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HOMEOSTASIS

DR. MARK D. DUBLIN


Homeostasis is the regulation of conditions in the body such as

temperature, water content and carbon dioxide levels.


Diabetes is a condition where the body cannot regulate its blood

glucose levels.
HOMEOSTASIS

The conditions inside our body must be very carefully controlled if

the body is to function effectively.Homeostasisis the maintenance


of a constant internal environment. The nervous system and
hormones are responsible for this.
One example of homeostasis is the concentration of carbon

dioxide in the blood being carefully controlled. Here are some of


the other internal conditions that are regulated:
BODY TEMPERATURE

This is controlled to

maintain the temperature at


which the bodys enzymes
work best, which is usually
37C.
BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL
This is controlled to

provide cells with a


constant supply of
glucosefor respiration.
It is controlled by the

release and storage of


glucose, which is in turn
controlled by insulin.
WATER CONTENT

This is controlled to protect cells by stopping too much


water from entering or leaving them. Water content is
controlled by water loss from:
the lungs - when we exhale
the skin - by sweating
the body - in urine produced by the kidneys
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
Homeostatic control is
achieved usingnegative
feedback mechanisms:
if the level of something
rises, control systems
reduce it again
if the level of something
falls, control systems raise
it again
Negative feedback
flowchart
REGULATING BODY TEMPERATURE

The human body is designed

to function most efficiently


at 37C.
If you become too hot or too

cold, there are ways in which


your body temperature can
be controlled.
TOO HOT

When we get too hot:


Sweat glandsin the skin
release more sweat. The sweat
evaporates, removing heat
energy from the skin.
Blood vessels leading to the skin
capillaries become wider -
theydilate- allowing more
blood to flow through the skin,
and more heat to be lost.
TOO COLD
When we get too cold:
Musclescontractrapidly -
weshiver. These
contractions need energy
fromrespiration, and some
of this is released as heat.
Blood vesselsleading to
the skin capillaries become
narrower - they constrict -
letting less blood flow
through the skin and
conserving heat in the body.
THE SKIN

The hairs on the skin also help to control body temperature. They lie
flat when we are warm, and rise when we are cold. The hairs trap a
layer of air above the skin, which helps toinsulatethe skin against
heat loss.
Thehypothalamusis the part of the brain which monitors the
body's temperature. It receives information from temperature-
sensitive receptorsin the skin and circulatory system.
The hypothalamus responds to this information by sending nerve
impulsestoeffectorsto maintain body temperature.
For example, if we
become too cold, the
hair erector muscles
contract.
This raises the skin
hairs and traps a
layer of air next to
the skin. Skin hairs lie flat when we are hot and stand upright
when we are cold
Negative feedback
mechanismscontrol body
temperature.
They include the amount of:
shivering (rapid muscle
contractions release heat)
sweating (evaporation of
water in sweat causes
cooling)
blood flowing in the skin
capillaries Negative feedback in temperature
regulation
VASOCONSTRICTION AND VASODILATION

The amount of blood flowing through the skin capillaries is altered by


vasoconstrictionandvasodilation.

Too cold Too hot

Process Vasoconstriction Vasodilation


Arterioles Get narrower Get wider
Blood flow in skin
Decreases Increases
capillaries
Heat loss from skin Decreases Increases
THESE DIAGRAMS SHOW THE PROCESSES THAT TAKE PLACE
WHEN VASOCONSTRICTION AND VASODILATION OCCUR.

Vasoconstriction a response to being too cold Vasodilation a response to being too hot
REGULATING BLOOD GLUCOSE

Glucoseis needed by cells forrespiration. It is important

that the concentration of glucose in the blood is


maintained at a constant level.
Insulinis a hormone - produced by the pancreas - that

regulates glucose levels in the blood.


ACTION OF INSULIN

Low glucose High glucose


Insulin not secreted Insulin secreted into
Effect on pancreas
into the blood the blood

Does not convert Converts glucose into


Effect on liver
glucose into glycogen glycogen

Effect on blood
Increases Decreases
glucose level

*Glycogenisapolysaccharidethatis
theprincipalstorageformofglucose
(Glc)inanimalandhumancells.
DIABETES
Diabetesis a condition in which theblood

glucose levels remain too high. It can be


treated by injectinginsulin.
The extra insulin causes the liver to convert

glucoseintoglycogen, which reduces the blood


glucose level.
There are two types of diabetes - Type 1 and Type
TYPE 1 DIABETES

Type 1 diabetes is
caused by alack of
insulin. It can be
controlled by:
monitoring the diet
injecting insulin
People with Type 1 diabetes have to monitor their blood

sugar levels throughout the day. Their levels ofphysical


activityand theirdietaffect the amount of insulin needed.
They can help to control their blood glucose level by being

careful with their diet (eating foods that will not cause big
spikes in their blood sugar level) and by exercising (which
can lower blood glucose levels due to increased
respirationin the muscles).
TYPE 2 DIABETES

Type 2 diabetes is caused by apersons body becoming

resistant to insulin. It can be controlled by diet and


exercise.
There is a link between rising levels ofobesityand

increasing levels of Type 2 diabetes.


GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Contract - A muscle tenses as fibers shorten.


Effectors - Organ which has an effect when stimulated (eg muscles or
glands).
Enzyme - A protein which catalyzes or speeds up a chemical reaction.
Evaporate - Evaporation is the process in which a liquid turns into a
gas.
Glucose - A simple sugar made by the body from food, which is used
by cells to make energy in respiration.
Glycogen - The storage form of glucose in animal cells.
Hormone - Chemical messengers produced in glands and carried
by the blood to specific organs in the body.
Insulate - To help maintain the temperature.
Insulin - A hormone that regulates the level of sugar in the blood. It
is produced in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.
nerve impulses - Electrical signals that travel along the nerve fibre
from one end of the nerve cell to the other.
Obesity - The medical term for being overweight. Being obese is
dangerous to health.
Respiration - Chemical change that takes place inside
living cells, which uses glucose and oxygen to produce the
energy organisms need to live. Carbon dioxide is a by-
product of respiration.
Vasoconstriction - The narrowing of the skin arterioles to
reduce blood flow and reduce heat loss by radiation.
Vasodilation - The increase in diameter of the skin
arterioles to increase blood flow and increase heat loss by
radiation.