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FiniteClauses

TypesofSentences
Simple
Compound
Complex
CompoundComplex


Clauses
Word>Phrase>Clause>Sentence
Clauseshaveaverbonemainverbper
clause
FiniteClausesVerbinflectedfortense
NonFinite
Infinitive
Participial,includingGerunds


TypesofEmbeddedSentences

SubordinateClauses(Adverbial)
Indicatetime,place,manner,cause,or
condition
Usuallyprecededbyasubordinator
RelativeClauses(Adjectival)
RelativePronouns
Restrictivevs.nonrestrictiverelativeclauses
ComplementClauses(Nominal)

ComplementClauses
AppearasanNP
Canbethesubjectofthesentence
[Thatyoulikebananas]issurprising.
Canbeanobject
Iknow[thatyoulikebananas.]
Canbereplacedbyapronoun
(Itissurprising;Iknowit.)
Thatisacomplementizer.

DirectDiscourse

Directdiscourseiswhenapersonisquoted:
Hesaid,Youtookmycheese.
IndirectDiscourseiswhenapersonis
paraphrased.Hesaidthatyoutookmycheese.
Indirectdiscourse,time,place,andparticipants
aretiedtotheoriginalutterance.
Shesaid,Thetreasureisburiedhere.
Hesaid,Isyourpartytomorrow.


InterrogativeComplementClauses

OneoftheNPsinthecomplementclauseis
replacedbyaninterrogativepronoun
Examples:
Iknow[whostolemycheese].
Iheard[whatyousaid].
Iwonder[howtheydidthat].
NoticethattheWHwordappearsatthebeginning
oftheclauseandthatnoquestionmarkisused.


NonFiniteClauses


NonFiniteClause:Infinitives

Introducedbytoorforto.
Iwant[tobuythecheese].
[Toerr]ishuman.
[Forhimtoerr]isterrible.
Canalsoappearwithoutto:
Iheardhimbreakthecookiejar.
Hemademeeatmyspinach.
Canbenominal,adverbial(Iboughtit[tosurpriseyou].),
oradjectival(Hewasthelastperson[totalktome.]).See
page357.

NP VP

MVP NP

S
N MV
NP VP
MV NP
N

Chriswants(Chris)takemycheese

to
takecheese
m
y
Chriswants

NP VP

MVP NP

S
N MV
NP VP
MV NP
N

ChriswantsBilltakemycheese

Bill
to
takecheese
m
Chriswants y


ToandFor/ToInfinitives
Sentenceswithinfinitiveclausesassubjectuse
forifthesubjectispartoftheclause
Foryoutosaythatisshocking.
Tosaythatisshocking.
Sentenceswithfor/toclausesasdirectobjectsare
lessdirectthanthosewithto
Shesenthimtobuysupplies.
Shesentforhimtobuysupplies.
Sheaskedhimtoleave.
Sheaskedforhimtoleave.


Barevs.toInfinitives

Tiedtodegreeoflikelihoodthateventtook
place
Shemadehimshave
Shelethimshave
>Heshaved
Sheaskedhimtoshave.
Shewantedhimtoshave.
>Hemightnothaveshaved.


TypesofVerbsTaking
ComplementClause
ModalityVerbswant,try,begin,fixingto
ManipulativeVerbsmake,force,beg,
order,let,ask,tell
Perceptionsee,hear,watch
Cognitionknow,understand,hope,think
Utterancesay,reveal,announce
PCUverbstendtotakethatcomplements


Reminder:NonFiniteClauses

Infinitives
ToInfinitives
ForToInfinitives
BareInfinities
Participles
PresentParticipialClauses
PastParticipialClauses


ParticipialClauses


PresentParticipialClauses
Adverbial
Walkingtowork,Ispottedaneagle.
Whilewalkingtowork,Ispottedaneagle.(elliptical
subordinateclause)
Manypeoplehavingseentheeagle,Iamnowsatisfied.
Adjectival
Thepeoplestandingonthestreetwerewatchingthe
eagle.
Gerund(Nominal)
Watchingtheeaglewasfun.


Usage:DanglingModifiers
DanglingInfinitives
Eagertowork,mytoolslaybeforeme.
Tofeelrewarded,ajobmustbewellpaying.
DanglingPresentParticiple
Flyinghighinthesky,Ispottedaneagle.
Standingonacliff,theoceaninspiredme.
DanglingPastParticiple
Hardboiled,Itooktheeggsoutofthewater.
Fedwell,theentertainmentbegan.
Saucedandseasoned,Itastedtheentre.

NominativeAbsolutes
ActuallyAdverbials,butstillcallednominative
TensedformoftheverborauxiliaryBEisdeleted
Examples:(pp.395396)
Hismindonthetest,Billenteredtheclassroom.
Thechildrenfedandputtobed,PatandChrisrelaxed.
Myhairamess,Iwanderedintotheclassroom.
Eyesgleaming,theyranintotheplayground.
Theyranintotheplayground,theireyesablaze.


Practice:Adverbial,Adjectival,orGerund

1. Thechildrenplayinginthestreetshouldbe
warned.
2. Visitingprofessorscanbeboring.(trick
question)
3. Whistlingloudly,Iwalkedintothedark.
4. Educatedastothefacts,thecitizenvoted.
5. Myjumpingintothelakeamusedmyfamily.
6. Thetestgiventothestudentswaseasy.
7. Pumped,thekidsbeganthecontest.


AdverbialPresentParticiple

Ispottedeagle
an
wa ki ng
l to work


S AdverbialPresent
VP
Participle
NP
MVP NP ADVP

S
PRO MV DET N
NP VP
MV PREPP
PRO

Ispottedaneagle(I)walkingtowork

AdjectivalPresentParticiple

Ispottedeagle
an

wa
ki ng

l
on street
th
e


S AdjectivalPresent
VP
Participle
NP
MVP NP
ADJP
S
PRO MV DET N
NP VP
MV PREPP

Ispottedaneagle(eagle)walkingonthestreet

sing
hi

in
s

g
song
th
a t
Weenjoyed

NP VP

MVP NP

S
PRO MV
NP VP
MV NP
N

Weenjoyedhesingingthatsong
(his)