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Identity of construction and form is the indispensable
pre requites of all architecture at first sight ,
both appear to be opposites.
Construction and form are the material pre requites
of architonic formation.
Because of its new types of building requirement , city
architecture was the first to create the need for new
forms of construction and materials as an inevitable requirement .
Iron , concrete , and reinforced concrete are the building materials
that make possible the new forms of construction necessary for the
requirements of cities .
Structural form.
The hierarchy of structural action in
building form.
Total system integrity-subsystems
(horizontal ,vertical, blocks)

Structural form is dictated by structural needs, primarily to support gravity

and lateral loads, and usually also the need to provide a building envelope for
shelter against the elements.
Carefully designed structural form can exhibit the stark beauty of controlled
strength, even to the point of excitement.
Structure can define the visual impact of a building, as in the case of large
exposed columns which give the appearance of strength and solidity, or the
case of tall slender columns which can create an elegant loggia effect.
Structural form is mathematically based, it seeks the greatest efficiency,
economy and elegance that the designer can create.
It is not random, it is not generated by trial and error, it is not subject to
changes in taste or fashion, it is not symbolic of some anthropomorphic idea.
The structural system of a building has the purpose of carrying loads safely into the
foundations .
There are structural forms that will do this more efficiently than others in the creative
process of designing of building which helps to select the structural and architectural
forms that are compactible.
Good structural systems can generally be extended into unusual forms that make
interesting architecture without compromising function, reliability, and economy.
Structure and construction may be related in a wide variety of ways ranging between
the extremes of complete domination of the construction by the structure to total
disregard of structural requirements in the determination of both the form of a building
and of its aesthetic treatment.
The architecture of the Parthenon is tectonic: structural requirements dictated the form
and, although the purpose of the building was not to celebrate structural technology,
its formal logic was celebrated as part of the visual expression.

Figure2a shows vertical member in direct tension .

Under this load the members spanning between
two end points lengthens elastically
It stays straight under tensile force or becomes
straight if it was slack.
Its load capacity is determined by p= Af ,
where f is tension strength of material
where a is area .
The compression member of fig 2b in contrast has
two ways of getting shorter elastically along its axis
and by bending side ways
The later action can lead to bulking
The capacity of thin member to support loads is
determined by their bulking capacity which is in
simplest form , is determined by Euler's formula

Equilibrium is the term used to designate the

condition where the resultant of a forced system is
The sum of the forces in any direction = 0.
If this is satisfied, the object will have no linear
(for instance, it won't accelerate in any direction).

The body may move in any direction .

The body may rotate about it self with out moving .
The body may move in any one direction ,and at the
same time it may also rotate about it self .
The body may be completely at rest.
IF the body moves in any direction , it means that
is a resultant force acting on it .
For example if the body is to be at rest , the resultant
force causing movement must be zero or all the
horizontal forces H and all the vertical forces V
must be zero .
so H = 0 , V = 0

A structural member which is long when compared with its lateral

dimensions, subjected to transverse forces so applied as to induce bending of
the member in an axial plane, is called a beam.
Carries Transverse External Loads That Cause Bending Moment, Shear
Forces And In Some Cases Torsion Concrete is strong in compression and very
weak in tension.
Steel reinforcement is used to take up tensile stresses in reinforced concrete
Mild steel bars or Deformed or High yield strength deformed bars (HYSD)
HYSD bars have ribs on the surface and this increases the bond strength at least
by 40%

devices for
vertical loads
action of beams
involves combination
bending and shear

What we are trying to check : stability

What do we need to know
span how supported
loads on the beam
material , shape and dimensions of the beam
allowable strength and allowable deflection

Beams are usually described by the way they are

Simply supported beam
pin support at one end and
a roller support at the other
Cantilever beam fixed at one end and free at the
Beam with an Overhang simply supported beam
that projects beyond the support
(similar to a cantilever).

Concentrated Loads : Couple
Distributed Loads : Uniformly distributed
Linearly varying

A simply supported beam is a type of beam that has pinned support at one end
and roller support at the other end
Depending on the load applied, it undergoes shearing and bending .
It is one of the simplest structural element in existence.

All the secondary beams are simply supported.

In concrete frames we consider that the
primary beams are fixed supported with the
columns and the secondary beams are simply

When a beam is supported by another beam

the we consider that beam is a pinned
supported beam as we don't want the
supporting beam to take any torsion.
As reinforced concrete members are already weak in torsion. Also the two
supporting beams hardly provide any fixity to the beam under consideration so
it is better to consider it as a simply supported beam.
Suppose even if the beam experiences any negative moment at support, it
redistributes the moment at the center as a positive moment.
When we are looking at transfer girders supported by small columns, in that
condition too we consider the beam as a simply supported as there will be
hardly any fixity provided by the column supporting the beam.

Bridges are good example of

simply supported structure.
The bridge deck is
supported over bearings
which generates a simply
supported condition.
Types of Bridges

The most basic type of bridge

Typically consists of a beam simply supported on
each side by a support and can be made
continuous later
Typically inexpensive to build

When something pushes down on the beam,
the beam bends. Its top edge is pushed
together, and its bottom edge is pulled
Simply supported

Currently, most of the beam bridges are precast

or prefabricated
Most are simply-supported
Some are made continuous on site
In simply supported beams the bending moment diagram is simply parabolic
and nature of moment is same throughout the span i.e. in between 2
consecutive piers.

whereas for continuously supported beam with UDL the nature of moment
changes at support and hence the reinforcement placement will be very
complicated and congested.
L = span length of bending member
M = maximum bending moment
P = total concentrated load
R = reaction load at bearing point
V = shear force
W = total uniform load
= deflection or deformation
x = horizontal distance from reaction
to point on beam

The word catenary is derived from the Latin

word catena which means CHAIN. The catenary is the curve that
an idealized hanging chain or cable assumes under its
own weight when supported only its ends .
The curve has u shaped , superficially similar in appearance
to a parabola, but it is not a parabola it is
scaled ,rotated, graph of the hyperbolic cosine .
Catenary curve equation is y= cosh (x)
The curve appears in the design of certain types of arches and as a cross section of the catenoid.
The catenary is also called the alysoid.
It is often used in the construction of kilns, bridges,etc .
A catenary arch is a type of arch that keeps its members in compression.
In compression they are extremely strong. In tension they are relatively weak.
The purpose of the arch is to spread the load on the brick in such a way that the
brick is always in compression.
But the same arch expanded become very useful as a dome or a vault.
Vaults built in this way can be very slim and use a minimum of material for
maximum strength.
Deriving the Catenary Curve Equation. A catenary curve describes the shape
the displacement cable takes when subjected to a uniform force such as
gravity. This curve the shape of a perfectly flexible chain suspended by its ends
and acted on by gravity.
Catenary arch, which is the ideal arch shape if the only weight you are to bear
is the weight of the arch itself. A catenary is that shape formed by a chain,
hanging down in the middle when supported on both ends.
If you spin the catenary arch at its tip, you create a domed shaped. If you put a
bunch of catenary arches side by side you form a vault. You can make these
without any need for outside buttressing. This concept is used when making
masonry homes in some places.
Dome shells have emerged due to new
concept in building design.
These structures have the potential for

significant markets in commercial and

many other small residential and
applications .
The structures utilize superior material
technology .
one of the principle objective of this
invention is to provide the framing
configuration for a domical structure so
as to allow flat sheathing material to be
This disclosure describes an improved concept for using flat sheathing
materials to construct the curved roof of a domical structure with the
underlying dome frame and the shape of the roof panels designed to
permit originally flat sheathing material to be curved in different

Thus, a single flat sheet of sheathing material may contain several

different curved surfaces, improving the appearance and the shell
effect of the roof and increasing the strength and economic efficiency
of the domical structure.

The three primary arches are equally spaced from each other
approximately 120 apart with two secondary arches lying between
adjacent primary arches, again uniformly spaced so that between adjacent
arches, priimary or secondary, there is an angular displacement of about
40 . The three approximately equally spaced primary arches rest at their
lower ends on the three bases 11 while the secondary arches terminate
well above the ground where they intersect the edge arch.
At the point where weve placed the downward force the hub is under
compression however you will notice a series of tension rings circling this
point all the way down the dome, all other hubs have a combination of tension
and compression, 2 struts under tension and 4 under compression. Greatest
tensile and compressive stress is close to the applied force.
Compression in joints is balanced by tension in sides
Aerodynamic performance should be carried out on a minimum of 4
wind directions but preferably 8 even a very plain box type house will
have 3 different aerodynamic profiles. A pure dome however has the
same aerodynamic performance in any wind direction as it presents the
same surface area and shape from all elevations.