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Elektrische Energieversorgung mit

erneuerbaren Energiequellen
Themenblock 7: Netzsicherheit
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rainer Krebs
Wintersemester 2016/17
bersicht

Themenblcke und Referenten

Block Thema Dozent


1 NutzungerneuerbarerEnergiequellen Jger
2 Netzplanung Petrossian
3 Netzanschluss Weidner
4 SmartTransmissionSystem Luther
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

5 SmartDistributionSystem Eichler
6 Energiespeicher Rubenbauer
7 Netzsicherheit Krebs

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen -2-


bersicht

Einordnung der Themenblcke

Wind onshore

Wind offshore
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

1 3 2,4 3 5,6

7
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen -3-
Transformation of the Electricity System
Age of Coal
20th Century 21st Century
19th Century
Sustainable energy system
Unsustainable energy system
Electrification of society

Age of Coal
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Generation and load


closely coordinated

Coal Environmental awareness


hydro
Transformation of the Electricity System
Age of Coal
20th Century 21st Century
19th Century
Sustainable energy system
Unsustainable energy system
Electrification of society

Age of Coal
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Generation and load


closely coordinated

Coal Environmental awareness


hydro
Transformation of the Electricity System
Age of Fossil Fuels
20th Century 21st Century
19th Century
Sustainable energy system
Unsustainable energy system
Electrification of society Extensive generation of
electrical energy

Age of Coal Age of fossil fuels


Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Generation and load Generation follows load


closely coordinated

Coal
Coal, gas, oil,
No environmental
hydro concerns Environmental awareness
hydro, nuclear
Transformation of the Electricity System
Age of Fossil Fuels
20th Century 21st Century
19th Century
Sustainable energy system
Unsustainable energy system
Electrification of society Extensive generation of
electrical energy

Age of Coal Age of fossil fuels


Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Generation and load Generation follows load


closely coordinated

Coal
Coal, gas, oil,
No environmental
hydro concerns Environmental awareness
hydro, nuclear
Transformation of the Electricity System
Age of Rethinking
20th Century 21st Century
19th Century
Sustainable energy system
Unsustainable energy system
Electrification of society Extensive generation of Shift to New Electricity Age
electrical energy Challenges require rethinking:
1.) Demographic change
Age of Coal Age of fossil fuels 2.) Scarce resources
3.) Climate change
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Generation and load Generation follows load Energy system shifting


closely coordinated
consumer becoming prosumer

Coal Coal, gas, oil,


Coal, gas, oil,
No environmental
hydro concerns Environmental awareness
hydro, nuclear hydro, nuclear,
biomass, wind, solar
Transformation of the Electricity System
New Electricity Age the Age of Integration
20th Century 21st Century
19th Century
Sustainable energy system
Unsustainable energy system
Electrification of society Extensive generation of Shift to New Electricity Age The New Electricity Age
electrical energy Challenges require rethinking: Electricity will be the energy
source with a power grid as
1.) Demographic change
backbone.
Age of Coal Age of fossil fuels 2.) Scarce resources
Age of Integration
3.) Climate change
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Generation and load Generation follows load Energy system shifting Load follows generation
closely coordinated
consumer becoming prosumer Generation controls load

Coal Coal, gas, oil,


Coal, gas, oil, Renewable energy sources
No environmental
hydro concerns Environmental awareness
*)ICT = Information and Communication Technologies hydro, nuclear hydro, nuclear, (solar, wind, hydro, biomass),

biomass, wind, solar clean coal, gas, nuclear


Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen -9-
Transformation of the Electricity System
New Electricity Age the Age of Integration
20th Century 21st Century
19th Century
Unsustainable energy system Sustainable energy system

The New Electricity Age


Electricity will be the energy
source with a power grid as
backbone.
Integrated energy system
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Load follows generation


Generation controls load

No environmental concerns Renewable energy sources


*)ICT = Information and Communication Technologies
(solar, wind, hydro, biomass),

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen


clean coal, gas,- 10 -
nuclear
Transformation of the Electricity System
Challenges

Renewables
Bulk wind farms onshore and offshore are
feeding transmission grids
Smaller wind farms and large PV plants are
feeding distribution grids
Small roof PV plants feeding LV grid
Energy infeed is predictable, Power infeed is not
predictable
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Energy trade
Energy market is deregulated

The transmission grids with a clear


Power Transmission task Transmission system expansion
are actually transformed into Reduction of spinning reserve
Power Exchange platforms

Power electronics equipments


Transformation of the Electricity System
Challenges

Large number of blackouts per year


>1,000,000 customer hours of disruption per event
in > 75% protection is involved (NERC)
Outages of large infrastructures

High outage costs

Death of humans
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Probability

In the majority of cases:

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_power_outages

Blackouts of
Electrical Systems
New Electricity Age in Europa
Geplante Windfarm Projekte in Nord- und Ostsee

Bockstigen

Aalborg
Kalmar
Gotenburg
Utgrunden

Yttre

Aarhus Stengrund
Tuno Knob
Middelgrunden

Copenhagen
Newcastle Samsoe
Horns Rev II

Lillgrund
Horns Rev

Roedsand
Solway Firth
(Nysted)
Vindeby
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Borrow Roedsand II

Kiel

Rostock
Rhyl Flats Breitling
und 3-5GW im Sden bis 2020.
Burbo Banks Hull
North Hoyle Bremerhaven
Race Bank Emden
Docking Shoal Emden

Great Yarmouth

NSW
Scroby Sands Q7 Installiert: In Auftrag:
Lynn / Inner Dowsing
Swansea mit Siemens mit Siemens
Windturbinen Windturbinen
Gabbard
Sands
London Greater
Gunfleet
Installiert:
Kentish Flats Oostende geplant andere Hersteller
Brighton

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 13 -


New Electricity Age in Europa
In the North: The Off-Shore Super-Grid

Operational
7,350MW
Planned
4,950MW
Under Study
10,400MW
Under Study (with
EWEA
Recommendation)
9,600MW
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

EWEA
Recommendation
7,100MW (2020)
France
11,100MW (2030)
2030: EWEA
offshore grid vision Italy

Spain

13bn+ of investment

- 14 -
New Electricity Age in Europe
Solar power, e.g.: Andasol 1 3 in Spain

Photovoltaic (PV) Large-scale plants CSP in DESERTEC Project

Desert areas for CSP


(Concentrated Solar Power)
power plants to supply
electricity for the globe, EU,
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Germany
Concentrated Solar power Plants (CSP) Globe
EU 25
GER

Source: DLR, 2005

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen


New Electricity Age in Europe
In the South: The Mediterranean Ring
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 16 -


New Electricity Age in Europe
Predictability and Dynamics of Wind Power

Example: Vattenfall Europe Transmission, Feb. 2008

in MW
Load
Windpower infeed
8000
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Wind Power forecast


12000

4000 Error: -60%


Power
Error: +280%

0
03/02 10/02 17/02 24/02
Source: IfR, TU-Braunschweig,
Vattenfall Europe Transmission, Feb. 2008
- 17 -
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen
New Electricity Age in Europe
Predictability and Dynamics of Solar Power

Sunny Day, April: 1,9 MWh


Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Cloudy Day, April: 1,2 MWh

Source: Michael Weinhold & friends

- 18 -
New Electricity Age in Europe:
HVDC-Backbones and FACTS in UK
Interconnectors
Dounreay
T hurso

4.2GW, 4.2%
My bst er

St ornoway Cassley
Dunbeat h

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM REINFORCEMENTS Lairg


REINFORCED NETWORK
Coal Wind
Oil
THE SHETLAND ISLANDS
Brora
Shin

19.8GW, 19.6% 29.4GW, 29.1%


0, 0.0%
Mossford
Grudie
Bridge Alness
MajorSubstations
400kV Generating Sites Including Pumped Storage
Conon
Elgin
275kV Substations
Orrin Fraserburgh
Ardmore
Macduff Connected at 400kV
400kV CIRCUITS
Deanie
Culligran
Dingwall
Nairn
Keith
St richen
275kV CIRCUITS
Connected at 275kV
Dunvegan Kilmo rack Blackhillock Pet erhead
Hydro Generation
Dyce
Luichart
Broadford P ersley
Glen Kint ore St . Fergus
Willowdale
Morriso n

Wave & Tidal


Fo rt August us Inverness Clayhills
Boat of
Aigas Gart en Redmoss Under Construction or ready to start
Beauly
Construction subject to consents

1.4GW, 1.4%
Fasnakyle

OCGT
Woo dhill
Foyers
Cean nacroc

Lunan head

0.3GW, 0.3%
Invergarry
Lyndhurst

Clachan
Finlarig
Glenagnes

T arland Craigiebuckler
Very strong need case Hydro
SCOT TISH HYDRO-ELECTRIC Cupar

1.1GW, 1.1%
Quoich T RANSM ISSION
Inveraray

Pumped
Clunie Bridge of Dun
W est field
Glenniston

Future requirement, but no strong


need case to commence
Storage
Shrubhill Cockenzie Dunbar
Torn ess

at present
Whistlefield Sloy
Glenrot hes Fiddes Strong need case
Mill
Berwick

2.7GW, 2.7%
Fort W illiam
Wishaw
P ort Blacklaw
Ann
Errocht y Linmill
Errocht y Po wer St at io n
Series Capacitors
Eccles
Carradale
Kilmarn ock
Sout h Coalburn

Coylton
Neilston Hawick
Hunterston Strathaven
Leven
Busby
Helensburgh

Dunoon East
Kilbride

Biomass
Kilwinning
Devol Strathleven South
Moor Burghmuir Dudho pe
Galashiels NGC
Meadowhead
Ran noch

Gas
T aynuilt Elv anfoot
Dumfries Blyt h

SP TRANSMISSION LTD. Fourst ones

0.8GW, 0.8%
Chapelcross Harker Sout h Shields
St ella West Boldo n
T ongland West

34.6GW, 34.2%
Farm Glenluce

Nuclear
Devonside Dudhope Arbroat h
Whitelee
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Hunt erst onSpango Erskine


Kilm arnock Hart Moo r
Town
Cruachan Dalmally Ayr Spennymoo r Ty nemout h

6.9GW, 6.8%
T ummel Hart lep ool
Salt holme Tod Po int

Nant Offert on

Lack enby

Saltcoats Redhouse Milt on of Craigie

Valley Nort on
Granget own
Maybole Bridge T ealing
Hutt on
Gret na

Ecclefechan Heysham Hawt horne Pit


P opplet on Osbaldwick

Proposed 2020 Network


Stirling Bradford
St anah W est Kirkst all
P adiham Creyk e Beck
Grange
Inverkip

Greyst ones
Cashlie

Quern mo re Rochdale
Auchencro sh Keadby
T hornt on So uth

Based on Gone Green scenario


Farm Kearsley W hit egat e Humber
Marsh Bank
Sout h
Manchest er StalybridgeSt ocksbridge Pit smoor
Wylfa Skelt on West
Elland Salt end Nort h
Kincardine Carringt on Bredbury Winco Ban k Burt on
Thurcroft
Fiddlers Daines
Sheffield City
Ferry Brinswo rth
Capenh urst Frodsham
Eggbo rough
Macclesfield Humber Refinery
Lo ch ay P ent ir
Deeside

HVDC links
Newton Washway

Penwort ham Cellarhead


Mon k
Cot tam

Salt end So uth


Mossmorran Willin gton
T rawsfy nydd Ratcliffe

Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation


Dinorwig
Ferrybridge Walp ole
Drakelo w Grimsby
Rugeley Sp alding
Killin Charlest on Nort h
Stewart Kirkby
Norwich
Iron bridge Main

Shrewsbury Enderby
Penn Hams Fryst on
Hall

Multiple Quad Boosters


Killingh olme
Dunfermline

Ffest inio g Bushbury


T emp leborough T ho rpe
West Burwell Sizewell
St . Fillans Grendo n Eat on Main
List er
W ood
So con
Ocker Nech ells
Co vent ry P at fo rd Bramford

High boundary transfers


Drax Bridge
East
Berkswell Clay don Sundon
Pelham
Longannet

Braint ree
Rassau Walh am Willenhall Bust leh olm
West Walth am
Imperial Cross

Drive Rainhill Cowley Aldwarke


Pembroke Swansea Wat ford Hack ney

Complex fault management


Nort h T ot ten ham Redbridge
Hill Oldbury
Baglan Whitson Didcot
Culham Mill Hill Warley
Birk enhead Minet y Willesden
Iron Act on Barking West T hurro ck
Leigh ton Ealin g Wymon dley
Kit well
City Rd W.Ham

Bonnybridge Iverkeithing
W ood
Cross

Bishops Bramley West Ro wdown


Park
Melt o n Lit t lebro ok
Fleet Elst ree Cant erbury
Rayleigh Main Nort h
Bay Seabank
Hinkley P oint Amersh am Main
Melksham Bicker Sellindge
Bridgwat er Fenn
Neep
Fecken hamsend
Alverdiscott
Jordant horpe Buzzard RyeBolney
House

T aunt on Nurslin g E de F
Ninfield
Grangem outh Beddingt on Dungen ess
Marchwood
Lovedean
Cilfy nydd
Axminst er Manningt on Wimbledon
Fawley Bot ley Wood
Exet er Iver Nort hfleet East Coryt on
Margam
Legacy
Nort o n Lees
Chickerell Tilbury Grain
Brimsdown

Langage Abham
Landulph Telford Rd. Portobello
In dian
Queen s
ISSUE B 1 2-02-09 41/1 77619 C Collin s Bart holomew Lt d 1999 Upper Boat Uskmout h

N.Hy de Singlewell
Pyle
Kingsnort h
Chest erfield

Broxburn Gorgie

Alpha St eel

St Johns

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 19 -


Cowbridge Kemsley
High

Cum bernauld Bathgate Whitehouse


New Electricity Age in Europe:
HVDC-Backbones in Germany
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 20 -


Versorgungssicherheit
Ursachen fr Betriebsmittel-Strungen

Extern bedingt:
- Unwetter, Blitzeinschlge
- Terror
- Sonnenwinde (electromagnetic or
geomagnetic storms)

- Mangelnde Qualitt von Betriebsmitteln Mnsterland


25.11.05, RWE
-Planungsbedingt:
Nicht optimal geplante Netzstrukturen
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

- Engineeringfehler und falsche Schutzparamter

Betriebsbedingt:
- berlastung von Betriebsmitteln
- Kurzschlsse in Betriebsmitteln
- Betriebs-Fehlentscheidungen
- Schaltberspannungen

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 21 -


Versorgungssicherheit
Ursachen fr Betriebsmittel-Strungen

Extern bedingt:
- Unwetter, Blitzeinschlge
- Terror
- Sonnenwinde (electromagnetic or
geomagnetic storms)
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Planungsbedingt:
- Mangelnde Qualitt von Betriebsmitteln
- Nicht optimal geplante Netzstrukturen
- Engineeringfehler und falsche Schutzparamter

Betriebsbedingt:
- berlastung von Betriebsmitteln
- Kurzschlsse in Betriebsmitteln
- Betriebs-Fehlentscheidungen
- Schaltberspannungen
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 22 -
Versorgungssicherheit
Ursachen fr Betriebsmittel-Strungen

Extern bedingt:
- Unwetter, Blitzeinschlge
- Terror
- Sonnenwinde (electromagnetic or
geomagnetic storms)
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Planungsbedingt:
- Mangelnde Qualitt von Betriebsmitteln
- Nicht optimal geplante Netzstrukturen
- Engineeringfehler und falsche Schutzparamter

Betriebsbedingt:
- berlastung von Betriebsmitteln
- Kurzschlsse in Betriebsmitteln
- Betriebs-Fehlentscheidungen
- Schaltberspannungen
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 23 -
Windfront ber Dnemark
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 24 -


Versorgungssicherheit
Beispiel Europa

Mittlere Nichtversorgung der Endabnehmer

min
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

24 Minuten / a

99,9954%
Versorgungs-
Deutschland behauptet den ersten Platz in Europa Sicherheit
und ist weltweit nur mit Japan vergleichbar!
Blackout / Netzausfall
September, 28. 2003 in Italien

Definition:

Einen Blackout nennt man


den groflchigen
Zusammenbruch der
Stromversorgung,
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

verursacht durch Fehler im


Netz bzw. in der
Strombereitstellung.
Fehler in den lokalen
Verteilungsnetzen fhren
dagegen nur zu lokalen
Versorgungs-
unterbrechungen.
Quelle: VDN/ETG Fachtagung 10-11 Feb. 2004 Jena, Deutschland

(Dr. J. Stamer, EnBW


TransportnetzAG, Sttgt)
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 26 -
Dr. Rainer Krebs OGE-Fachtagung Oktober 2007
Blackout / Netzausfall
September, 28. 2003 in Italien

20 min. nach Abschaltung


der 1. Leitung: Verlust der
2. Leitung , dann ein sehr
schnell kaskadierender Ablauf
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Blackout in Italien

Quelle des Zeitablaufs: UCTE Press Release vom 29.09.2003


- 27 -
Dr. Rainer Krebs OGE-Fachtagung Oktober 2007
Blackout / Netzausfall
September, 28. 2003 in Italien
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Genauer Zeitablauf

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 28 -


Dr. Rainer Krebs OGE-Fachtagung Oktober 2007
Blackout / Netzausfall
November, 04. 2006 in Europe, UCTE
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Film
Film erstellt von LENA, Otto-von-Guericke Universitt Magdeburg, 2007

- 29 -
Blackout / Netzausfall
May, 22. 2013 in Vietnam

22 May 2013, 14:00


High load situation 19.800 MW
1 major 500kV line lost
About 9,4 GW, 22 provinces
and 8 millions customers lost
9 hours until system restoration
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

1,5 sec

Frequency dependent load


shedding too slow
Dynamic process irreversible
Point of no return reached

- 30 -
Blackout / Netzausfall
Dynamische Vorgnge

Outage of 1100MW
In the synchronous eastern grid of USA

Travelling of a frequency wave acc. to the


gernerator inertias with app. 600km/s
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 32 -


Blackout / Netzausfall
Involvement of Protection Relays

In >75% of all blackouts relays are involved

Zone 3 trips of distance relays,


often used for overload protection instead of
thermal models in numerical relays
Missing load and power swing blocking
Uncoordinated protection / or overload
settings across borders or between diff.
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

utilities
Too low synchro-check settings
OC backup in parallel to distance or
differential protection without delay
Development of primary system without
adaption of relaying design and relay settings

Source: udoleuschner.de: 400kV Mettlen-Lavorgo Line


Area of tree flashover starting the 2003 Italy Blackout

- 33 -
Blackout / Netzausfall
Involvement of Protection Relays

Problem area short-circuit can often not


system operation.
Normal Operation clearly be confined towards the problem area
with
Short-Circuits
Stability Reserves

Design offollows
selection the protection
standardsystem andrules
company equipment
despite of new requirements defined by
modern power systems.
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

System Protection Short-Circuit Protection No consideration of system emergency


situations during settings calculation
Critical Operation
extensions no continuous settings update
High Loads
Short Circuits
at Stability Limits
No consideration of system changes and

80% of all blackouts worldwide


are in conjunction with wrong or unselective
short-circuit protection
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen
Blackout / Netzausfall
Involvement of Protection Relays
Sammis-Star Example Canada-US-Blackout 2003

X/Ohm MHO-Characteristic

100 areas in normal and overload situation U 2 (P jQ)


Z Last
S2
Blinders must be used for load impedance
50
Value during US-
Load impedance during emergency operation U 2

Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

X Last Q
Blackout 2003 S2
Min. load impedance during normal operation, planning
RLast
U 2value
P
S2

50 100

R/Ohm

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 35 -


Blackout / Netzausfall
Entstehung auch in einem strategisch geplanten Netz
Alle Betriebsmittel arbeiten innerhalb ihrer
Netz im normalen Betrieb Auslegungsgrenzen, Netz ist stabil, weit entfernt
von Stabilittsgrenzen
Kurzschlu, Betriebsmittelausfall,
Leitungsabschaltung, Terroranschlag, Unwetter,
etc.
Fehlentscheidung Korr. Entscheidung
- Relais - Relais
Netz im Notbetrieb
Auslsendes Ereignis - Operator -Operator

Operator/automatische Aktion
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Weitere Betriebsmittelausflle, Abschaltung


Fehlentscheidung
berlasteter Korr. Entscheidung
Leitungen, geplante Inselbildungen
Kaskadierende Ausflle oder wg. Instabilitten

UCTE 04.Nov.2006

Netz zerfllt in nicht regelbare Inseln mit ber-


Kollaps /Unterfrequenz Frequenzkollaps
Blindleistungsprobleme Spannungskollaps

Italien 28.Sep.2003
SIGUARD Power System Security Solutions
Increase of system security, observability and blackout prevention

SIMEAS-SAFIR SIGUARD-WAPC SIGUARD-PDP SIGUARD-DSA, -PSA

Results Met. Values


Fault Records Results
Monitoring Operator Information
WAMS
Operator Instructions Met. Values
Fault Protocols
WAPCS Operator-Training Results

SIGUARD
Analyzing
Fault location,
State Estimation
Phasor Data Counter Measures
Dynamic Protection Short-Circuit
Analysis & Information System
Concentrator and Adaptive Settings IAP
Interpreter Security Security Loadflow
(SIMEAS-SAFIR)
Expert System Processor Assessment Assessment
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Expert System Contingency


European Patent:
Expert System
06775872.2 / 2052451

Protection Data
New SIGUARD Componets

Dynamic Data
Switching State
Existing ComponentsEvaluation

locally System Forecasts


IEEE C37.118, 2006

Metered Values
Metered Values
Measuring Metered Values of
of
Relays / Recorders of Signal-
Transducers
1-10ms 20ms-200ms 1-5sec Transmission Steps
PMUs
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 37 -
SIGUARD
Necessary Speed of Operation and Control of Electrical Grids

Number of
NecessaryActions Automation,
Control Expert
automation Systems

(DSA)
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

pre-
programmed
Decisions

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen


Human - 38 -
SIGUARD DSA
Power System Dynamics

low frequency oscillations are frequent in large interconnected


power systems
can lead to operational incidents (e.g. system separation).
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Inter-area oscillation in the


European UCTE system
(May 2005)

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 39 -


SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices

Characteristics
- give the distance to dangerous system stages
- relative form
- related to security or stability limits
- range 0 1 (secure - insecure)
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

1. Angle index (AI) Actual degree


AImin 1, max ci,max

i1...NG c,max, adm

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 40 -


SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices

Angle Index (AI)


ci,max 80

G c,max,adm
AI min 1, max
i1...N

Rotor angle
60

40
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

index range: 01
20

-40
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Time
-20

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 41 -


SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices

2. Small Signal Security Index n abs lim= 0%


Minimum
STABLE UNSTABLE
SSSI
min1,
damping line

min,admissible
min adm
j


e.g. 5%

INSECURE
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

2 Hz
SECURE Local modes
Compatible with Prony-type techniques

and conventional eigenanalysis


Inter-area modes '' 0.2
' '''
0.1
Controller modes

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 42 -


SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices

3. Energy Margin Index


f
n
1 PEBS
tt
Vpotential i fi t t
i
tt
i
Unstable system

trajectory

-off
ult C
i1 fa D Pseudo-
fault-off B lt-on
fault-on
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

fau
A
Calculated in time domain using t-on
trajectory

Faul
a hybrid approach based on PEBS Potential

Stable energy
equilibrium peek point

(Potential Energy Boundary Surface) point


trajectory

Stable system

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 43 -


SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices

4. Maximum frequency deviation index (MFDI)

fi,max
MFDI min 1, max
i1...NG fmax,adm

5. Frequency recovery time index (FRTI)


Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

50.5

f (Hz)

FRTI min 1, max Operation frequency range

tFRi,max i1...NG tFR,adm 50.0


fmax
49.0

49.5

tFR
48.5
48.0

47.5

0 5 10 15 20
T [s]
Time when a fault occurs
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 44 -
SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices

6. Frequency Gradient Index (FGI)

frequency drop of a
unit
Frequency (Hz) frequency drop of


Gi
the largest unit

FGI min 1,max G1

Gmax 50.0
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

48.0
Gmax adm

49.0
47.0

fi mHz Pi MW time
Gi Gi
t s t s time when a distrubance occurs

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 45 -


SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices

U/Un

Operation voltage range


100%
V .dt DVi

7. Dynamic voltage index (DVI)
DVI min 1, max ADVi
Lowest value of the
tS voltage band

70%
ADVi,adm

Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

15%
Vi,min,adm Vi if Vi,min,adm Vi
Where VDVi 0
if Vi,min,adm Vi 0 0.15 1.50 3.00
0i1...N ADVi,adm
T [s]

45%
tef
Time when a fault occurs
8. Quasi-stationary voltage index (QSVI)
The limit curve for the voltage pattern as defined in grid code

Vpi
QSVI min 1, max
i1...N Vi,max,adm Where VDVi Vni Vi

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 46 -
SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices

9. Voltage Ride Through Index (VRTI) highest value of the three line-to-line grid
voltage U/UN lowest value of the
voltage band
limit line 2
limit line 1


100%
Viarea j dt
VRTI min 1,max
tarea j
range in which a disconnection
j
Amax
areaadm

70% is only permissible by the

automatic system

Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

45%
0 150 700 1.500 3.000
selective disconnection of generators
time in ms

area j
, if Vi Vminadm time when a fault occurs depending on their condition

Viarea j band area j
Vminadm Vi, if Vminadm <Vi Vminadm
band
15%
band
0 , if Vi Vminadm

j area j area j
areaadm Vminadm t
Amax maxadm

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 47 -


SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices

10. Line Power Flow Index (LPFI)


P norm n is used to point out crucial
LPFI min 1, max
n
i1...NL i pi

power lines
P,lim
11. Transformer Power Flow Index (TPFI)
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

i
LPFI min 1, max
P,lim

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 48 -


SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices

12. Load shedding index (LSI)

LSI P Shed
P total
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

13. Nodal Loading Index (NLI)

NLI jj P2 jj
2
jj
1 2 P 0.25 jj
2
absolute system loading margins

Q
Pjj,Qjj nodal loading in pu

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 49 -


SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices
Voltage Stability Index (VSI)

Voltage Stability Small Signal Stability Index (SSSI)

Small signal stability Angle Index (AI)


Maximum frequency deviation Maximum Frequency Deviation Index (MFDI)
Angle Energy Margin Index (EMI)

Results Scaling
Frequency recovery time Frequency Recovery Time Index (FRTI)

01
Energy margin
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Frequency gradient Frequency Gradient Index (FGI)

Dynamic voltage Dynamic Voltage Index (DVI)

Quasi-steady-state voltage Quasi-Steady-State Voltage Index


(QSVI)

Fault ride through Fault Ride Through Index


(VRTI)
Line power flow Line Power flow Index
(LPFI)
Load shedding Load Shedding Index
SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices

Angle Index (AI)

ci,max 80
Limit
AI min 1, max
i1...NG c,max,adm
60

Rotor angle
40
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

20
index range: 01

-40
-20 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Time

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 51 -


SIGUARD-DSA
Ranking Security Indices
Small Signal Stability SSSI
Index Grid Code Compliance and
Stability Signal Light
AI
Angle Index
Energy Margin Index
EMI 1.0 INCOMPLIANT / INSECURE

0.9
MFDI
Maximum Frequency Stability
Deviation Index FIS 0.8
Frequency Recovery FRTI Frequency FFI c
Time Index (Fuzzy 0.7
FIS
Frequency Gradient FGI System)
Inference
Index
0.6
Dynamic Voltage DVI
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Index 0.5 b
Quasi Stationery QSVI Voltage FVI FSI
Voltage Index
VRTI FIS
Voltage Ride 0.4
Through Index 0.3

LPFI a
Line Power Flow
Index
0.2
FDSI
FPI Security
Load Shedding Power Flow
Index LSI
FIS FIS 0.1
Transformer Power TPFI
Flow Index 0.0 COMPLIANT / SECURE
Voltage Stability VSI
Index

NLI
Nodal Loading Index
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 52 -
SIGUARD DSA
Easy to Use: Continuous Procedure

Dynamic Analysis
Working point

System State

forecasts

now time
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Colour Code Voltage Sec


Index

1.00

- Re-dispatch

Severity
.75

- tap-changer blocking
- load shedding
- ... .50

Measures Visualization

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 53 -


.25
SIGUARD-DSA

Film
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 54 -


Protection System Review
Classical: Check of coordination through depiction of settings
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

All graphical methods used so far, are incomplete from an overall system perspective
(e.g. the resistive reach in distance diagrams, see above, can not be shown)
Diagrams are for one network state and do not support the detection of cascading trippings
Large numbers of possible grading paths require numerous grading diagrams to be analyzed
Coordination of different protection methods (e.g. 21, 50/51) cannot be evaluated together
Selectivity analysis is only based on the depiction of settings instead of simulated selectivity
Significant time efforts for complete protection system reviews paired with limited resources
often result in negligence of the importance of regular protection system reviews

- 55 -
SIGUARD PSA
Protection System Reviews with Fingerprints

Analogy: Magnetic Resonance Scan Imaging Diagnosis &


Treatment
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Network and Protection Simulation Weak point Analysis &


Protection Model visualization Countermeasures

Improved
settings
performance
Automated Prevention
assessment for
protection of supply
relevant operating interruptions
& fault scenarios
SIGUARD PSA
Example: Urban Network
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 57 -


SIGUARD PSA
Example: Simulation

Fault 2.4 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.3 1 Fault Resistance
Ik1E.dat L1-E Fehlerwiderstand 2.5Ohm
0
L-West-Grnwinkel
< 2,5 Ohm
L-Grnwinkel-Sd < 2,4 Ohm
L-West-Mitte < 2,3 Ohm
L-West-StoraEnso < 2,2 Ohm
L-West-Heide < 2,1 Ohm
Lines
Leitungen

L-Sd-Oberwald < 2,0 Ohm


< 1,9 Ohm
L-Ost-Uni < 1,8 Ohm
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

L-Ost-Oberwald < 1,7 Ohm


L-Ost-Mitte < 1,6 Ohm
L-Ost-Ble < 1,5 Ohm
L-Nord-Uni 1 21 81 99 < 1,4 Ohm
L-Nord-Heide relative Lnge in % /% < 1,3 Ohm
L-Nord-Ble < 1,2 Ohm
dem zutrip relays < 1,1
Protection schtzenden
an Ohm
correctly
Schutzgerte Betriebsmittel lsen korrekt aus

Protection relays<
Zone auslsen,
Schutzgerte 1,0 accelerated
operate
an demlsen Ohm
ab bereits in
zu schtzenden derersten Zone
Betriebsmittel aus in
sollten - und umgekehrt
der zweiten

Protection relays< 0,9delayed


operate Ohm
oder einer hheren Zone, aus

Protection relays overfunction


< 0,8 Ohm Betriebsmittel lst mindestens
Schutzgerte an dem zu schtzenden Betriebsmittel lsen erst in der
Protection relays underfunction
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen
dritten Zone, < 0,7 Ohm
SIGUARD PSA
Example: Network area with 80 lines and 300 relays

selectively coordinated network

original protection fingerprint


Lines Fault location
(% Line length)
Variables
Objective: ColorCoding
Detaillierte Selectivity
Namen und ber
Informationen
Schutzverhalten
Leitungslngen
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

- Protection behavior presented in layers


- New relay coordination only done where needed
- Change of protection scheme if required performance
cannot be achieved by setting improvement alone
Relays

- New devices
- Verification of improvements
- Usage as training simulator
- 59 -
- Certification of protection system
Overview diagram for all relays (300)
Relay Error Rate for 1-phase fault

Relay Error Rate


for original protection settings
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Relay Error Rate


for improved protection settings

SIGUARD PSA makes the


improvements measureable

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen


SIGUARD PSA - Data Aggregation
Cockpit
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

2013-06 R.
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 61 -
SIGUARD PSA
Open Software Structure, same application platform as for DSA

SIGUARD PDP
PMU Data Stream
Steady-State Network Energy Trade, Dynamic Network Dynamic PMU
SCADA
Interface Renewable and Database Interface
Snapshot
Load Forecast
Protection
Contingencies & Scenarios Automatic
Database
Contingencies &
Measures
Measures
Computation

SIGUARD PSA
Engine

SCADA
RDC
Contingencies,
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

PSS Suite
Measures

Interface
Protection Protection Protection
Selectivity

SIGUARD PDP
SETUP, Speed Security

Monitoring
CONFIGURATION

SCADA
Result
Margins & Evaluation and Fault Pattern Analysis

Criteria Database

Index Selection Application Platform


Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 62 -
Visualization &
SIGUARD PSA
Easy to Connect

Future Standalone with


Integration with any SCADA
Spectrum Power
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

PSS /E
PSS
/E files /E

Steady-state snapshopts
Micro-Topology
- 63 -
Protection Systems
From Primary Energy Sources to Consumers

Windparcs Onshore/Offshore
Double fed ASM
Voltage Source Converters
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Industries
Large Motors, Generators
Power Electronics

Transmission Dynamic Loads


Short and long lines,
Oil and Gas, Harbor- Power Plants cables Distribution
and Special Systems Large Generators Transformers Various Switching Situations
MVDC-SIPLINK Large Motors Diff. Busbar Configs DGs
LNG Auxiliary Systems FACTS / HVDC Short-circuit Current Limiters
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 64 -
Protection Systems
Consist of Relay Types of Nearly All Eras

SIPROTECV1-V3 SIPROTECV4
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

Control

Numerical Protection Relays


Analog Relays

Electromechanical Relays
- 65 -
Protection Systems
Consist of Relay Types of all Nearly All
Manufacturers
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 66 -


Protection Systems
Standard Structure

Protection Equipment
System
V, A

protection Trip signal circuit


signal signal signal signal circuit
object formation breaker
adaption sampling processing analysis breaker
control
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

System
kV, kA auxiliary
power

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 67 -


Protection Systems
Power System Influences

40 MHz Switching Voltages


Surge Voltages

Very Fast 10 MHz


Transients
10 kHz Power Converters
5 kHz Ferro-Resonances
Protection
1 kHz
Control &

E-Generation Transformer Switching


Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

fn 50 Hz
100 Hz Power Plant > System > Load
E-Transmission System Resonances
Transients &
Equipm. Interactions Oscillations of the Turbine-Generator
Subsynchronous
Multimass System
Resonances 10 Hz (Power Plants > 300MW)

5 Hz

0 Hz
Frequency
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 68 -
Protection Systems
Power System Influences

Transformer overexcitation
i1
i1

Inrush currents

CT saturation t

U/V
X

Non system frequent voltages with


50 Leitung

capacitive voltage transformers


0,995 1,000 1,005 1,010 1,015 1,020 1,025 1,030 1,035 1,040 1,045 1,050
t/s

-100
-50

Variable system impedances with FACTS R


Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

SZ

Sub-synchronous frequencies with series MOV


-XC

compensation
GAP

Power swings
-3 500
t/ms

u/kV

200 i/kA

500
t/ms

Inter-area oscillations 3

High equipment and route capacity utilization

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 69 -


7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Distribution System of a Small City
No DG Installed, Radial System with
20 kV Single Infeed
City network 7 MW

110 kV
40 MVA

I>
I>
Utility I>> I I> t>0.0s
t>0.6s
t>>0s t>1.2s I> I>
Housing area
I> t>0.6s t>0.6s
0.5 MW
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

t>1,5s
I> I> I>
t>0.9s M t>0.3s t>0.0s

10 MW
Industry
M
Industry 3 MW
Protection selectivity by use of simple non-directional oc relays
- Unique short-circuit direction,
- Current / time grading with def. or IDMTL characteristics
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 70 -
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Distribution System of a Small City
No DG Installed, Radial System with
20 kV Single Infeed
City network 7 MW

110 kV
40 MVA

I>
I>
Utility I>> I I> t>0.0s
t>0.6s
t>>0s t>1.2s I> I>
Housing area
I> t>0.6s t>0.6s
0.5 MW
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

t>1,5s

I> I> I>


t>0.9s M t>0.3s t>0.0s

10 MW
Industry
M
Industry 3 MW
Protection selectivity by use of simple non-directional oc relays
- Unique short-circuit direction,
- Current / time grading with def. or IDMTL characteristics
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 71 -
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Distribution System of a Small City
Large DG Installed 20 kV
City network 7 MW

110 kV
40 MVA I> I> Biomass

t>0.6s t>0.0s I> -plant

t>1.2s 25 MW
Utility I>> I I>
t>0s t>1.2s I> I>
Housing area
I> t> 0.6s t> 0.6s
0.5 MW
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

t>1,5s
I> I> I> I> I>
t>0.9s M t>0.6s t>0.6s t>0.3s t>0.0s
Non-directional OC-Protection

M
Supposed that sc currents of both infeeds are in same range Industry
No selectivity with non-directional OC protection 10 MW
Long fault clearing times
Industry
Islanding of not-allowed areas
3 MW

New protection concepts necessary

- 72 -
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Distribution System of a Small City
Large DG Installed 20 kV
City network 7 MW

110 kV
40 MVA I> I> Biomass

t>0.6s t>0.0s I> -plant

t>1.2s 25 MW
Utility I>> I I>
t>0s t>1.2s I> I>
Housing area
I> t> 0.6s t> 0.6s
0.5 MW
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

t>1,5s
I> I> I> I> I>
t>0.9s M t>0.6s t>0.6s t>0.3s t>0.0s
Non-directional OC-Protection

M
Supposed that sc currents of both infeeds are in same range Industry
No selectivity with non-directional OC protection 10 MW
Long fault clearing times
Industry
Islanding of not-allowed areas
3 MW

New protection concepts necessary

- 73 -
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Distribution System of a Small City
Large DG Installed 20 kV
City network 7 MW

110 kV
40 MVA I> I> Biomass

t>0.6s t>0.0s I> -plant

t>1.2s 25 MW
Utility I>> I I>
t>0s t>1.2s I> I>
Housing area
I> t> 0.6s t> 0.6s
0.5 MW
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

t>1,5s
I> I> I> I> I>
t>0.9s M t>0.6s t>0.6s t>0.3s t>0.0s
Non-directional OC-Protection

M
Supposed that sc currents of both infeeds are in same range Industry
No selectivity with non-directional OC protection 10 MW
Long fault clearing times
Industry
Islanding of not-allowed areas
3 MW
New protection concepts necessary
Islanding of System not allowed!
-No frequency control
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen -No resynchronization - 74 -
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Distribution System of a Small City
Large DG Installed 20 kV
City network 7 MW

110 kV
40 MVA I> I> Biomass

t>0.3s t>0.0s I> -plant

t>1.2s 25 MW
Utility I>> I I>
t>0s t>1.2s
I> I>
Housing area
I>
t>1,5s t>0.6s t>0.6s 0.5 MW
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

I> I> I> I> I> I>


M t>0.3s t>0.0s
Directional OC-Protection t>0.6s
t>0.9s t>0.6s t>0.9s
M
Supposed that sc currents of both infeeds are in same range Industry
No selectivity with non-directional OC protection 10 MW
Long fault clearing times
Industry
Islanding of not-allowed areas
3 MW

New protection concepts necessary

- 75 -
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Distribution System of a Small City
No DG Installed, Radial System with
20 kV
Single Infeed
City network 7 MW

110 kV
40 MVA I> I> Biomass

t>0.3s t>0.0s I> -plant

t>1.2s 25 MW
Utility I>> I I>
t>>0s t>1.2s
I> I>
Housing area
I>
t>1,5s t>0.6s t>0.6s 0.5 MW
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

I> I> I> I> I> I>


M t>0.3s t>0.0s
Directional OC-Protection t>0.6s
t>0.9s t>0.6s t>0.9s
M
Supposed that sc currents of both infeeds are in same range Industry
No selectivity with non-directional OC protection 10 MW
Long fault clearing times
Industry
Islanding of not-allowed areas
3 MW

New protection concepts necessary

- 76 -
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Distribution System of a Small City
20 kV
Large DG Installed City network 7 MW

110 kV
Decoupling
40 MVA I> Biomass
device I>
t> 0.0s -plant
I>
25 MW
Utility I>> I> t>0.3s
I
t>>0s U< I> I> Housing area
I> 0.5 MW
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

t>0.3s Q>
I> I> I> I> I> I>
t> 0.0s
t> 0.05s
t> 0.05s

OC-Protection with directional comparison M


M
and fast U-Q decoupling

Supposed that sc currents of both infeeds are in same range


No selectivity with non-directional OC protection
Long fault clearing times Industry Industry
Islanding of not-allowed areas 10 MW
New protection concepts necessary 3 MW

- 77 -
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


20 kV
Distribution System of a Small City City network 7 MW
Large DG Installed
110 kV
40 MVA I> I> Biomass

t>0.3s t>0.0s I> -plant

t>1.2s 25 MW
Utility I>> I I>
t>>0s I> I>
t>1.2s
Housing area
I>
t>1,5s t>0.6s t>0.6s 0.5 MW
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

I> I> I> I> I> I>


M t>0.3s t>0.0s
t>0.6s
t>0.9s t>0.6s t>0.9s
M
Industry
Anti-islanding 10 MW

logic Industry
Anti-islanding logic 3 MW
PMU-installation for island detection

Islanding of System not allowed!


-No frequency control
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


20 kV
Distribution System of a Small City City network 7 MW
GPS Signal
Large DG Installed
110 kV
40 MVA I> I> Biomass

t>0.3s t>0.0s I> -plant

t>1.2s 25 MW
Utility I>> I I>
t>>0s I> I>
t>1.2s
Housing area
I>
t>1,5s t>0.6s t>0.6s 0.5 MW
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

I> I> I> I> I> I>


M t>0.3s t>0.0s
t>0.6s
Anti-islanding logic t>0.9s t>0.6s t>0.9s
PMU-installation for island detection
Industry M
10 MW

Phase

comparison
Industry
-No frequency control
3 MW
Anti-islanding protection necessary -No resynchronization

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 79 -


7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


P5 Policy 5: Emergency
Underfrequency Operations
Loadshedding without and with DGs Operational Handbook entso-e
Load rejection at 49,0Hz, better at 49,2Hz
50% of nominal Power shall be disconnected
at 48,0 Hz.
At 49,0Hz minimum 5% of total load shall be
shed.
Below 49,0Hz, stepwise load rejection has to
be coordinated with requirements of the TSO.
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

f <= 200mHz
tAUS (inkl. CB op.-time) <= 350ms

Source: Appendix Policy 5: Emergency Operations


- 80 -
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Underfrequency Loadshedding without and with DGs Actual Installations and Common Practice

Transmission

Consuming distribution system


Power flow from top to down
f<
f< trips feeder CB
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Distribution

M M M

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 81 -


7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Underfrequency Loadshedding without and with DGs Necessary Changes

Transmission
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

Consumer becomes Pro-sumer


Changing powerflow directions
G G frequency stability of transmission
M f< M M

Distribution

Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen f< trip could trip generating distribution
- 82 -
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Underfrequency Loadshedding without and with DGs Realization in Siemens 7SJ Relays
Basis: Angle-supervision of positive-sequence power
Positive real power
Feeder is consuming
90
2 Hysteresis jQ
With measured under frequency, P/f< function
trips CB

180 0
A P
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

S1
B

2 Hysteresis

270
(PQ pos.seq.)
P/f- tAUS
& protection

f < xxHz
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 83 -
7. Netzsicherheit

Schutz bei dezentralen Einspeisungen


Underfrequency Loadshedding without and with DGs Realization in Siemens 7SJ Relays

Feeder is consuming
90 Basis:Angle-supervision of positive-sequence power
2 Hysterese jQ With measured under frequency, P/f< function
Positive real power
trips CB
B
180 0
Negative real power
A P Feeder is generating
Lehrstuhl fr Elektrische Energiesysteme, FAU Erlangen-Nrnberg

S1
Feeder helps in frequency support
With measured under frequency, no trip
2 Hysterese

270
(PQ Mitsyst.)
P/f-Schutz tAUS
& Anregung

f < xx Hz
Elektrische Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energiequellen - 84 -