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Introduction to Sociology

Department of Buisness
Administration
Ms Amna Rafique
Contents
Definition of sociology
Use of scientific observation in sociology
Characteristics of scientific observation
What is research
Difference between method and methodology
Steps of conducting research
Types of research
Research methods used in sociology
Sociology

The intellectual discipline concerned with


developing systemic, reliable knowledge
about human social relations in general
and about the products of such
relationships (Horton & Hunt, 2004).
Sociologists study

Sociologists study human society and social


behavior by examining the groups that people
form. These groups include families, tribes,
communities and governments, as well as a
great variety of social, religious, political,
business and other organizations.
Sociologists also study the behavior and
interaction of grouos; trace their origin and
growth; and analyze the influence of group
activities on individual members.
The role of sociologist
sociologist play their roles as
Research scientist
Policy consultant
Teacher
Sociologist and Social action
Technician
Scientific observation; The basic
technique of scientific method

Science is based upon varifiable evidence.

Evidence means factual observations,


others can see, weight, count and check
for accuracy
Characteristics of scientific
observation
Scientific observation is
Precise
Accurate
Systematic
Recorded
Objective
Are made by trained observers
Are made under controlled observations.
The scientific method of investigation

Following are major steps in scientific


research.
Define the problem
Review the literature
Formulate the hypothesis
Plan the research design
Data collection
Analyze the data
Draw conclusions
Replicate the study
Two major perspectives in
sociology

Functionalist theory

Conflict theory
Research methods in sociology

Research
Research is a systematic investigative
process employed to increase or revise
current knowledge by discovering new
facts.
Types of research
Application
Pure research
Applied research
Enquiry mode
Qualitatuve research
Quantitative research
Objective
Descriptive research
Exploratory
Difference between method and
methodology
Method
Research methods are the tools, techniques
or processes that we use in our research.
These might be, for example, surveys,
interviews or questionnaires.
Methodology
Methodology is the study of how research is
done, how we find out about things, and how
knowledge is gained.
Research methods in sociology
Cross-sectional study
A study which covers a broad area of
observation at a single point in time is called
cross-sectional study.
Longitudinal study
The study which extends over time describing
a trend or making a series of before and after
observation is called a longitudinal study.
Cont.....
Laboratory and field experiments
Observational studies
Questionnaire and interview studies
Case studies
Participant observer studies