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Chapter 6 Nutrition

question bank

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Biology question bank
1.F4 chp
Kanji 4 molekul kompleks. Pencernaan kanji dijalankan oleh beberapa enzim
di sepanjang saluran pencernaan . Terangkan bagaimana glukosa dihasilkan
daripada pencernaan kanji di sepanjang saluran pencernaan.
[6 marks]

- Saliva is secreted by the salivary glands in the mouth

- salivary gland secretes amylase / Saliva contain amylase
- amylase will hydrolyse starch into maltose
- remaining starch and maltose enters the stomach
- (stomach do not contain carbohydrate), so no digestion of carbohydrate will take place in stomach
- Duodenum received pancreatic amylase from pancreas
- pancreatic amylase will hydrolyse the remaining starch into maltose
- the wall of illeum secretes maltase
- maltase will hydrolyse maltose into glucose

2. Rajah 9.2 menunjukkan tiga jenis makanan. [SPM 2010 NO.9]

Menjelaskan kesan-kesan jangka panjang memakan lebihan makanan ini pada

kesihatan individu.
[10 marks]
Excess of bread carbohydrates
Cause overweight and obesity
Which in turn may lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes

Excess of butter a diary product which is a lipid

There will be an excessive storage of energy in the form of fat
A health problem will be obesity

Excess saturated fats increases the blood cholesterol level

Cholesterol deposits on the walls of the blood vessels narrowing them
Contributing to cardiovascular diseases
Fats also increase the risk od developing cancer.
Might also lead to hypertension and diabetes mellitus .

Excess of fried chicken Lipids, proteins

Increases the risk of heart disease
Leads to loss of calcium
Very taxing on the kidneys during excretion.

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Biology question bank
3.F4 chp
Rajah 4
9.1 menunjukkan sebuah piramid makanan.

Diagram 9.1

Terangkan mengapa ais krim, kek mentega diletakkan pada Tahap 4 dalam piramid
makanan. [6 marks]

P1: Food at level 4 should only be taken in smallest amount / ratio

P2: Ice cream contain a lot of sugar
P3: Sugar has high energy value
P4: Excessive sugar in the body will lead to obesity / diabetes
P5: Butter cake contain a lot of lipid
P6: Lipid has high energy value
P7: Excessive lipid will form adipose issue in the body // increase cholesterol level in body
P8: (Excessive lipid will) lead to heart attack / cardiovascular disease / stroke

4. Terangkan kepentingan memakan makanan dari Tahap 2 dalam diet harian kita.
[4 marks]
[Perak NO.6]

P1: Food at level 2 contains a lot of water, vitamins, minerals and roughage / fibre
P2: Water is important in all cell activities / physiological / biochemical processes in our body
P3: Body need enough vitamins to preserve / maintain health // Any suitable example of mineral and
the related function
P5: Roughage is necessary in the diet to stimulate peristalsis / to prevent constipation
Any 4 P

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Biology question bank
5.F4 chp
Rajah 4
9.2 menunjukkan beberapa contoh makanan segar dan makanan diproses. [Kedah NO.9 ]

Rajah 9.2

Bincangkan kesan-kesan baik dan kesan buruk makanan diproses dalam

kehidupan seharian kita.
[10 marks]
Good effect : By producing processed food
G1: Food can be preserved / kept longer
G2: to prevent food poisoning / wasting of food
G3: Crops can be planted / livestock / poultry can be reared in big scale
G4: to prevent food shortage
G5: (food are packaged) to increase the commercial value / easier to be transported
G6: more types / varieties of food can be produced

Bad effect : By regular consuming of processed food

B1: Loss a lot of nutrient value (under high temperature during the process)
B2: (Contain) preservative / colouring / dye / flavour which is carcinogenic
B3: lead to mutation / cancer / health problem / suitable example
B4: Contain excessive salt / sugar
B5: lead to high blood pressure / diabetes / obesity
Any 10

6. Sembelit, rabun malam dan anemia tiga masalah kesihatan.

Huraikan punca dan mencadangkan cara-cara untuk mengatasi masalah-masalah
kesihatan dari aspek pemakanan .
[6 marks]
[SPM 2006 NO.6]

Insufficient amount of fibrous food
Eat more vegetables and fruits

Night blindness
Insufficient vitamin A
Eat more carrots and tomatoes

Insufficient iron
Eat more spinach

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Biology question bank
7.F4 chp
Rajah 4
7 menunjukkan asimilasi makanan dicerna dalam sel hati dan badan.

Diagram 7

Berdasarkan Rajah 7 , terangkan asimilasi daripada yang berikut:

(I) Glukosa
(II) asid amino
(III) Lipid [10 marks]

[N. Sembilan NO.7]

P1: Excess glucose in the blood is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver
P2: When glucose level in the blood is low, glycogen is converted to glucose in the liver
P3: Excess glucose is converted to lipids by the liver
P4: In the body cells, glucose is oxidized to release energy in cellular respiration

Amino acids
P5: Amino acids is used to synthesise protein in the liver
P6: Excess amino acids undergo deamination to produce urea in the liver
P7: Urea is then eliminated by the kidney
P8: Amino acid is used to synthesise enzymes / antibodies / hormones / new protoplasm / repair
damaged tissues in body cells

P9: Excess lipids is stored in adipose tissues
P10:Phospholipids and cholesterol make up the plasma membrane

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Biology question bank
8.F4 chp
Rajah 4
9.1 menunjukkan sistem pencernaan dan organ-organ yang berkaitan
dengan sistem penghadaman.

Diagram 9.1

Menjelaskan bagaimana ikan kukus dicerna di bahagian-bahagian R, S dan T dalam

sistem. [10 marks]

[SPM 2009 NO.9]

Steamed fish contains proteins

At R Stomach
Pepsin is secreted in the inactive form, pepsinogen
Which is activated in the acidic medium of the stomach
In the presence of hydrochloric acid
Pepsin is a protease which catalyses the breakdown of proteins in fish to polypeptides.
In a hydrolysis reaction

At S Duodenum
Pancreatic juice contains trypsinogen, which is converted to trypsin by enterokinase
Further digestion of protein is done by trypsin which breaks up protein molecules into peptides.

At T Ileum
Erepsin (peptidase) is released by the mucosa of the ileum (small intestine).
It completes the hydrolysis of polypeptides and peptides to their component amino acids.
The amino acids pass through the intestinal lining into the blood capillaries.
In the villi on the wall of the small intestine to be absorbed.

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Biology question bank
9.F4 chp
Rajah 4
9.1 menunjukkan laluan molekul lemak yang melalui satu sistem.

Pundi hempedu, pankreas dan usus kecil adalah struktur yang terlibat dalam
pemprosesan molekul lemak. Terangkan proses yang berlaku kepada molekul lemak
sehingga ia boleh digunakan oleh sel-sel badan.
[10 marks]

[SPM 2009 NO.9]

Digestion of fats occurs in the duodenum
Bile produced by the liver helps to emulsify fats
The pancreas secretes lipase which digests lipids into fatty acids and glycerol

Absorption of fatty acids and glycerol take place in the ileum. They are absorbed into the lacteals.
In the lacteals, condensation of fatty acids and glycerol forms lipids.
The lipids then is transported via the lymphatic system into the bloodstream.

Assimilation takes place in the cells. Cells use lipid to form complex compounds.

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Biology question bank
10. chp
Rajah 9.2 ,49.3 dan 9.4 menunjukkan keadaan fizikal tiga orang yang berkaitan
dengan tabiat pemakanan mereka.

Terangkan hubungan antara tabiat pemakanan dan keadaan fizikal setiap orang.
[10 marks]
[SPM 2009 NO.9]

Diagram 9.2
A healthy person who takes a balanced diet
He takes the correct amount of carbohydrates and fats to provide energy to the body.
He takes the correct amount of proteins to produce new cells
He eats food which are rich in fibre and drinks a lot of water to avoid constipation.
He takes vitamins and minerals to maintain good health
He also exercise regularly to maintain his health

Diagram 9.3
Obesity where there is imbalance between the food intake and the energy used
He takes excessive amount of food rich in fat.

Diagram 9.4
Anorexia nervosa
A drastic lost in body weight occurs because he skips meals for long periods of time
Tissue repair cannot take place due to lack of protein

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Biology question bank
11. chppenyerapan
Selepas 4 nutrien dalam usus kecil. Bahan-bahan yang tidak dihadam di
dalam usus menyebabkan pembentukan najis.
Terangkan pembentukan najis dalam manusia. [4 marks]

[SPM 2008 NO.8]

After the absorption of nutrients has taken place in the small intestine, the intestinal contents enter the
colon. [1]
The intestinal contents consist of a mixture of water, undigested substances, dead cells and dead
bacteria, and indigestible fibre.[1]
The movement of the undigested materials along the colon is slow helped by peristalsis. [1]
Water and minerals are reabsorbed into the bloodstream from the undigested remains in the colon,
resulting in the formation of faeces. [1]

12. Malnutrisi adalah keadaan kerana mengambil diet yang tidak seimbang di mana
nutrien tertentu yang kurang, yang melebihi atau di bahagian yang salah.
Terangkan kesan ke atas kanak-kanak yang diberikan jumlah yang tidak
mencukupi daripada mana-mana dua nutrien makanan untuk tempoh masa yang
panjang. [6marks]
[SPM 2008 NO.8]

Deficiency in proteins :
There are two extreme forms of protein deficiency : kwashiorkor and marasmus. In both cases, the
mental and physical development of the child is severely impaired.[1]
A child suffering from kwashiorkor has flaky skin, thin muscles, thin hair and a swelling of the
especially the abdomen because of the retention of fluid in tissues. The child often experiences
stunted growth. [1]
A child with marasmus looks emaciated with wrinkled skin. This is due to lack of energy-
nutrients on top of protein deficiency. [1]

Deficiency in calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D : Ricket is a disorder caused by a lack of

calcium, phosphorus or vitamin D.
It leads to softening and weakening of the bones .[1]
A child suffering from rickets may have bow legs (outward curve of long bone on the legs) and a
deformed chest.[1]
A child with rickets can experience stunted growth and will most likely be short in stature as an
adult. [1]

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Biology question bank
13. chp
Rajah 4
4 menunjukkan tiga organisma , X, Y dan Z.

X : tumbuhan hijau Y : lembu Z : arnab

Terangkan jenis pemakanan di organisma X dan Y.
[4marks] SPM 2006 Q6

Organism X is an autotroph, while organism Y is a heterotroph. [2]

Organism X synthesies complex organic compounds from raw, simple inorganic substance such
as water and carbon dioxide, using sunlight as a source of energy. It manufactures its own food
by photosynthesis.[1]
Organism Y is unable to synthesis its own food but instead must obtain the nutrients from other
organisms. It practices holozoic nutrition by ingesting solid organic matter which is eventually
digested and absorbed into its body. [1]

14. Nyatakan satu persamaan dan empat perbezaan antara terusan pencernaan dan
jenis pemakanan dalam organisma Y dan Z. [10marks]
SPM 2006 Q6

Similarity :
Both organisms do not secrete the enzyme cellulase to digest cellulose. [2]

Differences :
Organism Y has four stomach chambers with part of it involved in cellulose digestion. Organism Z
has one stomach chamber in which the cellulose digestion does not take place. [2]
Organism Z has a large caecum in which cellulose digestion take place.
Organism Y does not have a large caecum. [2]
For organism Y, the cellulase-producing microorganisms are present in the stomach while for
organisms Z, those microorganisms are present in the caecum. [2]
Partially digested food which is passed out of the alimentary canal is ingested again by organism
Organism Y does not ingest digested food passed out its alimentary canal. [2]

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Biology question bank
15. chp 4tenaga Perempuan berumur 15 adalah 9000 kJ setiap hari. Jadual 1
menunjukkan jenis makanan , kuantiti dan kandungan tenaga menu hariannya.
Jenis makanan Kuantiti Diambil Kandungan Tenaga
Nasi 350 1500
Kerepek 150 1000
Ayam bakar 300 800
Kambing panggang 200 1200
Kentang rebus 150 500
Coklat 100 2500
Yogurt 200 200
Telur 100 600

Table 1 [N. Sembilan NO.7]

(i) Kira jumlah nilai tenaga harian yang diambil oleh gadis itu.
[2 marks]

(ii) Menu hariannya diet yang seimbang? Menjelaskan.

[2 marks]

(iii) Jika dia terus mengambil menu sehari-hari untuk jangka masa yang panjang,
menjelaskan akibat kepada kesihatannya.
[6 marks]

(i) Total energy value is 5250 + 1500 + 2400 + 2400 + 750 + 2500 + 400 + 600 = 15800 KJ

(ii) P1: No / The menu is not a balanced diet

E1: The menu does not contain the 7 classes of food in the appropriate ratio // The menu is highly rich
in carbohydrates and fats // no vegetables and lack vitamins // Higher energy intake compared to
energy requirement for a girl aged 15

(iii) F1: Constipation

E1: Her menu lacks fiber / roughage so her faeces moves too slowly through the colon
F2: Scurvy
E2: lack of vitamin C // any other vitamins deficiency with explanation
F3: Obesity
E3: High intake of roasted chicken / grilled mutton / chocolate / chips increase the amount of fat stored
in the body
F4:Diabetes mellitus
E4:excess of carbohydrate in rice / chips / potatoes / chocolates increase the amount of glucose in blood
when digested
F5: Arteriosclerosis / Artherosclerosis
E5: Roasted chicken / grilled mutton / chips contain cholesterol which are deposited in the (lumen of)
blood vessels
F6:Heart attack
E6:Roasted chicken / grilled mutton / chips contain cholesterol which are deposited in the coronary
// cause blockage in the coronary artery
F7: High blood pressure

E7: Narrowing of the artery causes the heart to pump with higher pressure
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Biology question bank
16. chp
Jadual 4
menunjukkan keputusan analisis pada makanan ringan seperti nugget
ayam goreng.
Kandungan Mass untuk 100g nugget ayam goreng
Karbohidrat 10.5
Protein 20.1
Lipid 25.3
Serat 2.5
Natrium klorida 0.7
Seorang remaja lelaki berusia 13 makan 500g makanan ringan ini setiap
minggu . Adalah makanan ringan yang sesuai sebagai diet harian untuk kanak-
kanak itu ?
Memerihalkan kesan pengambilan makanan ringan ini tempoh masa yang
[Pahang NO.8]
panjang . [6 marks]

17. Buah-buahan yang berlainan mempunyai kandungan yang berbeza daripada

vitamin C dan nilai tenaga. Dengan menggunakan pengetahuan biologi anda
terangkan secara ringkas bagaimana untuk menentukan kandungan vitamin C dan
nilai tenaga epal. [6 marks] [Melaka NO.6]

Vitamin C content :
1. The ascorbic acid solution is added to DCPIP solution until the DCPIP decolourised
2. The volume of ascorbic acid used is recorded
3. The procedure is repeated using freshly squeezed apple to determine the volume of juices required
4. The percentage and concentration of vitamin C can be calculated using formula
Any 3

Energy value :
1. A sliced of apple is weighed
2. It is ignited and placed under a boiling tube filled with water
3. The final temperature of the water in the boiling tube is recorded
4. The energy value is calculated using formula
Any 3

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Biology question bank
18. chp
Rajah 6
menunjukkan menu harian wanita hamil.
Sepinggan nasi goreng
Secawan susu segar
Makan tengah hari
Semangkuk nasi ayam
Sekeping ayam panggang
Semangkuk sup ayam
Segelas minuman berkarbonat
Makan malam
Sepinggan mi goreng
Secawan kopi

Adakah menu menyediakan diet yang seimbang untuk wanita hamil ?

Bincangkan pendapat anda.
[10 marks]

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Biology question bank
19. chp
Rajah 6
6 menunjukkan saluran pencernaan dua organisma R dan S.

Diagram 6

(i) Dengan memberikan satu contoh organisma S , terangkan bagaimana struktur T

yang terlibat dalam proses penghadaman. [4 marks]

(ii) Terangkan satu persamaan dan empat perbezaan antara R terusan pencernaan
dan S.
[10 marks]
[Melaka NO.6]

(i) Example of organism S: Rabbit / Other examples of rodents

E1: Structure T / caecum are enlarged to store the cellulase producing bacteria
E2: Plants eaten contain cellulose
E3: Bacteria in Structure T / caecum produce cellulase to digest cellulose into glucose

(ii)Similarity :
F1: The alimentary canals of both R and S have bacteria protozoa to hydrolyse cellulose
E1: Both R and S do not produce cellulase to digest cellulose in their food

Differences :
F2: R has 4 stomach chambers but S has one stomach chamber
E2: The stomach of S is not involved in cellulose digestion
F3: The size of caecum for R is small but S has a large caecum
E3: Caecum for S is involved cellulose digestion
F4: The bacteria and protozoa in R are found in the rumen and reticulum while in S they are found
in the caecum
E4: to produce enzyme cellulase
F5: Food passes only once in R but twice in S // Regurgitation take place in R but does not take place in S
E5: R- to increase efficiency of cellulose action
S- to complete food absorption

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Biology question bank
20. chp
Rajah 6 rajah (b ) bahagian mengangkat sistem pencernaan manusia.
(a) dan

Dengan merujuk kepada rajah (a) dan rajah (b ), terangkan ciri-ciri struktur X
dan struktur Y sebagai tapak utama penyerapan nutrien dalam sistem
pencernaan manusia. [6 marks]

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Biology question bank
F4 Photosynthesis
21. chp 6 is a process whereby a green plant produces organic food substances from
carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight.
[P. Pinang NO.6]

Based on your understanding of the above statement, describe how a molecule of carbon dioxide in the
air and water absorbed from the roots becomes part of a carbohydrate molecule stored in a leaf of
[8 marks]

22. Describe how a carbohydrate molecule stored in a leaf of a plant can become a starch molecule stored
in the root.
[2 marks]

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Biology question bank
23. chp
Diagram 6 the movement of water and carbon dioxide in plant.

Based of the structure above, explain the adaptation of thee leaf to carry out photosynthesis efficiently.
[10 marks]
[Kedah NO.6]

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Biology question bank
24. chp is6used to control biotic and abiotic factors to increase yield of crops. Diagram 8 shows
tomato plants grown in a greenhouse.

Tomato plants grown in a greenhouse

Diagram 8

[10 marks]
[Kedah NO.6 ]

In the greenhouse, light intensity is maintained at optimum level at all times.

Sufficient light is supplied all the time
This will increase the rate of photosynthesis
The temperature is also maintained at optimum level that is 15 30C.
This is when the enzyme activities are maximum, thus increasing the rate of photosynthesis. It also
maintained the water loss from transpiration.
The carbon dioxide concentration can be maintained at optimum level, 0.03%
Fertilisers and nutrients can be supplied all the time.
Sufficient water can be supplied all the time.
Pest control can be done all the time to prevent disease.
The greenhouse also protects the plants from bad weather and strong wind which increase
So the rate of photosynthesis is maintained at its maximum level throughout the year regardless of
the changes in the light intensity/ outside temperature.
The plants are able to increase yield throughout the year.

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Biology question bank
25. chpshows
Diagram 6 two reactions that occur is a chloroplast.

Based on Diagram, describe both reactions.

[SBP NO.8]

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Biology question bank
26. chp 6 the structure of leaf. Figure 8.2 shows the organelle M that involve in the formation
8.1 shows
of starch in green plants.

Explain the mechanisms that takes place in organelle M that involved in the formation of starch in the
green plant.
[10 marks]

Light reaction
1. Take place in grana
2. Chlorophyll captures light energy which excites the electrons of chlorophyll molecules to higher
energy levels.
3. In the excited state, the electrons can leave the chlorophyll molecules.
4. Light energy is also used to split water molecules into hydrogen ion (H) (Photolysis of water).
5. The hydrogen ions then combine with the electrons released by chlorophyll to form hydrogen
6. The energy from the excited electrons is used to form energy rich molecules of adenosine
triphosphate (ATP).
7. Hydroxyl ion loses an electron to form a hydroxyl group which then combine to form water and
oxygen gas.

Dark reaction
8. Takes place in stroma.
9. Does not require light.
10. The hydrogen atoms are used to fix carbon dioxide and caused the reduction of carbon dioxide into
11. The dark reaction need energy from ATP and catalyse by enzyme.
12. The glucose monomers then undergo condensation to form starch (which is temporarily stored as
starch grains in the chloroplasts).

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Biology question bank
27. chpshows
Diagram 6 a method of plant cultivation without use of soil.

Describe the method used.

marks] [Kedah NO.6]

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) are organisms which carry the genetic information or
beneficial genes from other organisms.
Nowadays, the crops such as wheat, soya bean, paddy and tomatoes are widely to be cultivated
commercially as genetically modified plant.

28. Based on the information above, discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of producing
genetically modified organisms in food production.
[6 marks]
[Kedah NO.6]

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Biology question bank
29. chp 6understanding of the above statement, describe how a molecule of carbon dioxide in the
on your
air and water absorbed from the roots becomes part of a carbohydrate molecule stored in a leaf of a
[8 marks]
[P. Pinang NO.6]

30. There are various methods used in food processing.

Suggest two methods and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

[SPM 2011 NO.8]

Method Advantage Disadvantage

Cooking cooking at high temperature Can kill microorganisms Toxins produced by bacteria
or boiling for at least 5 minutes Prevent bacterial and are not always destroyed
fungal decay

Pasteurization milk is heated to 63 C Nutrient contents such as Unable to kill all types of
for 30 minutes or 72 C for 15 seconds vitamin B are maintained bacteria
and then rapidly cooled to below 10 C Natural flavour of milk is Short shelf life

Canning The food is packed in cans All microorganisms and Low in quality because most
and steamed at high temperature and their spores are killed of the vitamins are
pressure to drive out all the air. Cans Last for a long time destroyed
containing food are then sealed while the Keep for food sterile
food is being cooled.

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Biology question bank
F4 chp 6

Starting with water and carbon dioxide as the raw materials, describe how a green plant produces starch
[8 marks]
[SPM 2006 NO.8]
Chlorophyll absorbs light energy to produce ATP/ electrons
Photolysis of water produces hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions.
The H ions combine with electrons to form hydrogen.
The hydrogen/ ATP will be used in the dark reaction.
It occurs in the grana.
Takes place in the absence of light
Carbon dioxide combines with hydrogen glucose and water.
Glucose undergoes condensation and is converted to starch for storage.
It occurs in a series of chemical reactions which require ATP
The reaction occurs in stroma.

32. It is found that the process of photosynthesis contributes to the balance of nature.
Explain how air pollution may have an effect on photosynthesis and the balance of nature
[10 marks]
[SPM 2006 NO.8]

The importance of photosynthesis for the balance of nature:

- Absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
- Replaces oxygen in the atmosphere
- Maintains the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere.
The sources of pollution are motor vehicles and urbanisation which will liberate heavy smoke and
increase the amount of particles in the air.
The particles accumulate on the leaf surfaces.
They cover the stomata and reduce the intensity of the light that reaches the leaves.
As a result, the rate of photosynthesis decreases. Less carbon dioxide is reabsorbed from the
atmosphere and leas oxygen is released. It also promotes the green house effect and global warming.

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