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"a method of foreign or second

language teaching which makes
use of translation and grammar
study as the main teaching and
learning activities.



Dates back to Erasmus 1466-1536

Originally used to teach Latin and Greek
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Earlier in 20th century, this method was
used for the purpose of helping students
read and appreciate foreign language
Original purposes
Helping students read and
appreciate foreign language
Students can become more
familiar with the grammar of
their native language also write
and speak their native language
Helpful for mental exercise

Classes are taught in the mother

tongue, with little active use of the
target language.
Much vocabulary is taught in the form
of lists of isolated words.
Long elaborate explanations of the
intricacies of grammar are given.
Grammar provides the rules for putting
words together, and instruction often
focuses on the form and inflection of
Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early.

Little attention is paid to the content of texts,

which are treated as exercises in grammatical

Often the only drills are exercises in translating

disconnected sentences from the target language

into the mother tongue.
Little or no attention is given to pronunciation .

Translation of a literary passage

Students will be asked to read a
literary passage and then translate
the target language into their native
Translation may be written or spoken
Translation made by the students
can show that they understand their
Deductive application of rules
Itis important for students to
learn about the forms(grammar
rules) of the target language
Grammar rules are presented
with examples
Students are asked to apply the
rules to examples they are given
Teacher as the authority
Teacher decides whether the
students answers are correct
It is important for students to get the
correct answers
If students answer incorrectly, the
teacher will provide the correct
Students are asked to memorize new
words, grammatical rules, and verb
Teacher give students sentences with
word missing
Students should fill in the blanks
with the new vocabulary or with a
particular grammar type
Use words in sentences
Students are asked to make up
sentences with the new words they
learn in the text
This technique can show whether
students really understand the new

Aim: The Direct Method aims at establishing the direct

bond between thought and expressions and between

experience and language. It is based on the assumption
that the learner should experience the new language in the
same way as he experienced his mother tongue.

Based on the direct involvement of the student when speaking,

and listening to, the foreign language in common everyday

situations. Consequently, there are lots of oral interaction,
spontaneous use of the language, no translation, and little if any
analysis of grammar rules and syntax.

The focus of the lessons is on good pronunciation, often

introducing learners to phonetic symbols before they see

standard writing examples.
It requires small classes and high student
motivation, and in the artificial environment of a
classroom it is difficult to generate natural situations
of understanding and guarantee sufficient practice
for everyone.
However, variants of this method have been
developed where the teacher allows limited
explanations in the students native language and
explains some grammar rules to correct common
errors a student may make when speaking.
Its main features are:
1. Only the use of target language is allowed in class,
2. Students are encouraged to think in the target language,
3. This method is based on sound principles of education. It
believes in introducing the particular before general,
concrete before abstract and practice before theory.
A comparison between the Direct Method and the
Grammar Translation Method


Avoids close association between the Maintains close association

second language and the mother
between the second language
and the mother tongue.
Lays emphasis on speech.
Lays emphasis on translation.
follows the childs natural way of
Follows the adults natural
learning a language. way of learning a language.
Teaches the language by
Teaches the language by use rule.

Does not favour the teaching of formal Teaches formal grammar from
grammar at the early stage. the very beginning.

Q & A: The teacher asks questions of any nature and the

students answer.

Dictation: The teacher chooses a grade appropriate passage

and reads the text aloud. Teacher reads the passage three

Reading Aloud: Students take turn reading sections of a

passage, play or dialog out loud.

Getting Students to Self-Correct: The teacher should

have the students self-correct by offering them a choice
between what they said and the correct answer.
Conversation Practise: The teacher asks students a
number of questions in the target language which the
students are able to answer correctly. Later, the students
ask each other their own questions using the same
grammatical structures.

Map Drawing: Students are given a map without labeled

then the students label it by using the directions the teacher

Paragraph Writing : The students are asked to write a

passage in their own words. They can do this from memory
or use a reading passage in the lesson as a model.
Here are some of the objectives of the
audio-lingual method:

Accurate pronunciation and grammar

Ability to respond quickly and
accurately in speech situations
Knowledge of sufficient vocabulary to
use with grammar patterns

Training in listening comprehension,

accurate pronunciation, reading
comprehension (short range)

To develop in the students the same types of

abilities that native speaking have, to use it
automatically without stopping to think.
(long term)

The Audio-lingual Method is a method of foreign

language teaching which emphasizes the teaching

of listening and speaking before reading and writing.
It uses dialogues as the main form of language
presentation and drills as the main training
techniques. Mother tongue is discouraged in the
Basic Principles

Separation of language skills into listening,

speaking, reading and writing, with emphasis
on the teaching of listening and speaking
before reading and writing;
Use of dialogues as the chief means of
presenting the language;
Emphasis on certain practice techniques:
mimicry, memorization and pattern drills;
Discouraging the use of the mother tongue in
the classroom

Repetition drill This drill is often used to teach

the lines of the dialogue. Students are asked to
repeat the teachers model as accurately and as
quickly as possible.

Substitution drill The students repeat the line

from the dialogue which the teacher has given them,
substituting the cue into the line in its proper place.
Question-and-answer drill The drill gives
students practice with answering questions. The
students should answer the teachers question very
quickly. It is also possible for the teacher to cue the
students to ask questions as well.

Expansion drill This drill helps students to

produce longer sentence bit by bit, gradually achieving
fluency. The main structure is repeated first, then
students have to put cue phrase in its proper place.
Clause combination drill Students learn to
combine two simple sentences into a complex one.

Background build-up drill ( or back

chaining): This drill is used when a long line of
dialogue is giving students trouble. The teacher
breaks down the line into several parts. The students
repeat a part of the sentence, usually the last phrase
of the line.

Making language teaching possible to large

groups of learners
Emphasizing sentence production , control over
grammatical structures and development of oral
Developing simple techniques and making use
of language lab.
Developing the separation of the language skills

Not developing language competence , lack of

effectiveness , and boredom caused by

endless pattern drills.
Learners having little control over their

Teachers domination of the class .

Teacher-oriented materials.

The method is based on the premise that teacher should be

silent as much as possible and the learners should be

encouraged to produce language as much as possible.

The SW assumes that learners work with resources and nothing

else, as they are solely responsible for what they learn.

Teaching should be subordinated to learning.

Silence makes students to concentrate on what is to be learned.


The general goal set for language learning is near-

native fluency in the target language, and correct
pronunciation and mastery of the prosodic elements
of the target language are emphasized.

The teacher should give them only what they

absolutely need to promote their learning.

They become independent by relying on themselves.


Learner roles
Teacher roles
The role of instructional materials

Learners have only themselves as individuals and

the group to rely on, and so they must learn to
work cooperatively rather than competitively.

A learner also must be a teacher, a student, part of

a support system, a problem solver, and a self-

The teacher is a technician or an engineer who facilitates


The teacher's role is one of neutral observer, neither praise

nor criticize, merely looks for continued improvement.

The teacher is silent. The teacher's presence in the

classroom is limited to providing a model of the language
that the students are going to work on.
Teacher silently monitors learners' interactions with each

other and may even leave the room while learners struggle
with their new linguistic tools.
Teachers are responsible for designing teaching
sequences and creating individual lessons and lesson
It is important for teacher-defined learning goals that are

clear and attainable.

The teacher is responsible for creating an environment that

encourages student risk taking and that facilitates learning.

The teacher uses gestures, charts, and manipulates in order

to elicit and shape student responses and so must be both

facile and creative .
Teacher like the complete dramatist, writes the script,

chooses the props, sets the mood, models the action,

designates the players, and is critic for the performance.

The teacher is responsible for creating an environment that

encourages student risk taking and that facilitates learning.

The teacher uses gestures, charts, and manipulates in order

to elicit and shape student responses and so must be both

facile and creative .
Teacher like the complete dramatist, writes the script,

chooses the props, sets the mood, models the action,

designates the players, and is critic for the performance.