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Centrifugal Water Chillers

A Trane Air Conditioning Clinic

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Chilled
Water
System

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


absorption centrifugal

helical-rotary
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Centrifugal Water Chillers

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Centrifugal Water Chillers
period one
Components

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


components of a
Centrifugal Water Chiller
compressor
motor

condenser

starter
control
panel

American Standard Inc. 1999


evaporator Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Compressor

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Impeller

blades

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Centrifugal Compressor

volute

diffuser
passage

impeller
passages

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


centrifugal compressor
Energy Conversion
refrigerant
enters
diffuser
velocity

refrigerant
refrigerant enters volute
static pressure

enters impeller

path through compressor


American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Multistage Compressor

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Condenser
refrigerant vapor

baffle

cooling
tower
water

tube liquid
American Standard Inc. 1999 bundle refrigerant Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
expansion device
Orifice Plates

orifice plates
to
evaporator
H1

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


expansion device
Orifice Plates

orifice plates
to
evaporator

H2

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


2-stage chiller
Economizer
refrigerant vapor
to second stage
of compression

liquid refrigerant
orifice to evaporator
liquid refrigerant
from condenser

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


3-stage chiller
Economizer
refrigerant vapor refrigerant vapor
to third stage to second stage
of compression of compression

liquid refrigerant
orifice to evaporator
liquid refrigerant
from condenser
orifice
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Evaporator
tube bundle

liquid
refrigerant

chilled
water
return
liquid
distributor eliminator orifice system
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Motor

motor
gear-drive
impeller
motor

impellers

direct-drive
gears
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Hermetic Motor Cooling
stator

rotor

liquid drain
American Standard Inc. 1999 refrigerant Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Controls and Starter

starter
control
panel

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Starters
line power line power control power
wiring

starter

unit-mounted
control power
wiring

remote-mounted
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Centrifugal Water Chillers
period two
Refrigeration Cycle

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


2-stage centrifugal chiller
Refrigeration Cycle
2-stage
compressor

economizer

evaporator condenser

American Standard Inc. 1999


expansion devices
Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Pressure-Enthalpy (p-h) Chart

subcooled
pressure

liquid
mixture of
liquid and
vapor
A B
5 psia superheated
[0.034 MPa] vapor

15.5 Btu/lb 92.4 Btu/lb


[201.0 kJ/kg] [380.4 kJ/kg]
American Standard Inc. 1999 enthalpy Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
2-stage centrifugal chiller
Refrigeration Cycle

Pc 6 condenser
4
expansion economizer 5
pressure

devices
P1 8
7 3 2 2-stage
compressor
Pe
9 1
evaporator

American Standard Inc. 1999


enthalpy Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
2-stage centrifugal chiller
Refrigeration Cycle

Pc 6 condenser
4
expansion economizer 5
pressure

devices
P1 8
7 3 2 2-stage
compressor
Pe 10
9 1
evaporator

American Standard Inc. 1999


C B enthalpy A Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Refrigerant Operating Pressures

HCFC-22

HFC-134a
pressure

HCFC-123
atmospheric
pressure

American Standard Inc. 1999


temperature Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Low-Pressure Chillers

compressor
suction elbow

evaporator

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Purge System

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Purge Operation

purge tank
to chiller
vent line
purge
evaporator
coil

refrigerant
vapor from
condenser

filtration
canister
to condenser
American Standard Inc. 1999 filter drier Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Centrifugal Water Chillers
period three
Compressor Capacity Control

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Inlet Vanes

inlet vanes
impeller

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Multistage Compressor
impellers

inlet vanes
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Impeller

R Vr

Vt

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Impeller Dynamics
Vr refrigerant flow rate
Vr
R Vt rotational speed diameter
Vt
diameter
refrigerant
rotational
flow rate
speed

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Compressor Unloading

Vr
R Vr
R
Vt Vt

full load part load


American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Surge
Vr
R
Vr < static pressure
Vt

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Compressor Map

r ge 90
su
pressure difference

75

51 63

36
10 25
14 vane position
(degrees)

American Standard Inc. 1999 refrigerant flow rate Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Operating Point
operating
point
pressure difference

American Standard Inc. 1999 refrigerant flow rate Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
compressor map for a
2-Stage Compressor
operating
point
r ge 90
su
pressure difference

75

51 63
36
10 25
14 vane position
(degrees)

American Standard Inc. 1999 refrigerant flow rate Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
compressor map for a
2-Stage Compressor

A
r ge 90
su
pressure difference

C B 75

51 63
36
10 14 25

unloading line

American Standard Inc. 1999 refrigerant flow rate Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Adjustable-Frequency Drives
power consumption

inlet vanes only

AFD + inlet vanes

load
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
Centrifugal Water Chillers
period four
Maintenance Considerations

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Maintenance Considerations
Operating log
Mechanical components
Heat-transfer surfaces
Fluid analysis

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


operating log
ASHRAE Guideline 3
Chilled water inlet and outlet Oil pressures, temperature, and
temperatures and pressures levels
Chilled water flow Addition of refrigerant
Evaporator refrigerant
temperature and pressures
Addition of oil
Evaporator approach Vibration levels
temperature
Condenser water inlet and outlet
temperatures and pressures
Condenser water flow
Condenser refrigerant
temperature and pressures
Condenser approach
temperature

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


maintenance considerations
Mechanical Components
Required maintenance
Compressor and motor: no maintenance required
Controls: no maintenance or calibration required
Recommended maintenance
Visually inspect overall unit
Inspect safety controls and electrical components
Tighten electrical connections
Check for leaks

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


maintenance considerations
Mechanical Components
Other design-specific requirements
Change oil when oil analysis dictates
Replace oil filter periodically
Replace filter drier periodically
Clean oil strainers annually
Check shaft alignment annually
Check coupling annually
Replace shaft seal every 2 to 4 years
Compressor teardown inspection every 5 to 10 years

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


maintenance considerations
Heat Transfer Surfaces
Recommended maintenance
Use a qualified water treatment
specialist
Clean condenser tubes as
needed
Clean water-side strainers
Test tubes every 3 years

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Fluid Analysis
Oil analysis
Conduct annual analysis to verify
system integrity
Measure oil pressure drop to
determine if filter needs changing
Measure charge
Refrigerant charge
Conduct analysis of refrigerant
Inspect purge system

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Oil Analysis
Why perform regular oil analysis?
Helps reduce maintenance costs
Detects problems without
compressor disassembly
Extends service life of oil charge
Reduces environmental problems
related to oil disposal
Helps maintain compressor
efficiency and reliability
Helps lower refrigerant emissions

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Centrifugal Water Chillers
period five
Application Considerations

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Condensing Temperature Control

C A
r ge 90
su
pressure difference

75
B

51 63
36
10 25
14 vane position
(degrees)
unloading line

American Standard Inc. 1999 refrigerant flow rate Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
condensing temperature control
Cooling Tower Bypass

40F
[4C]
cooling tower
diverting
valve
bypass
65F
55F [18C]
[13C]
condenser
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
evaporator water flow
Constant or Variable Flow

chilled
water
pump
evaporator

variable-
speed
drive

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


variable evaporator water flow
Limitations
Maintain minimum and maximum water flow
rates through the chiller evaporator
Rate at which the evaporator water flow
changes must be kept below the
corresponding limit to:
Maintain the chilled water set point control
Keep the chiller on line
Protect the chiller from damage

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Short Evaporator-Water Loops

load

chilled
water
pump
evaporator

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Short Evaporator-Water Loops

load

tank

chilled
water
pump
evaporator

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Heat Recovery
heat-recovery
condenser

cooling
tower
water

standard
condenser

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Heat-Recovery Chiller Options
heat-recovery auxiliary
(dual) condenser
condenser heat pump
Second, full-size Second, smaller size No extra condenser
condenser condenser
Large base heating loads or
Large heating loads Preheating loads continuous operation
High hot water Moderate hot water
temperatures temperatures
High hot water temperatures
Controlled Uncontrolled Controlled
Degrades chiller efficiency Improves chiller efficiency Chiller efficiency preserved

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Free Cooling
air-side strainer plate-and-frame
economizer
cycle heat exchanger
Most efficient Coldest water Potential fouling limited to heat
temperatures exchanger
Requires larger Potential fouling in chilled Requires additional heat
outdoor air, return, water loop exchanger, piping, valves, and
and exhaust duct Requires additional piping, controls
systems valves, and controls Can operate simultaneously
with chiller

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


free cooling
Refrigerant Migration
from
compressor

condenser

to
compressor
evaporator

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


equipment certification standards
ARI Standard 550/590
Purpose
Establish definitions, testing,
and rating requirements
Scope
Factory designed and
prefabricated water chillers
Vapor-compression
refrigeration
Air-cooled and water-cooled
condensing

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


equipment certification standards
ARI Standard 550/590
Standard rating conditions
Common system conditions for published ratings
Fouling factor
Integrated Part Load Value (IPLV)
Part-load efficiency rating
Based on an average single-chiller installation
Standard operating conditions

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


Centrifugal Water Chillers
period six
Review

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


ReviewPeriod 1
compressor
motor

condenser

starter
control
panel

American Standard Inc. 1999


evaporator Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
ReviewPeriod 2

Pc 6 condenser
4
expansion economizer 5
pressure

devices
P1 8
7 3 2 2-stage
compressor
Pe
9 1
evaporator

American Standard Inc. 1999


enthalpy Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
ReviewPeriod 3
impellers

inlet vanes
American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN
ReviewPeriod 4
Maintenance considerations
Operating log
Mechanical components
Heat-transfer surfaces
Fluid analysis

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


ReviewPeriod 5
Application considerations
Condensing temperature control
Constant or variable evaporator-water flow
Short evaporator-water loops
Heat recovery
Free cooling
Equipment certification standards

American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN


American Standard Inc. 1999 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC010-EN