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WHAT IS RESEARCH?

The systematic, rigorous investigation


of a situation or problem in order to
generate new knowledge or validate
existing knowledge.
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH

Applied research refers to scientific study and


CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
research that seeks to solve practical problems.
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH Applied research is used to find solutions to
everyday problems, cure illness, and develop
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
innovative technologies, rather than to acquire
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
knowledge for knowledge's sake.

EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.

For example, applied researchers may


GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
investigate ways to:
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
Improve agricultural crop production
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Treat or cure a specific disease
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
Improve the energy efficiency of homes,
offices, or modes of transportation
RESEARCH
RESEARCH

QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH

QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
BASIC RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Basic (akafundamentalorpure) research is
CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
driven by a scientist'scuriosityor interest in a
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH scientific question. The main motivation is
toexpand man's knowledge, not to create or
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
invent something. There is no obvious
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
commercial value to the discoveries that result
from basic research.
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.

GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
For example, basic science investigations probe
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. for answers to questions such as:
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
How did the universe begin?
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
What are protons, neutrons, and electrons
composed of?
RESEARCH
RESEARCH How do slime molds reproduce?
QUALITATIVE
What is the specific genetic code of the fruit
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
fly?
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH

CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL
Correlational research refers to the systematic
RESEARCH
RESEARCH investigation or statistical study of relationships
among two or more variables, without necessarily
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
determining cause and effect.
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
It Seeks to establish a
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
relation/association/correlation between two or
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
more variables that do not readily lend
themselves to experimental manipulation.
GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY

RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
For example, to test the hypothesis Listening to
music lowers blood pressure levels there are 2
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
ways of conducting research
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
Experimental group samples and make one
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
group listen to music and then compare the bp
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
levels
Survey ask people how they feel ? How often
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH they listen? And then compare
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH

CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL
Advantages:
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
1) Can collect much information from many
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
subjects at one time.
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
2) Can study a wide range of variables and
their interrelations.
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
3) Study variables that are not easily
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
produced in the laboratory.

GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY

RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
Disadvantages:

HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
1) Correlation does not indicate
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
causation( cause and effect).
2) Problems with self-report method .
RESEARCH
RESEARCH

QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH

QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH

CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH Descriptive researchrefers to research that
provides an accurate portrayal of characteristics
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH of a particular individual, situation, or group.
Descriptive research, also known
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
asstatisticalresearch.
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
These studies are a means of discovering new
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. meaning, describing what exists, determining the
GROUNDED
frequency with which something occurs, and
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
categorizing information.
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
In shortdescriptive researchdeals with
everything that can be counted and studied,
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH which has an impact of the lives of the people
it deals with.
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL

RESEARCH
RESEARCH For example,
finding the most frequent disease that affects the
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
children of a town. The reader of the research will
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
know what to do to prevent that disease thus,
more people will live a healthy life.
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH

CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH Advantages:

DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH The people individual studied are unaware so
they act naturally or as they usually do in
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
everyday situation;
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
It is less expensive and time consuming than
quantitative experiments;
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. Collects a large amount of notes for detailed
GROUNDED
studying;
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
As it is used to describe and not make any
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. conclusions it is to start the research with it;
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH

PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL Disadvantages
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Descriptive research requires more skills.
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Does not identify cause behind a phenomenon
Response rate is low in this research.
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH Results of this research can change over the
period of time.
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH

CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Ethnographic research refer to the
investigation of a culture through an in-depth
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH study of the members of the culture; it involves
the systematic collection, description, and
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC
analysis of data for development of theories of
RESEARCH
RESEARCH cultural behaviour.

EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH

EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
It studies people, ethnic groups and other
ethnic formations, theirethno genesis,
GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY composition, resettlement, social welfare
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
characteristics, as well as their material and
spiritual culture.
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH

PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
Data collection is often done through
participant observation, interviews,
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
questionnaires, etc.
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
The purpose of ethnographic research is to
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH attempt to understand what is happening
naturally in the setting and to interpret the
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH

CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH Experimental research is an objective,
systematic, controlled investigation for the
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH and examining probability and causality among
selected variables.
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL
Advantages
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Best establishes cause-and-effect
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. relationships
GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
Disadvantages
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.

HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Artificiality

PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL Feasibility
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Unethical
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH

QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH

CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH The simplest experimental design includes two
variables and two groups of participants.
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH

ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH The two variables(Independent versus
Dependent variables).
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL

The IV is the predictor variable whereas the DV is


RESEARCH
RESEARCH
the outcome variable.
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. Researchers manipulate and control the IV to study
it's effect on the DV.
GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY

RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. The two groups of participants (Control versus
Experimental group).
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Before beginning the experiment, the researcher
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL (randomly) assigns his/her sample to two different
groups: the control group and the experimental
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
(treatment group or clinical group).
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH The control group receives no manipulation of the
IV (no treatment), whereas the experimental group
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
receives the manipulation of the IV
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH

Exploratory researchis a type


CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
ofresearchconducted for a problem that has not
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps
determine the bestresearchdesign,data
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
collectionmethod and selection of subjects.
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
The results of exploratory research are not
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY usually useful for decision-making by
themselves, but they can provide significant
RESEARCH
RESEARCH..
insight into a given situation
GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
Exploratory research is not typically
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
generalizable to thepopulationat large.
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Exploratory research can be quite informal,
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
relying onsecondary researchsuch as
RESEARCH
RESEARCH reviewing available literature and/or data,
orqualitative approaches such as informal
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
discussions with consumers, employees,
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH management or competitors, and more formal
approaches through in-depth interviews, focus
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Grounded theory research is a research
CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL
approach designed to discover what problems exist
in a given social environment and how the persons
RESEARCH
RESEARCH involved handle them; it involves formulation,
testing, and reformulation of propositions until a
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
theory is developed.
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH Grounded theory is a research method that operates
almost in a reverse fashion from traditional research
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
and at first may appear to be in contradiction to
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
thescientific method.
GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
Four stages:
RESEARCH
RESEARCH..
1. Codes-Identifying anchors that allow the key points
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
of the data to be gathered
2. Concepts-Collections ofcodesof similar content
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL that allows the data to be grouped
3. Categories-Broad groups of similarconceptsthat
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
are used to generate atheory
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
4. Theory-A collection of explanations that explain
the subject of the research (hypotheses)
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Historical researchis research involving
CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
analysis of events that occurred in the remote
or recent past
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Application
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH Historical research can show patterns that
EXPERIMENTAL
occurred in the past and over time which can help
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
us to see where we came from and what kinds of
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. solutions we have used in the past.
Understanding this can add perspective on how we
GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
examine current events and educational practices.
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.

HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH The steps involved in the conduct of historical
research
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
Here are the five steps:
RESEARCH
RESEARCH 1. Identification of the research topic and formulation
of the research problem or question.
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH 2. Data collection or literature review
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
3. Evaluation of materials
4. Data synthesis
5. Report preparation or preparation of the narrative
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Historical research gives a social scientist a better
CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH context for making realistic decisions.
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Strengths
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH Provides a comprehensive picture of historical
trends
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Uses existing information
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
Provides evidence of on-going trends and
problems
GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY

RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.
Limitations
Time-consuming
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH Resources may be hard to locate
Resources may be conflicting
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL May not identify cause of a problem
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Information may be incomplete, obsolete,
inconclusive, or inaccurate
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH Data restricted to what already exists
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
PHENOMENLOGICAL RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Phenomenological researchan inductive,
CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL
descriptive research approach developed from
phenomenological philosophy; its aim is to
RESEARCH
RESEARCH describe an experience as it is actually lived by
the person
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH

ETHNOGRAPHIC
Phenomenology is concerned with the study of
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
experience from the perspective of the individual,
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH bracketing taken-for-granted assumptions and
usual ways of perceiving.
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.

They are based in a paradigm of personal


GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
knowledge and subjectivity, and emphasise the
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. importance of personal perspective and
interpretation.
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH

PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL As such they are powerful for understanding
RESEARCH
RESEARCH subjective experience, gaining insights into
peoples motivations and actions, and cutting
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH through the clutter of taken-for-granted
assumptions and conventional wisdom.
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH

BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH On a broader perspective, all
CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL researches can be classified into
RESEARCH
RESEARCH two groups:
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH

ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH

EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH

EXPLORATORY
Qualitative Research
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.

GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
Quantitative Research
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.

HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH

PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
RESEARCH
RESEARCH

QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH

QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH

CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Qualitative research is research dealing with
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH phenomena that are difficult or impossible to quantify
mathematically, such as beliefs, meanings, attributes,
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
and symbols
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH

EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth
GROUNDED
understanding of human behaviour and the
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
reasons that govern such behaviour. The
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. qualitative method investigates the why and how
of decision making, not just what, where, when.
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH

PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL

RESEARCH
RESEARCH

QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH

QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH Advantages
It enables more complex aspects of a persons
CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
experience to be studied
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Fewer restriction or assumptions are placed on
the data to be collected.
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH Not everything can be quantified, or quantified
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
easily, Individuals can be studied in more depth
Good for exploratory research and hypothesis
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. generation
The participants are able to provide data in their
GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
own words and in their own way
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.

Disadvantages
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
It is more difficult to determine the validity and
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
reliability of linguistic data
there is more subjectivity involved in analysing the
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
data.
Data overload open-ended questions can
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
sometimes createlotsof data, which can take along
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
time to analyse!
Time consuming
APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH Quantitative researchrefers to the systematic
CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
empirical investigation of any phenomena via
statistical, mathematical or computational
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH techniques. The objective of quantitative research
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
is to develop and employmathematical
models,theoriesand/orhypothesespertaining to
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH phenomena
Quantitative research is generally made
EXPLORATORY
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. usingscientific methods, which can include:
GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY
The generation of models, theories and
RESEARCH.
RESEARCH. hypotheses
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
The development of instruments and methods
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
PHENOMENOLOGICAL for measurement
RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Experimental control and manipulation
QUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH ofvariables

QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH Collection of empirical data

Modelling and analysis of data


APPLIED
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
BASIC
BASIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH Advantages
CORRELATIONAL
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH
Quantitative research allows the researcher to
measure and analyse data.
DESCRIPTIVE
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH The researcher is more objective about the
ETHNOGRAPHIC
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
RESEARCH
findings of the research.
Quantitative research can be used to test
EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH hypotheses in experiments because of its ability
EXPLORATORY
to measure data using statistics.
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH.
RESEARCH.

GROUNDED
GROUNDED THEORY
THEORY

RESEARCH.
Disadvantages
RESEARCH.
The main disadvantage of quantitative research
HISTORICAL
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
RESEARCH is the context of the study or experiment is
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
ignored.
PHENOMENOLOGICAL
Quantitative research does not study things in a
RESEARCH
RESEARCH natural setting or discuss the meaning things
QUALITATIVE
have for different people.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH
A large sample of the population must be
QUANTITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
RESEARCH studied for more accurate results
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