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ANNISA ENDAH AND AMIR MAHMUD

Presented:

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELL


(BIOCHEMICAL VIEWPOINT)
MOLECULAR ORGANIZATION
CELL DEFINITION

Kumpulan materi paling


sederhana yang dapat
hidup dan merupakan unit
penyusun semua makhluk
hidup
Organisme hidup yang
paling kecil adalah sel
tunggal
Sel adalah unit fungsional
dari organisme multiselular
Picture: Cell of Plant
CELL STRUCTURE TYPE

SEL BERDASARKAN
MEMBRAN INTI

SEL PROKARIOTIK SEL EUKARIOTIK


(BELUM MEMILIKI (SUDAH MEMILIKI
MEMBRAN INTI) MEMBRAN INTI)

TUMBUHAN, HEWAN,
BAKTERI, MONERA CENDAWAN,
PROTISTA
Source: Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd Ed.

Comparison of Procaryotic and Eucaryotic Organisms


Procaryotes Eucaryotes
Organisms archaea, bacteria protists, fungi, plants, animals
Cell linear dim. 1-10 :m 10-100 :m
Metabolism anaerobic or aerobic aerobic or anaerobic
Organelles no nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria,
endoplasmic reticulum, etc.

DNA circular, in cytoplasm very long linear molecules


bounded by nuclear envelope
RNA and protein RNA and protein synthesized RNA synthesized in nucleus;
in same compartment protein, in cytoplasm
Cytoplasm no cytoskeleton: cytoskeleton composed of protein
no cytoplasmic streaming, no filaments; cytoplasmic streaming;
endocytosis, no exocytosis endocytosis and exocytosis
Cell division chromosomes pulled apart by chromosomes pulled apart by
attachment to plasma membrane cytoskeletal spindle apparatus
Cellular organization mainly unicellular mainly multicellular, with differentiation
of many cell types
ANIMAL, BACTERIA, AND PLAT CELL
Biomolekul Struktur
Anabolic
Senyawa
Makromolekul
Pembangun
Gula Polisakarida
sederhana Protein (peptida)
Asam amino RNA or DNA
Nukleotida Lipid
Asam lemak

Catabolic
Biosintesis
Membutuhkan
molekul
sederhana
untuk
dirangkai
secara
kovalen
melalui
berbagai
Tiga hal yang dibutuhkan sel

1.Energy,
2.Molekul Sederhana,
3.Mekanisme Kimia
Metabolism is Categorized Into
Two Types
Catabolism (biodegradation): larger molecules
(nutrients and cell constituents) are broken
down (often via exergonic reactions) to
salvage (reuse) their components or/and to
generate energy.

Anabolism (biosynthesis): The generation of


biomolecules from simpler components (often
via endergonic reactions).
Strategi sel #1: makhluk hidup menggunakan sistem reaksi
kimia berpasangan untuk mendorong reaksi yang sulit terjadi

Strategi sel #2: mahluk hidup menggunakan enzim


untuk mempercepat reaksi yang semestinya lambat