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BTMM 2153

Strength of Materials

By Dr. Vijay
Room M305
Email:
vijayapragasm@acd.tarc.edu.my
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Chapter 1 Introduction to stress and strain

Chapter 2 Shear force and bending moment

Chapter 3 Statically indeterminate

Chapter 4 Asymmetry bending

Chapter 5 Complex stress

Chapter 6 Complex strain

Chapter 7 Center of shear

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO
STRESS & STRAIN
STRENGTH OF MATERIAL

study of behaviour of structural and


machine members under the action of
external loads.

taking into account the internal forces


created and its resulting deformation.

Determining the limiting loads which the


member can stand before encountering
material failure.
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Three conditions are brought into
play:

Conditions of equilibrium

Stress-strain relationships

Compatibility

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Conditions of equilibrium

The external force and reactions on a


member must form a system in
equilibrium.

related by a certain number of


equations, known as the conditions of
equilibrium.

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Stress-strain relationships

In a given material, there is a


relationship between stress and strain
within the elastic limit.

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Compatibility

the ability to get along.

In the solids term, a number of


relationships can be obtained between
the strains or deformations to ensure
that the system derived from any
assumptions made is compatible.

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STRESS
When a body that is subjected to an
external load is sectioned, there is a
distribution of force acting over the
sectioned area which holds each
segment of the body in equilibrium.

Then intensity of this internal force at a


point in the body is referred to as
stress.

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six independent components of stress at
each point in the body consisting of
normal stress (x, y, z) and shear
stress (xy, yz, xz).

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Comparison between normal & shear
stress
Normal Stress Shear Stress

Normal Force/Area Shear Force/Area


Unit: N/m2 Unit: N/m2
Cause the object to Cause the object to
elongate/compres bend
s Stress acts parallel
Stress acts to the surface cross
perpendicular to section.
the surface cross
section.
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If two parts which are thin or small are joined
together, the applied loads can cause
shearing of the material with negligible
bending.

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Example 1:

The inclined member in Figure E-1 is subjected to a


compressive force of 3000 N. Determine the average
compressive stress along the smooth areas of contact
defined by AB and BC, and the average shear stress
along the horizontal plane defined by EDB.

Figure E-1
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Allowable Stress

restricts the applied load to one that is


less than the load the member can fully
support.

One method of specifying the allowable


load for the design or analysis of a
member is to use a number called the
factor of safety [F.S].
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Factor of Safety (F.S)
ratio of the failure load, F
fail to that of the
allowable load, Fallow.

or or

Must always be greater than 1

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Factor of Safety (F.S)
selected based on experience or
standardized code.

Ffail is found from experimental testing of


the material.

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Use of Factors of Safety
Because failure modes differ within structural
members, often several factors of safety are
required in part design.

An example of this is an elevator cable. The cable


might fail by elastically extending too far, or fail
due to metal fatigue. The failure criterion for
extension might be related to modulus of
elasticity, E and a factor of safety less than 2.0
might be appropriate for this matter. For metal
fatigue, a factor of safety of 40 might be required
based on a fatigue strength failure criterion.
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Points to consider when choosing F.S
The factor of safety must be greater than 1.0 to
prevent failure.

If the factor of safety is too big, performance is


sacrificed.

If the factor of safety is too small, safety becomes


an issue.

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Factors Considered in Determining
a Factor of Safety
Risk of accidental overloading of structure above
actual design tolerances.
Type of load [static or dynamic]
Rate of load applications [intermittent or
repeated]
Load size
Possibility of structural fatigue failure
Variability in quality of workmanship
Variation in material properties
Deterioration due to poor maintenance, corrosion
and environmental factors [time/life issues]
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DESIGN OF SIMPLE CONNECTIONS
subjected to normal stress

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DESIGN OF SIMPLE CONNECTIONS
subjected to shear stress

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Example 2:
The control arm is subjected to the loading shown in Figure
E-2. Determine to the nearest 5mm the required diameter of
the steel pin at C if the allowable shear stress for the steel is
allow= 55 MPa.

Figure E-2
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STRAIN

Loads will cause all material bodies to
deform and, as a result, points in the
body will undergo displacement or
changes in position.

change in length () per unit length (L)

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Type of Strain
Normal strain is a measure of the elongation or
contraction of a small line segment in a body.

Shear strain is a measure of the change in angle


(twisted) that occurs between two small line
segments that are originally perpendicular to one
another.

The normal strain causes a change in volume of the


rectangular element, whereas the shear strain
causes a change in its shape. Both if these effects
occur simultaneously during the deformation.

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State of STRAIN

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State of STRAIN
The state of strain at a point is
characterised by six strain components:
three normal strains (x, y, z) and there
shear strain (xy, yz, xz).

Strain is the geometrical quantity that is


measured using experimental
techniques.

Once obtained, the stress in the body


can then be determined from material
property relations.
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Vernier Caliper

Micrometer
Caliper
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STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM

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Ductile materials have a fracture strength lower than the
ultimate tensile strength(UTS), whereas in brittle materials
the fracture strength is equivalent to the UTS. If a ductile
material reaches its ultimate tensile strength in a load-
controlled situation, it will continue to deform, with no
additional load application, until it ruptures. However, if the
loading is displacement-controlled,the deformation of the
material may relieve the load, preventing rupture.
If the stress-strain curve is plotted in terms oftrue
stressandtrue strainthe curve will always slope upwards
and never reverse, as true stress is corrected for the decrease
in cross-sectional area. The true stress on the material at the
time of rupture is known as the breaking strength. This is the
maximum stress on the true stress-strain curve.

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Low strain portion
Any
items that are to be used over and over
againmust not be stressed beyond this early
range.

Hookes law and Youngs modulus applies for this


early range of straight-line relationship.

Hookes law;

N/m2

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Proportional limit
The stress may be increased or decreased at
will (below the stress level at the
proportional limit) and the strain will follow
proportionately. If any stress higher than
that at the proportional limit is applied,
Hookes law and Youngs modulus no longer
apply.

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Elastic limit
Load may be applied and then relieved after
a time and again if the stress is kept below
that indicated at the elastic limit, then the
item will always return to its original
shape when the load returns to zero.

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Example 3

[Ans: 18.3 mm]


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Yield Point
Small increments of stress change causes
large increments of strain change. This is
due to the application of stress above the
level indicated for the elastic limit that has
resulted in permanent deformation.

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Ultimate Strength
More load applied causing stress to increase
to its maximum. Past this point, lateral strain
becomes significant and rupture or
breaking point soon follows. The strain range
from the elastic limit to the rupture point is
known as the plastic range. This range is
important in many manufacturing processes,
such as forging a crankshaft.

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Example 4

Assume it is within elastic limit


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DUCTILE & BRITTLE MATERIALS
Ductile Brittle
Subjected to large strains Subjected to little or no
before failure yielding before failure
capable of absorbing shock or Not capable to absorb shock
energy or impact
exhibit large deformations fracture suddenly
before failing
undergo the elastic behaviour, Fail with only little elongation
yielding, strain hardening and after the proportional limit is
necking before failing exceeded
i.e. mild steel, brass, i.e. grey cast iron, stone,
molybdenum and zinc glass, ceramic and concrete
* most materials exhibit both ductile and brittle behaviour.
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POISSONS RATIO
Poissons ratio () is the ratio of the
strain in the lateral direction to the
strain in the axial direction.
These strains are generally of opposite
signs, that is, if one is an elongation, the
other will be a contraction or vice-versa. It
is denoted as;

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CREEP
time-dependent permanent deformation

When a material has to support a load


for a very long period of time, it may
continue to deform until a sudden fracture
occurs or its usefulness is impaired.

Creep strength will decrease at higher


temperature or higher applied stresses.

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FATIGUE
When a metal is subjected to repeat cycles
of stress or strain, it causes the structure
to break down, leading to brittle fracture.

Members are designed to resist fatigue by


insuring that the stress in the member
does not exceed its fatigue limit.

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Example 5

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