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VOCATIONAL TRAINING

REPORT

AT

INDIAN OIL CORPORATION


LTD

GUJARAT REFINERY

PREPARED BY:

SUNIL PATANWADIYA
History :

Indo-Soviet agreement in 1961 February,


a site for the establishment of a 2.0
MMTPA Oil Refinery in Gujarat at Koyali
near Vadodara was selected on the 17th
April 1961.

The third 1.0 MMTPA crude distillation


unit (AU-3) was commissioned in
September 1967 to process Ankleshwar
and North Gujarat crudes.
TYPES OF CRUDE OIL
PROCESSED:
South Gujarat Crude: 2.15 MMTPA; supply from
ONGC South Gujarat crude pipeline.

North Gujarat Crude: 3.70 MMTPA; supply from


ONGC North Gujarat crude pipeline.

Bombay High Crude: 1.16 MMTPA; supply from


Salaya-Viramgam-Koyali pipeline.

Imported Low/High Sulphur Crude: 6.84 MMTPA;


supply from Salaya-Viramgam-Koyali pipeline.
INTRODUCTION:

CAPACITY : 5.0 MMTPA


FEED : 50:50 wt.% of North Gujarat and South
Gujarat Crude oils.
EQUIPMENT USED :
1. Heat exchanger
2. Desalter
3. Distillation column
4. Furnace
5. pumps
6. Air cooled condenser
Feed
The different types of crude i.e Imported, Bombay
High and South Gujarat are sorted in different tanks.
Before feeding to the unit, water in the crude is
separated by settling (minimum 24 hours) .

Booster pumps located in offsite area will take


suction from the tanks and delivers into the pump
suction. Normally two of the three pumps are
running.

In crude pump suction, demulsifiers (3 to 4 ppm),


caustic solution (about 2% strength) and wash water
(2 to 3% on crude flow) are injected for effective
desalter operation.
Crude preheat-1
No. of heat exchangers : 15

Crude Preheated to : 135-140C

Process stream : Crude oil (Tube side)

Shell side : LGO from pre fractionator

Outlet temperature : 140C

Flow
Desalter
Function : remove salt and water present in
crude
3 stages : mixing , heating and separation
Feed stream : demulsifier (3 to 4 ppm), caustic
solution (about 2% strength) and wash water
(2 to 3% on crude flow) and crude.
The rate of wash water required is about 4 to
10% by volume of the crude oil rate.
The optimum wash water rate varies with the
gravity of the crude oil and with the desalter
temperature.
85 to 95% removal of inorganic salts from the
crude oil.
AC electrical field is generated between the
two electrodes

flo
w
Crude Preheat-2
Crude from desalter now it is passed
through series of heat exchanger against
LGO,RCO from main fractionator.

Outlet temperature : 225C

Shell side : LGO,RCO from main


fractionator

Tube side : Crude oil


Pre fractionator
Function : to reduce load on subsequent equipment i.e heat exchangers,
heaters and column etc.

Feed tray : 8th tray

Types of trays : valve trays

Total trays : 22

Top product : unstabilised naphtha

For maximizing recovery of light naphtha, stripping steam is introduced below


1st tray of column at desired rates.

flow
Furnaces
Types of furnace : balanced draft
Function : to rise temperature from 275-

370C in case of imported and upto 355C


in case of BH/SG crude.
Two sections : 1) radiation
2) convection
In convection section boiler feed water is

used to recover heat from fuel gases


No. of burners used : 20

Process stream : crude from pre

fractionator

flow
Main fractionator
No. of trays : 40.

Feed location : 6th from bottom

Flash zone pressure : 1.1-1.3


kg/s.cm(g)

Temperature : 360C

internal reflux is provides to maintain


the temperature of column .

flow
Corrosion Inhibitor(Ahuralan) Injection:-

Corrosion inhibitor is an organic chemical. It


acts as corrosion inhibitor by forming
continuously a monomolecular layer on the
metal surfaces, by direct contact between
metal and the corrosive elements present in the
system.
This is injected at the top of the vapour line of
the crude fractionating column overhead and in
the stabilizer column to protect vapour line and
condenser. Normal injection rate of 4 to 6 ppm
is maintained by the pump.
desalter
desalter

Pre heater
Pre heater

furnace
furnace

Main fra
Main fra

Pre fra
Pre fra
Caustic Solution
Caustic is injected in the crude pump
suction, as water separation from oil in
desalter becomes better in alkaline
medium.
At the desalter also, the same caustic is
injected to neutralize the chloride salt.
This HCl is highly corrosive to column
overhead, vapor line and the reflux drum.
Hence, caustic is injected to neutralize
HCl to NaCl (sodium chloride).

Ammonia Injection
Ammonia solution is injected in the crude
fractionating column overhead and in
prefractionator column to neutralize
highly corrosive acid HCl.
THANK YOU