
crushing
x% = the % particles larger than certain particle size in feed
y% = the % particles larger than certain particle size after crushing
xy
100%= reduced parts
x
A secondary crushing circuit (100 tons/hr) is shown in the
following flowchart. Please calculate the returned feed, ratio of
returned feed (Screen size 1 cm)

Size Feed Crusher Oversize Undersize


(cm) (wt%) Discharge (wt%) (wt%)
(wt%)
+2 50 10 20 0
-2x1 30 20 40 0
-1x0.5 15 20 25 5
-0.5x0.2 3 25 7 50
-0.2 2 25 8 45