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REMOVAL OF DYE FROM TEXTILE

WASTE WATER USING BACTERIAL


CELL

AKHILA JACOB UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF


S7 CHEMICAL MRS.NIKHI MARIA RAJU
ROLL NO:9

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INDEX
INTRODUCTION
EFFECTS OF DYE EFFLUENTS
POLLUTANTS IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY
TECHNOLOGIES FOR COLOUR REMOVAL
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES
AZODYES
COLOUR REMOVAL USING BACTERIAL CELL
MECHANISM OF COLOUR REMOVAL
FACTORS AFFECTING COLOUR REMOVAL
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
APPLICATIONS
CONCLUSION 3/28/17
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INTRODUCTION

Emerging industrial sector in our country

2500 weaving factorise and 4135 textile finishing factories all over
India

Worlds second largest producer of fibre

Water is the major resource used in the textile industry

Dyes and finishing chemicals are introduced into the textile substrate
through water bath

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Contd
Dyeing and finishing stages are the major producer of wastewater with
complex characteristics

The unused dyes and chemicals are discharged as dye effluents from
various units

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EFFECT OF DYE PLANT
SPECIES
EFFLUENTS Interrupt
photosynthesis activity
Decreases soil quality
Increases
Affects plant growth
toxicity
,COD,BOD

DYE
AQUATIC
ENVIRONMENT
EFFLUENTS ANIMALS

Hazardous Increased level of


diseases danger to life of
carcinogenic aquatic organisms

HUMAN
BEINGS

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POLLUTANTS IN TEXTILE
INDUSTRY
Colour

Dissolved solids

Toxic metals

Residual chlorine

Refractory materials

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TECHNOLOGIES AVAILABLE FOR
COLOUR REMOVAL
1. Adsorption
2. Ion Exchange
3. Reverse osmosis
4. Ultrafiltration
5. Nano filtration

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Contd
ADSORPTION

Dissolved organics are adsorbed on


the surface of adsorbent as the waste
water is allowed to pass through it

Removes organic dyes , toxic


chemicals, cyanides

Common adsorbent used is activated


carbon

Fly ash is used to adsorb methylene Adsorption by activated carbon


blue and congo red textile dyes
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Contd
ION EXCHANGE

Exchange of ions between two


electrolytes or between an
electrolyte and insoluble solids

Removes inorganic salts and


organic anionic components

Ion exchange resins

Cannot be used for the removal


of non ionic compounds

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MEMBRANE FILTRATION
1. Reverse Osmosis
A process by which a solvent passes through a porous membrane in
the direction opposite to that for natural osmosis when subjected to a
hydrostatic pressure greater than osmotic pressure.

Membrane used is cellulose acetate or nylon

Fouling

Pretreatment of effluent is necessary

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Contd..
2.Ultrafiltration

Membrane retains only macromolecules and suspended solids

Osmotic pressure difference across the membrane is negligible,high flux

rate and low pressure

Cellulose acetate, polyelectrolyte complexes, nylon and inert polymers

Chemical attack

fig 2: Ultrafiltration

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Cont..

3.Nanofiltration

Removes calcium ,magnesium,bacteria,viruses and


colour

Turbidity and colloids should be low

Disinfection of feed should be necessary

Fouling

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
EXISTING TECHNIQUES
PROCESS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Adsorption Removes wide range of Adsorbent requires
dyes regeneration or
disposal
Ion exchange Regeneration: no Not effective for all
adsorbent loss dyes
Membrane Removes all types of Concentrated sludge
technologies dyes production
Fouling
Chances for chemical
attack

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AZO DYES

Synthethic aromatic dyes

Contains -N=N- and sulfonic group

Water soluble organic compound

Eg; Congo red, Remazol black

Large amount present in textile effluent

Toxic, cause environmental and health problem

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COLOUR REMOVAL USING WHOLE
BACTERIAL CELL
Capacity to metabolise azo dyes

Neutralize the toxicity of azo dyes

Coupled aerobic and anaerobic degradation

Anaerobic conditions bacteria secretes enzyme azo reductase

Convert electrophilic azo bond into colourless aromatic amines

Removal of xenobiotic component of dye

The amines produced undergo aerobic mineralization

Amines are converted to biodegradable form


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MECHANISM OF COLOUR REMOVAL

There are mainly two mechanisms

1. By direct electron transfer to azo dyes

2. By end products of bacterial catabolism

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Contd..
Direct electron transfer to azo dyes

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Contd
1.Colour Removal by direct electron Transport

Electron transport linked reduction of azo dyes

Bacteria establishes a link between their intercellular electron


transport system and azo dye molecules

Electron transport components should localised in the outer


membrane of bacterial cell

At cell surface these components get direct contact with either azo
dye substrate or a redox mediator

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Contd
Redox mediators depends on cytoplasmic reducing enzymes to supply
electrons

Electron is transferred to the azo dye through enzymes during


bacterial catabolism, connected to ATP generation

Addition of synthetic redox mediator facilitate non enzymatic reduction


of azo dyes in the extra cellular environment

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Contd..
2.By End Products Of Bacterial Activity

Reduction of azo bond by reduced inorganic compounds

Fe2+ or H2S formed as the end product of anaerobic bacterial reactions

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Table 2:Examples of bacteria and their degrading dyes
Bacteria Degrading dyes
Citrobacter sp.CK3 Reactive Red 180
Halomonas sp Remazol black
Bacillus subtilis Acid blue 113
Pseudomonas sp Orange 3R

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FACTORS AFFECTING COLOUR
1. Oxygen REMOVAL
Significant effect on physiological characteristics of cell

Inhibit the dye reduction mechanism

Aerobic conditions are required for complete mineralisation of aromatic


amines

2. Temperature

Rate of colour removal increases with increase in temperature within a


defined range

Optimum temperature ranges from 35 to 45 degree Celsius

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Contd..
Azo reductase enzyme remain active up to 60 degree within short
period of time

They are thermo stable

3.pH

Optimum pH- neutral pH

Rate of colour removal decreases with strong acid and alkaline PH

4.Dye concentration

Affects efficiency of colour removal

High concentration increases the time required for colour removal


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Contd..
5.Dye structure

Dyes with simple structure and low molecular weight posses high rate
of colour removal

Colour removal depends on the number of azo bonds in the dye


molecule

6.Redox potential

Colour removal depends on the redox potential of electron donors and


acceptors

More positive redox potential of azo substrate more reduction of dye


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ADVANTAGES
Economically feasible

Eco friendly nature

There is no sludge disposal problems(no release of residue)

No chemicals are used

No complicated procedures

Non toxic products

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DISADVANTAGES
Initial steps of dye removal are bacterial specific and also
dye specific

Bacteria used should be resistant against toxic effects of


dyes and other substance present in the effluent

Nutritional and physiological requirements of bacterial


cell should be met

Rate of colour removal by bacterial cell decreases with


increasing dye concentrations above certain level

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APPLICATION-MICROBION TEXDECOL
Microbion Texdecol Solution is successfully implemented in a 5 MLD
common effluent treatment plant at Dodaballapur, Bangalore.

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CONCLUSION
Textile industry is one of the emerging sector of our
country ,but it creates a wide range of environmental
pollution.

Removal of colour using bacterial cell is an emerging


technique for dye removal .

Factors affecting colour removal are oxygen, temperature


,pH ,dye concentration ,dye structure and redox potential.

Due to the eco-friendly nature ,less sludge producing


propertise,and reduced water consumption ,this method is
more advantageous.
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REFERENCES
[1] Willmott NJ. The use of bacteriapolymer composites for the removal of colour from
reactive dye effluents. Phd Thesis, UK: university of leeds; 1997.
[2] Willmott nj, guthrie jt, nelson g. The biotechnology Approach to colour removal from
textile effluent. Jsdc 1998;114(february):3841.
[3] Easton j. The dye makers view. In: cooper P, editor. Colour in dyehouse effluent.
Bradford, UK: society of Dyers and colourists; 1995. P. 11.
[4] Robinson t, mcmullan g, marchant r, nigam p. Remediation of dyes in textile effluent:
a critical review on Current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative.
Bioresource technology 2001;77:24755.
[5] Kamilaki a. The removal of reactive dyes from textile Effluentsa bioreactor approach
employing whole bacterial Cells. Phd thesis, UK: university of leeds; 2000.
[6] leisinger t, hutter r, cook am, nuesch j. Microbial Degradation of xenobiotics and
recalcitrant compounds: FEMS symposium no. 12. London, UK: academic press For the
swiss academy of sciences and the swiss society Of microbiology on behalf of the
federation of european Microbiological societies; 1981. 3/28/17 30
THANK YOU

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