construction and forms

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construction and forms

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPT, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Bending Test on Wooden Beam
- Design of Continuous Beam and Slab Footing using BS 8110-1:1997
- Question for Exam in BUET
- RCD Assignment 1
- AD Validation Guide Vol2 2015 En
- Ijret - Experimental Study on Bending Behaviour of Triangular Web Profile Steel Beam Section
- Why Do We Provide Extra Reinforcement Bars at the End Portion of Beam
- ACI-350 Concrete Beam Design 1.1
- Flexural Test
- Design of Isolated Square and Rectangular Footings (ACI 318-02)
- Maximum Deflection of Different Types of Beams
- Member Weight Method
- 2011-04
- Beamwcorrugplate Joint
- 1304094866-Designof2-waySlabsAyaz
- 2.1 Doubly Reinforcement Beams (Week 2)
- 000136907.pdf
- pil.xlsx
- 09 Chapter 4
- SM.21-30

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 35

MEDHA

NEETU

PRATHYUSH

A

KEERTHI

MASEEH

VARUN

GOURAV

Identity of construction and form is the indispensable

pre requites of all architecture at first sight ,

both appear to be opposites.

Construction and form are the material pre requites

of architonic formation.

Because of its new types of building requirement , city

architecture was the first to create the need for new

forms of construction and materials as an inevitable requirement .

Iron , concrete , and reinforced concrete are the building materials

that make possible the new forms of construction necessary for the

requirements of cities .

STRUCTURE AND

FORM

Structural form.

Stability.

The hierarchy of structural action in

building form.

Total system integrity-subsystems

(horizontal ,vertical, blocks)

STRUCTURE AND FORM

and lateral loads, and usually also the need to provide a building envelope for

shelter against the elements.

Carefully designed structural form can exhibit the stark beauty of controlled

strength, even to the point of excitement.

Structure can define the visual impact of a building, as in the case of large

exposed columns which give the appearance of strength and solidity, or the

case of tall slender columns which can create an elegant loggia effect.

Structural form is mathematically based, it seeks the greatest efficiency,

economy and elegance that the designer can create.

It is not random, it is not generated by trial and error, it is not subject to

changes in taste or fashion, it is not symbolic of some anthropomorphic idea.

The structural system of a building has the purpose of carrying loads safely into the

foundations .

There are structural forms that will do this more efficiently than others in the creative

process of designing of building which helps to select the structural and architectural

forms that are compactible.

Good structural systems can generally be extended into unusual forms that make

interesting architecture without compromising function, reliability, and economy.

Structure and construction may be related in a wide variety of ways ranging between

the extremes of complete domination of the construction by the structure to total

disregard of structural requirements in the determination of both the form of a building

and of its aesthetic treatment.

The architecture of the Parthenon is tectonic: structural requirements dictated the form

and, although the purpose of the building was not to celebrate structural technology,

its formal logic was celebrated as part of the visual expression.

STRUCTURE AND FORM EQUILIBRIUM UNDER SIMPLE TENSION OR

COMPRESSION

Under this load the members spanning between

two end points lengthens elastically

It stays straight under tensile force or becomes

straight if it was slack.

Its load capacity is determined by p= Af ,

where f is tension strength of material

where a is area .

The compression member of fig 2b in contrast has

two ways of getting shorter elastically along its axis

and by bending side ways

The later action can lead to bulking

The capacity of thin member to support loads is

determined by their bulking capacity which is in

simplest form , is determined by Euler's formula

EQUILIBRIUM

condition where the resultant of a forced system is

zero.

The sum of the forces in any direction = 0.

If this is satisfied, the object will have no linear

acceleration

(for instance, it won't accelerate in any direction).

CONDITIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM

The body may rotate about it self with out moving .

The body may move in any one direction ,and at the

same time it may also rotate about it self .

The body may be completely at rest.

IF the body moves in any direction , it means that

there

is a resultant force acting on it .

For example if the body is to be at rest , the resultant

force causing movement must be zero or all the

horizontal forces H and all the vertical forces V

must be zero .

so H = 0 , V = 0

BEAMS

dimensions, subjected to transverse forces so applied as to induce bending of

the member in an axial plane, is called a beam.

Carries Transverse External Loads That Cause Bending Moment, Shear

Forces And In Some Cases Torsion Concrete is strong in compression and very

weak in tension.

Steel reinforcement is used to take up tensile stresses in reinforced concrete

beams.

Mild steel bars or Deformed or High yield strength deformed bars (HYSD)

HYSD bars have ribs on the surface and this increases the bond strength at least

by 40%

BEAMS

devices for

transferring

vertical loads

horizontally

action of beams

involves combination

of

bending and shear

CHECKING OF BEAM

strength

functionality

What do we need to know

span how supported

loads on the beam

material , shape and dimensions of the beam

allowable strength and allowable deflection

TYPES OF BEAMS

supported.

Simply supported beam

pin support at one end and

a roller support at the other

Cantilever beam fixed at one end and free at the

other.

Beam with an Overhang simply supported beam

that projects beyond the support

(similar to a cantilever).

TYPES OF LOADS

TYPES OF LOADS

Concentrated Loads : Couple

Distributed Loads : Uniformly distributed

Linearly varying

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

A simply supported beam is a type of beam that has pinned support at one end

and roller support at the other end

Depending on the load applied, it undergoes shearing and bending .

It is one of the simplest structural element in existence.

BUILDINGS:

In concrete frames we consider that the

primary beams are fixed supported with the

columns and the secondary beams are simply

supported

the we consider that beam is a pinned

supported beam as we don't want the

supporting beam to take any torsion.

As reinforced concrete members are already weak in torsion. Also the two

supporting beams hardly provide any fixity to the beam under consideration so

it is better to consider it as a simply supported beam.

Suppose even if the beam experiences any negative moment at support, it

redistributes the moment at the center as a positive moment.

When we are looking at transfer girders supported by small columns, in that

condition too we consider the beam as a simply supported as there will be

hardly any fixity provided by the column supporting the beam.

BRIDGES:

simply supported structure.

The bridge deck is

supported over bearings

which generates a simply

supported condition.

Types of Bridges

Typically consists of a beam simply supported on

each side by a support and can be made

continuous later

Typically inexpensive to build

Forces

When something pushes down on the beam,

the beam bends. Its top edge is pushed

together, and its bottom edge is pulled

apart.

Simply supported

or prefabricated

Most are simply-supported

Some are made continuous on site

In simply supported beams the bending moment diagram is simply parabolic

and nature of moment is same throughout the span i.e. in between 2

consecutive piers.

whereas for continuously supported beam with UDL the nature of moment

changes at support and hence the reinforcement placement will be very

complicated and congested.

L = span length of bending member

M = maximum bending moment

P = total concentrated load

R = reaction load at bearing point

V = shear force

W = total uniform load

= deflection or deformation

x = horizontal distance from reaction

to point on beam

CATENARY ARCH

word catena which means CHAIN. The catenary is the curve that

an idealized hanging chain or cable assumes under its

own weight when supported only its ends .

The curve has u shaped , superficially similar in appearance

to a parabola, but it is not a parabola it is

scaled ,rotated, graph of the hyperbolic cosine .

Catenary curve equation is y= cosh (x)

The curve appears in the design of certain types of arches and as a cross section of the catenoid.

The catenary is also called the alysoid.

It is often used in the construction of kilns, bridges,etc .

A catenary arch is a type of arch that keeps its members in compression.

In compression they are extremely strong. In tension they are relatively weak.

The purpose of the arch is to spread the load on the brick in such a way that the

brick is always in compression.

But the same arch expanded become very useful as a dome or a vault.

Vaults built in this way can be very slim and use a minimum of material for

maximum strength.

Deriving the Catenary Curve Equation. A catenary curve describes the shape

the displacement cable takes when subjected to a uniform force such as

gravity. This curve the shape of a perfectly flexible chain suspended by its ends

and acted on by gravity.

Catenary arch, which is the ideal arch shape if the only weight you are to bear

is the weight of the arch itself. A catenary is that shape formed by a chain,

hanging down in the middle when supported on both ends.

If you spin the catenary arch at its tip, you create a domed shaped. If you put a

bunch of catenary arches side by side you form a vault. You can make these

without any need for outside buttressing. This concept is used when making

masonry homes in some places.

DOMICAL SHELL

Dome shells have emerged due to new

concept in building design.

These structures have the potential for

many other small residential and

industrial

applications .

The structures utilize superior material

technology .

one of the principle objective of this

invention is to provide the framing

configuration for a domical structure so

as to allow flat sheathing material to be

This disclosure describes an improved concept for using flat sheathing

materials to construct the curved roof of a domical structure with the

underlying dome frame and the shape of the roof panels designed to

permit originally flat sheathing material to be curved in different

directions.

different curved surfaces, improving the appearance and the shell

effect of the roof and increasing the strength and economic efficiency

of the domical structure.

CONSTRUCTION:

The three primary arches are equally spaced from each other

approximately 120 apart with two secondary arches lying between

adjacent primary arches, again uniformly spaced so that between adjacent

arches, priimary or secondary, there is an angular displacement of about

40 . The three approximately equally spaced primary arches rest at their

lower ends on the three bases 11 while the secondary arches terminate

well above the ground where they intersect the edge arch.

At the point where weve placed the downward force the hub is under

compression however you will notice a series of tension rings circling this

point all the way down the dome, all other hubs have a combination of tension

and compression, 2 struts under tension and 4 under compression. Greatest

tensile and compressive stress is close to the applied force.

Compression in joints is balanced by tension in sides

Aerodynamic performance should be carried out on a minimum of 4

wind directions but preferably 8 even a very plain box type house will

have 3 different aerodynamic profiles. A pure dome however has the

same aerodynamic performance in any wind direction as it presents the

same surface area and shape from all elevations.

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- Design of Continuous Beam and Slab Footing using BS 8110-1:1997Hochgeladen vonUbani Obinna Ranks
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