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System Analysis and

Design

Introduction to System
Analysis and Design

- Dr. Mahmoud Abu-Arra


- Mr. Ahmad Al-Ghoul
Learning Objectives

Describe the systems


development life cycle
Discuss Systems
Development Guidelines

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Introduction
Systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a common
methodology for system development in many
organizations; it features several phases that mark
the progress of the systems analysis and design effort
Every text book and information systems
development organization uses a slightly different life
cycle model
SDLC involves a series of phases.
You can think about SDLC like constructing a building.
First, you would list specific objectives for the project.
Then you might hire an architect to present an overall
concept and create a set of drawings to show how the
building will fulfill your objectives. Later, you would
need detailed blueprints for the workers. When the
building is done, you would check it out, test
everything, turn it over to the new occupants, and
make sure they are satisfy with the results.

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The Systems Development Life
Cycle

operation, security
Planning and Design and
An idea Implementation and support
Analysis
Time

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The Systems Development Life
Cycle
SDLC is Series of steps used to manage the
phases of development for an information
system
SDLC used to plan and manage the systems
development process
The life cycle can be thought as a circular process in
which the end of the useful life of one system leads to
the beginning of anther project that will develop a new
version or replace an existing system altogether
SDLC is not necessary to be sequentially ordered set
of phases, the specific steps and their sequence are
meant to be adapted as required for a project
In a SDLC you can complete some activates in one
phase in parallel with some activates of anther phase

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The Systems Development Life
Cycle
In some cases the SDLC is iterative; that is,
phases are repeated as required until an
acceptable system is found
The SDLC used in an organization is an
orderly set of activates conducted and
planned for each development project
Each activity or phase in the SDLC has
specific outcomes that feed important
information to other phases
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The Systems Development Life
Cycle
Each of the phases include a set of steps,
which rely on techniques that produce
specific document files that provide
understanding about the project.
Individual companies use customized
life cycles

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The Systems Development Life
Cycle
Traditionally pictured
as a waterfall model
In waterfall model the
result of each phase,
which is called end
product, flaws
sequentially into the
next phase
The adjacent phases
interact, as shown by
dotted lines

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The Systems Development Life
Cycle
Alternative model
In the alternative
model of the SDLC,
planning, analysis, and
design interact
continuously, followed
by implementation and
operation and support
interactive model
depicting real world
practice and the
constant dialog among
users, managers, and
systems developers
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The Systems Development Life
Cycle

System development life Planning


cycle includes the following
steps: Systems Operation Analysis
Systems planning
and Support
Systems analysis

Systems design ImplementationDesign


Systems implementation

Systems operation,

support, and security

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The Systems Development Life
Cycle
Systems planning
Purpose is to identify the nature and scope of the
business opportunity or problem
Systems request begins the process & describes
problems or desired changes in an information
system or business process
Systems planning includes preliminary investigation
to identify the nature and scope of the business
opportunity or problem. The outcome of preliminary
investigation will affect the entire development
process. A key part of the preliminary investigation is
a feasibility study that reviews costs and benefits
and recommends a course of action based on
operational, technical, economic and time factors.

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The Systems Development Life
Cycle
Systems Analysis
Purpose is to build a logical model of the new system
The analysis phase answers the questions of who will use the
system, what the system will do, and where and when it will
be used.
During this phase the project team investigates any current
systems, identifies improvement opportunities, and develops
a concept for the new system.
First step is requirements modeling, where you
investigate business processes and document what the
new system must do. To understand the system, you
perform fact-finding using techniques such as interviews,
surveys, document review, observation, and sampling
End product is the System requirements document which
describes management and user requirements, costs, and
benefits, and outline alternative development strategies.

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The Systems Development Life
Cycle
Systems Design
In this phase the designer decided how the system will
operate, in terms of the hardware, software, and network
infrastructure; the user interface, forms, and reports that will
be used; and the specific programs, databases, and files that
will be needed.
Purpose is to create a blueprint that will satisfy all
documented requirements
Identify all outputs, inputs, and processes
Avoid misunderstanding through manager and user
involvement
End product is system design specification

Logical Design
Concentrates on business aspects of the system
Physical Design
Technical specifications

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The Systems Development Life
Cycle
Systems Implementation
New system is constructed
Write, test, & document programs
File conversion occurs
Users, managers, IT staff trained to operate
and support the system
System evaluation performed, to determine
whether the system operates properly and if
costs and benefits are within expectations.

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The Systems Development Life
Cycle
Systems Operation, Support, and security
New system supports operations
Maintenance changes correct errors or meet requirements
Enhancements increase system capability by provide new
features and benefits
The objective during this phase is to maximize return on
the IT investment
Security controls safeguard the system from both external
and internal threats
A well-designed system will be secure, reliable,
maintainable, and scalable so it can expand to meet new
business requirements and volumes
After several years of operation, systems need extensive
changes
SDLC ends with system replacement

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Systems Development
Guidelines
With experience as a system analyst, you will
develop your own style and techniques. Although
each project is different and have its constraints,
rules, so you can decide which methods and
technique you will use, you should consider some
basic guidelines as you build an information system.
Planning:
stick to an overall development plan
Involve users throughout the development process
Ensure that users are involved in the development process,
especially when identifying and modeling system requirements
Listening is Very Important
The best system is the one that meets user needs most
effectively. When you interact with users, you must put aside
any preconceived notations and listen closely

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Systems Development
Guidelines
Create a Time Table with Major Milestones
Identify major milestones for project review and
assessment. At those milestones, managers and systems
developers must decide whether to proceed with the
project, redo certain tasks, return to earlier phase, or
terminate the project
Identify Interim Checkpoints
Establish interim checkpoints between major milestones
to ensure that the project remains on schedule
Remain Flexible
System development is a dynamic process, and overlap
often exists between the phases of system planning,
analysis, design, and implementation
Develop Accurate Cost and Benefit Information
Provide accurate and reliable cost estimation and benefit
information to managers at start of each phase

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Sequence Summary
In this Sequence we have
Described the systems development life cycle
Distinguished between Traditional SDLC as a
waterfall model and the Alternative SDLC
model
Defined system planning, system analysis,
system design, system implementation,
System Operation, Support, and security
Discussed systems development guidelines

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Reference
[1] System Analysis and Design, Sixth Edition
Authors: Gary B. Shelly, Thomas J. Cashman and Harry J. Rosenblatt ,
Publisher: SHELLY CASHMAN SEWIES.

[2] Modern Systems Analysis and Design Third Edition


Authors: Jeffrey A. Hoffer , Joey F. George, Joseph S. Valacich
Publisher: prentice hall

[3] System Analysis and Design, 3rd Edition


Authors: Dennis, Wixom, & Roth
Publisher: John Wiley & sons

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