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Shannon Baker, Laura Paviglianiti, Tim Stuart

A R TIFIC IA L IN TELLIG EN C E

W hat is Artifi
cial
Intelligence?

 The intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it  "the study and design of intelligent agents”  No single goal of artificial intelligence  Some say it’s putting the human mind into computers  What is intelligence?  The computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world  We do not yet fully understand what intelligence consists of .

1941:D EV ELO P M EN T O F TH E ELEC TR O N IC C Oe M -S om P Uth trace TER e orig in to Joh n A tan asof fan d C lif f o rd B erry at Iow a S tate U n iversity -R eq u ired larg e. sep arate air-con d ition ed room s -R eq u ired sep arate con f i g u ration of th ou san d s of w ires -D ata fed in to system B y p u n ch ed card s .

Stored Program Com puter  M ad e job of en terin g a p rog ram easier  A d van cem en ts in com p u ter th eory  com p u ter scien ce (an d even tu ally to A I)  In ven tion of a m ean s of p rocessin g d ata m akes A I p ossib le . First Com m ercial.

D artm outh Conference  John McCarthy (“father of AI”) organizes conference  A month of brainstorming in VT  Talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence  Biggest gain: Field now called Artificial Intelligence .

Lisp Language D eveloped  McCarthy announces new development: LISP language  Still used today  LISt Processing – language of choice among AI developers .

to research Macine- Aided Cognition (AI)  From Department of Defense  US wants to stay ahead of Soviet Union .Start ofD oD ’s Advanced Research Projects  MIT receives 2.2 million dollar grant from US govt.

SH RD LU Created  SHRDLU part of microworlds project – research & programming in small worlds  When confined to small subject matter.M icrow orld Program . computer programs can solve spatial & logic problems .

formulate rules  Over course of 10 years.First Expert System  Predict the probability of a solution under set conditions  Potential to interpret statistics. aid doctors in diagnosis. show miners promising mineral locations  Large applications in market place  Conditional rules & storage of information . can forecast stock market.

PRO LO G Language Revealed  General logic programming language  Represented as facts and rules  Developed in France  Remains one of most possible programming languages today .

Boeing rely heavily on expert systems  Companies develop that specialize in creating software that aids in producing expert systems .AI-Based H ardw are Sells $425 M illion to Com panies  Expert systems in particular demand  DuPont. General Motors.

heads-up- displays.AIM ilitary System s U sed Eff ectively in D ESERT STO RM  Used in missile systems.  AI truly put to the test . etc.

AISystem Beats H um an Chessm aster  AI goes home  Public interest growing  AI system placed against a human chessmaster to see who would win  AI wins – shows skills & abilities .

Applications ofAI  Military  “Smart bombs”  Guided by remote control camera systems directed to the intended target  Unmanned drone aircraft  Missiles fly military missions and launch weapons from a distance  Decoding of enemy secret codes  Rapid translation of foreign language .

Applications ofAI  Science  Development of new drugs  Model clinical studies in animals and humans  Remote controlled surgical procedures  Uses robotics and computer-based optical systems  Can be performed half-way around the world  Advanced weather modeling  Doppler Radar  Looks at trends and past models to .

Applications ofAI  Industrial  Machine vision inspection systems  Cameras and computers are placed on assembly lines to find defects  Robotic systems  Use computer automation and mechanical equipment  Take place of humans in manufacturing of cars .

where over 120 million moves can be recognized .Applications ofAI  Business  Macros  Computer mimics the programmer's actions  Advanced financial systems  Quickly analyze trends  Allows for rapid investment decisions  Consumer  Personal computers  Computer applications for Apple & IMB  Voice and character recognition  Entertainment  Games. such as chess.

Future ofAI  The future is really unknown  Researchers seem to disagree on a lot of the same issues  With the rate at which technology is improving it is logical to believe AI will continue to get more and more sophisticated .

AIin Video G am es  Over the years AI is getting exponentially more sophisticated  Now AI’s are able to react with an “intelligence” that simulates the computer as a human  AI’s are able to respond to voice commands .

Chess & AI  Theory: if they can create a computer that can outsmart humans in this obviously strategic. thinking-based game. then it would be a major milestone on the road to the intelligent computer .

an off switch?  -Should we allow a self-governing robot society to co-exist with ours? .g. EthicalQ uestions?  -Will there come a point when computers become too intelligent?  -Should robots have the same legal rights as humans?  -How would we get around the question of ownership?  -To what extent should we trust (be able to predict the behavior of) such a species?  -What responsibilities do we owe such robots?  -Would it be wrong to deliberately install mechanisms that gave humans an immediate physical advantage e.

 Mackworth. Randy (1998).edu/jmc/whati sai/node1.ISBN  .com/magazine/2011/01/sto ryboard-artificial-intelligence-cars/  Poole.  Computational Intelligence: A Logical App roach .wired. Alan. New York: Oxford University Press.html  http://library.h tml  http://www.  Goebel.org/2705/history.com/  http://www. David.stanford.W orks Cited  http://www-formal.a-i.thinkquest.