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Internal

Antenna
ISSUE 2.0
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What is Antenna?

Radiate and receive radio wave ,convert high frequency current


to electromagnetic wave when transmitting, and convert
electromagnetic wave to high frequency current when receiving

B la h blah
b la h b l a h

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Page 2
Classification

Classify by working band: UHF, VHF, microwave, etc.

Classify by radiate pattern: omni, directional

Classify by structure: line, pane, parabola feed

Classify by polarization: vertical and horizontal

Classify by outline: line and pane

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Radiate Pattern

directional Antenna omni direction

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Outline

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Polarization

vertical polarization vertical polarization dual polarization


Omni antenna directional antenna directional antenna

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Function

Convert high frequency current to electromagnetic wave when


transmitting
Convert electromagnetic wave to high frequency current when
receiving
Antenna can not amplify the transmission power, just concentrate
RF power to one direction

horizontal section Vertical section

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Page 7
Radiate Pattern

Omni antenna
lobe

Direction
antenna lobe

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Radiate pattern

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Gain

The radiation ability of certain antenna overtop dipole or isotropic

Indicates the antenna feature of electromagnetic radiation in specific


directions
Unit: dBi/dBd

l/2 antenna
Direction antenna

dBd
theory source
dBi
dBi =dBd+2.15

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Page 10
Forward to Back Ratio

The ratio of main lobe signal strength to back lobe

This value is within 1845dB. In urban, it is suggested to use


the antenna with high F/B ratio

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Page 11
Beam Angle

HPBW: Half Power Beam Bandwidth

Lobe angel between two points, the power of which reduce to


the half of that of the maximum radiate direction
Vertical HPBW and Horizontal HPBW

Peak - 3dB - 3dB

15 (eg) Peak
60 (eg)

Peak - 3dB
- 3dB

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Down title

To control coverage

To decrease inter modulation

Realization: electron and mechanism

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Down title

mechanism

electron

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Effect of Electron Down title

No Down title Electron Down title

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Effect of Mechanism Downtitle

No Downtitle Electron Downtitle

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Effect of different methods

10(E) 6(E)+ 4(M) 10(M)

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Page 17
Polarization

The direction of electro - vector radiated by antenna. The


vertical polarization wave is vertical with the plane of ground,
-
and the horizontal polarization waves parallel with the plane of
ground
Single antenna has only one polarization direction.

Dual polarized antenna contains two single - polarized antenna


in one entity. Dual polarization antenna usually adopts +45/ 45
degree orthogonal polarization.

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Page 18
Polarization

VERTICAL HORIAONTAL

+ 45 - 45

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Dual Polarization

V/H +/- 45

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Page 20
Port Isolation
The isolation among ports should be more than 30 dB. for multi-ports
antenna, Such as dual band, dual polarization antenna

10log(1000mW/1mW) = 30dB

1000mW (1W) 1mW

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Page 21
Null Filled

It shall apply null filled technology when zero depth is less than
main beam for 26dB.
High gain antenna especially adopt null filled technology to
effectively improve the nearby coverage

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Page 22
Upper Side Lobe Suppression

Main to upper side

Main to lower side

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Page 23
Coupling Between Antennas
Horizontal separation
main lobe
Sufficient decoupling distance: 5-10
Antenna patterns become superimposed if

distance is too close


Vertical separation

Decoupling distance:1 can provide better 5 .. 10


RX /TX decoupling
Minimum coupling loss

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Page 24
Installation Examples
Recommended decoupling

TX - TX: ~30dB 0,2m

TX - RX: ~40dB

Horizontal decoupling distance

depends on
Antenna gain Omni-directional.: 5 .. 20m
directional : 1 ... 3m
Horizontal rad. pattern

Omni-directional antenna

Use vertical separation for RX and


TX
Use vertical separation (fork) for
RX and diversity RX Vertical decoupling is much more effective

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Page 25
Antenna Installation

Coupling loss (dB):

Lv=28+40log(k/) (vertical installation)

Lv=22+20log(d/)-(G1+G2)-(S1+S2) (horizontal installation)

: wave length

K: distance at vertical

D: distance at horizontal

G1 G2: gain

S1 S2: Relative gain at line connected two antenna

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Page 26
Distributed Antenna System
Small
antenna
Power Small
splitter antenna

coupling Small
antenna

Small
coupling
antenna
Small
Dual direction antenna

amplifier coupling

Power coupling Power Small


BTS
BTS coupling splitter antenna
splitter

Dual direction amplifier Small


antenna

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Page 27
Symmetry and Asymmetry Network

3 3
3
1.3 3
3 6
Dual direction

Tx/Rx
3 amplifier
Dual direction amplifier
0.5 3
10
3
3 3
0.5
10
3
Tx/Rx

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Page 28
Optical Fiber Distributed Antenna
The optical fiber repeater is mainly adopted in the case

of wide coverage and long distance transmission

er
a n sceiv
t r
p t ical
O
transceiver

signal Optical transceiver

transceiver
Optical transceiver Opti
cal t
ransc
e iver

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Page 29
Leaky Cable

Coaxial cable with perforated leads

It is mainly adopted for tunnel, metro and with high cost of

equipment and installing

Dual direction amplifier Matching load


Power splitter
Tx/Rx

Dual direction amplifier Matching load

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Page 30
Leaky cable
Coaxial cable with perforated leads

Produce constant field-strength along cable runs

Work at wide-band

Radiating loss become higher with high frequency

Very large bending radius

Formerly often used for tunnel coverage

Expensive

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Page 31
Feature of Leaky Cable
Transmission loss per hundred meter

Typical value : 10~40 dB per 100m

Couple Loss at 1 meter distance

Typical value 55 dB (at 1m)

How to calculate strength with leaky cable?

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Page 32
Comparison with Distributed Antenna

type leaking fiber coaxial fiber optical

design agility good good not good

cost high low high


Complexity of
high low low
installing

loss of
high high low
transmission

power supply not needed not needed needed

reliability high high low


high building,
far area
applicability metro, tunnel commercial
coverage
area

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Page 33
Feeder
Feeder selection
Type : 1/2 7/8 5/4
Select 5/4 in the case of feeder length is more than 80 m
and otherwise select 7/8 in 900MHz
Select 5/4 in the case of feeder length is more than 50 m
and otherwise select 7/8 in 1800MHz
Feeder curvature should not be so big, outer conductor
should be connected to earth
LOSS dB/100m (MHz) Bend
TYPE VSWR manufacturer
890 1,000 1,700 2,000 Radius (m)
LDF5 - 50A(7/8 ) 4.03 4.3 5.87 6.46 1.15 0.25 ANDREW
LDF6 - 50(5/4 ) 2.98 3.17 4.31 4.77 1.15 0.38 ANDREW
M1474A(7/8 ) 4.3 6.6 1.15 0.22 ACOME
SYFY - 50 - 22(7/8 ) 4.03 5.87 6.46 1.15 0.3 609
HFC22D - A(7/8 ) 4.47 6.7 1.15 0.25 LG

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Page 34
In this course, we have learned:
Summary
CUD structure and loss

SCU structure and loss

Antenna type and feature

TTA

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Page 35
Thank You
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