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CHEMICAL BONDING

CHEMICAL BOND
Chemical bond a force that holds atoms or
ions together as a unit
Chemical formula notation that tells what
elements are in a compound and how many
of each element there are
STABILITY OF ATOMS
Atoms like to be stable by having a full
valence orbital
Stableatoms do not react
Unstable atoms react easily
Atoms gain or lose electrons based on their
oxidation number to reach a full/empty shell
Stability can be seen using Lewis Dot Diagrams
TYPES OF BONDS AND
COMPOUNDS
Ionic
Covalent
Metallic
IONIC BONDS
http://tinyurl.com/jkm2v2n

Which type of elements easily lose electrons?


Which easily gain electrons?
Why does the sodium atom attract the
chlorine atom?
What structure is formed by multiple ion
pairs sticking together?
IONIC BOND
Bonding of two atoms through the
transferring of electrons
Between a metal and a nonmetal
Transferring electrons forms two ions
Cation positive charge gives away electrons
Anion negative charge steals electrons
DRAWING IONS
Start by drawing the Lewis Dot Diagram
Add/Subtract the electrons that are transferred
Draw brackets around diagram, write the
charge in the top right corner
DRAWING IONS
Practice: Draw the following ions
Sodium, lost 1 electron

Oxygen, gained two electrons

Magnesium, lost two electrons


PERIODIC TREND OF IONS
Ionization Energy
The amount of energy it takes to strip an atom of
one electron
Determines the oxidation number of an atom
Trend on the Periodic Table increases up and
right
IONIZATION ENERGY
The lower the ionization energy, the more
reactive an element is
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HvVUtp
dK7xw&t=15s
High ionization energies do not always mean
highly reactive
IONIC COMPOUNDS
Compounds that contain ionic bonds
Form ionic crystals as solids
Ionic compounds shatter when struck
Poor conductors as solids, good conductors in
solutions
NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS
Binary ionic compound - compound with only
two elements
1. Name the cation
2. Name the anion
1. Replace the ending with -ide
2. Example: oxygen -> oxide, chlorine -> chloride
Examples:
. NaCl
. MgBr2
NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS
Metals with multiple ions
Many transition metals have more than one ion,
which is why we couldnt say they have a
specific number of valence electrons
These metals have multiple names
Examples:
Copper (I) and Copper (II)
Iron (II) and Iron (III)
Lead (II) and Lead (IV)
The
number after the element indicates how
many electrons it is able to lose
NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS
Polyatomic ions multiple elements bonded
together that have a net charge
Naming the works the same as binary
compounds
Common Polyatomic ions:
DETERMINING IONIC FORMULAS
FROM NAMES
1. Write the cation Magnesium Bromide
1. Chemical symbol
2. charge (oxidation #)
2. Write the anion
1. Chemical symbol
2. Charge (oxidation #)
3. Determine the number of each atoms
1. Number of anions = charge of cation
2. Number of cations = charge of anion
WARM UP
Correction from yesterday:
Naming ionic compounds: Greek prefixes are not
used

Worksheet from yesterday


#3-5
COVALENT BONDS
Bonding of two atoms through the sharing of
electrons
Both atoms hold the electron in their orbitals
Between two nonmetals
Atoms trying to fill their outer orbitals
COVALENT BONDS
Molecule neutral group of atoms that are
help together by covalent bonds
Types of covalent bonds forming molecules
Single bond between 2 electrons, one from
each atom
Double bond between 4 electrons, two from
each atom
Triple bond between 6 electrons, three from
each atom
LARGE MOLECULES
An atom can bond to multiple other atoms,
depending on its valence electrons
Best example: Carbon
UNEQUAL SHARING OF
ELECTRONS
Polar covalent bond a covalent bond in
which electrons are not shared equally
Electrons are pulled harder by some atoms than
by others
Electronegativity how strongly an atom
attracts electrons
POLAR BONDS
Polar bonds form polar molecules
Moleculesthat have a negative charge on one
end and a positive charge on the other end
Polar molecules attract each other
HYDROGEN BONDING
Attraction between a hydrogen atom and
another atom of a different molecule
Both atoms being attracted to each other
need to be part of a polar covalent bond
NAMING MOLECULES
Atoms are listed in order of increasing
electronegativity
The last element in the molecule ends with
-ide
Greek prefixes indicate how many of each
atom are in the molecule
WARM UP
Summarize notes about ionic and covalent
bonds
Write two questions
1 level 1 question
1 level 2 question
METALLIC BONDS
Attraction between a metal cation and the
free electrons around it
Between two or more metals
Properties
Electrons flow easily among atoms
Good conductors
Malleable
ALLOYS
Two or more elements that form metallic
bonds
Alloys have properties that are different
from all elements in them
ALLOYS
Bronze made from Copper and Tin
Copper and Tin are both very soft
Bronze is much stronger and harder
Used in ancient swords and shields
Brass made from Copper and Zinc
Softerand more malleable than brass
Used in decorations and instruments
ALLOYS
Steel made from Iron and Carbon
Stronger that iron because carbon holds the iron
together
Many different alloys of steel that contain different
elements, such as chromium or manganese
Alloys are made to have specific properties for
specific functions
NAMING COMPOUNDS GAME