Sie sind auf Seite 1von 97

Automotive Transmission

U5AUA11
By.
B.HARISH BABU
asst.prof ,vtu.
UNIT I
Contents
Introduction
Transmission Systems
Manual
Automated Manual
Automatic
Continuously variable
Dual Clutch
Propeller Shaft

2
Contents
Universal joints
Differential
Requirements of the Transmission Design Proc
Product Life Cycle
Stages in the Design Process
Project Set Up
Concept Design
Detailed Design
Engineering Drawings and Tolerancing

3
Transmission System
Function of transmission:
- It is used to transmit engine torque to the driv
wheels to drive the vehicle on the road.

4
Requirement of Transmission Syst
To provide for disconnecting the engine fro
driving wheels

When engine is running , connect the drivin


wheels to engine smoothly without shock

Leverage between engine and driving whee


be varied

Enable the driving wheels to rotate at diffe


speeds.
Provide relative movement between engin
driving wheels
5
Transmission System - Layou

6
Transmission Types

7
Clutch
Function of clutch
Clutch is used to disengage and engage
engine with rest of the transmission systems

To disengage while starting the engine a


while changing gear ratio.

To engage after starting of the engine and g


shift operation.

8
Clutch
Requirement of Clutch
Transmit maximum torque of the engine.

Engage gradually to avoid sudden jerks.

Dissipate maximum amount of heat.

Damp the vibrations and noise.

Dynamically balanced.

As small as possible.

Easy to operate.
9
Clutch Unit
Flywheel also acts as a driving
member

Pressure plate is connected to


clutch cover assembly.

Clutch Cover assembly is bolted to


the flywheel.
Clutch springs placed between
Pressure plate & Cover plate, press
the Pressure plate against the
clutch plate.

Thus Clutch plate is squeezed


between Flywheel & Pressure plate.
Classification of Clutch
Cone clutch

Flat Plate clutch


- Dry or Wet type clutch

- No. of friction plates


(Single or Multiple)

- Actuation mode (Cable or


Hydraulic)

- Actuation spring(Helical
or Diaphragm)

Centrifugal clutch
11
Clutch Engaged & Disengage
Clutch is always is in
engaged state.
It can be disengaged b
pressing of Clutch pedal.
Disengagement is effect
by non - contact of Clutc
plate both with Flywhe
face & Pressure plate fac
Frictional heat is
dissipated by opening
present in Clutch housin
& Cover

12
Clutch Material

13
Need of Gear Box

14
Gear Box
Gear box varies the leverage
(speed ratio & hence torque
ratio) between the engine &
driving wheels.

It is located between Clutch &


Propeller shaft.

It is provided with either 4


speed or 5 speed ratios or more
depending on design.

Gear ratio is varied by Gear


shift lever.
15
Manual Transmission - Types

16
UNIT II
Synchronizers
A device used to bring two adjacent members to
the same speed before allowing the sleeve to
engage them.
The two elements are friction clutch and toothed
clutch.
Lock the positive engagement until speeds are
synchronized .
Establish the positive engagement and power flow.
Synchronizer is splined on the shaft Cone on the
gear (blue) fits into cone-shaped area in the collar.
Friction between the cone and collar synchronize
the collar & gear.
The outer portion of the collar (sleeve) then slides
so that the dogteeth engage the gear.

17
Synchromesh Gearbox

1.I speed gear


2.II speed gear
3.main shaft
4.outer engaging unit
5.inner engaging unit
6.top gear engaging teeth
7.main drive gear
8.top gear synchronizing cone
9.counter shaft

18
How Manual Transmission Work?
When a driver wants to change from one gear to an
in a standard stick-shift car, he first presses down
clutch pedal
This operates a single clutch, which disconnects
engine from the gearbox and interrupts power flow
transmission
Then the driver uses the stick shift to select a new
process that involves moving a toothed collar from
gear wheel to another gear wheel of a different siz
Devices called synchronizers match the gears be
they are engaged to prevent grinding
Once the new gear is engaged, the driver releases t
clutch pedal, which re-connects the engine to
gearbox and transmits power to the wheels.

19
Manual Transmission
Cheap to make

Durable, efficient

Easy to install

Established in marketplace and with


manufacturing infrastructure

Gives control to the driver


But driver comfort an issue with increasing
density
Hence automation must be considered
20
Automated Manual Transmission (A
Automation of
Clutch and Gear
shifting operations

Elimination of Clutch
Pedal

Modification of Gear
Shifting lever

Minimum
modifications in
manual transmissio
21
AMT Features
Automation of Clutch operation and G
shifting.

Clutch slip control during starting

Hill start aid system which will assist the dri


hold and move the vehicle in hill slope

Necessary fail safe systems such as sudd


shifting from higher gear to lowest gear and
versa
22
System Block Diagram

23
Clutch Actuation Control
Engine Start
- Starter should be operated only when the gea
in neutral position
- When engine is not running and in power on, E
will disengage clutch
- When engine speed exceeds a specified rpm, E
engages clutch gradually
Vehicle Start
- On pressing the accelerator pedal, ECU contro
the clutch
- actuator travel and clutch engagement

24
Clutch Actuation Control
Gear Change
- While engaging the clutch after gear
shift, the ECU determines clutch actuator
travel based on shifted gear position an
accelerator pedal stroke
Clutch disengagement
- While gear shifting and when accelerato
pedal is released,
- if the vehicle speed is lower than a set
speed for select gear position, the EC
disengages clutch

25
Advantages of AMT
Reduced driver effort

Improved Clutch life

Utilization of existing manufacturing facili


for manual transmission

Lower production cost than automatic


transmissions

Higher efficiency than automatic


transmissions

26
Automatic Transmission (AT)
Conventional Definition
Moving away from rest - Torque converte

Achieving ratio change - Planetary gear s

No power interruption

Mechanism for ratio change

- Wet plate clutches and brakes

Control of ratio change

- Normally automatic timing and actuatio


27
Fluid Coupling
Converts or transmits rotating
mechanical energy or power.

Basic components.
- outer shell or housing,
- impeller or pump and turbine or runner
Both of these units are contained within the
housing via oil-tight seals.
The input turbine is connected to the power
supply, typically an electric or ICE.
The output turbine is connected to the drive train
of the vehicle or the drive system of a machine.
Mineral oil is used

28
Fluid Coupling: Working
Standstill
- The entire operating fluid in the
coupling is at rest
Idling
- In sufficient centrifugal force for the
oil to turn the turbine
Low to medium speed:
- Centrifugal force pushes oil into
turbine and some turning effort is
transmitted. Large degree of slip in
the unit. O/p shaft is rotating slowly
than input shaft.
Medium to High Speed
- Oil force is sufficient to transmit full
power. O/p shaft rotating at about
98% of speed of I/p shaft (2% slip).
29
UNIT III
Torque Convertor
Serves as automatic clutch which transmits
engine torque to the transmission input shaft
Multiplies torque generated by the engine
Absorbs torsional vibration of engine
Acts as a flywheel and smoothes out engine
rotation
Drives oil pump
A torque converter consists of
- Impeller
- Turbine
- Stator
- and transmission fluid

30
Torque Convertor - Sectional V

31
Impeller

32
Turbine

33
Stator

34
Working of Torque Convertor
Vehicle accelerates

35
Planetary Gear System

36
Planetary Gear System: Construct
Input shaft is connected to Ring gear(Blue)
Output shaft is connected to Plane carrier(Green) which is also
connected to Multi-disk clutch
Sun gear is connected to a Drum(Yellow), which can be locked
by brake band (Red). It is also connected to the other half of
Clutch

37
Planetary Gear System: Operat
In Neutral
Both band and clutch sets are released
Planets assembled to carrier with NRB
Ring gear only drive planet gear not the planet
(Output shaft)
The planet gears drive the sun gears to spin free

38
Planetary Gear System: Operat
In Low Gear (forward reduction)
Band locks the sun gear by locking the drum
Planets walk around the sun gear
Planet carrier to spin in same direction as ring gear
Gear ratio= sun & ring teeth/no of teeth of ring gear

39
Planetary Gear System: Opera
In High Gear (Direct drive)
Band is released.
Lock any two members
Clutch is engaged so that the sun gear and plane
carrier is locked to act as a rigid member
Planets has to walk around the ring gear,
Ring Gear (Input shaft) will spin at the same spee
the Planet Carrier (Output shaft)

40
Planetary Gear System: Operatio
Reverse Gear
Planet carrier is locked
Ring gear (Input shaft) will cause the sun gear
(Output Shaft) to turn in the opposite direction

41
UNIT IV
Automatic Transmission (AT)
Advantages
The only option for comfortable automatic shifting
Cost issue mitigated by high volume manufacturing
Disadvantages
Cost for development and manufacturing
Fuel economy due to torque converter
Lack of control by the driver
Modern improvements
Better control algorithms
Torque converter lock up

Most useable transmissions based on a couple of


standard arrangements
Ravigneaux
Lepelletier

42
Continuously Variable Transmissi
(CVT)
CVT provides infinite
number of gear ratios
(between a minimum & a
maximum).

Shifts automatically with an


infinite number of ratios

Seamless power
delivery, no torque
interruption & power loss

43
CVT: Construction
Uses a pair of axially
adjustable sets of
pulley halves
(Variators)

Both pulleys have one


fixed and one
adjustable pulley halve

A belt is used to
transfers the engine's
power from one shaft
to another

44
CVT: Functioning
The transmission ratio is varied by
adjusting the spacing between the
pulleys in line with the circumference
of the tapered pulley halves.
The variators are adjusted
hydraulically.
When one pulley is varied, the other
pulley must adapt itself inversely since
the length of the belt is fixed.
Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT

46
DCT: Construction
Basic Dual Wet Clutch
How DCT Works?
In a conventional manual transmission, there is not a
continuous flow of power from the engine to the wheels.
Instead, power delivery changes from ON to OFF to ON during
gearshift, causing a phenomenon known as "shift shock" or
"torque interrupt
A dual-clutch transmission uses two clutches, but has no clutch
pedal.
Sophisticated electronics and hydraulics control the
clutches, just as they do in a standard automatic transmission.
In a DCT, however, the clutches operate independently
One clutch controls the odd gears(first, third, fifth and
reverse), while the other controls the even gears
(second, fourth and sixth)
Using this arrangement, gears can be changed without
interrupting the power flow from the engine to the transmission
49
Propeller Shaft
Single piece
Two piece
Front engine rear wheel drive
Reduction in car height
(lowering of body)
Crash energy management
Material
Aluminum
steel
Composite (75% carbon, 25%
glass-fibre with bonded steel
end fittings- Renault)
Cold rolled and seam
welded
50
Propeller Shaft
It propels the vehicle forward, so called propeller shaft
A Propeller Shaft connects a gearbox to a Differential.
It is used to transmit the drive force generated by the engine
to the axles.
It is strong enough to handle maximum low gear torque
It is provided with two U-joints to maintain constant velocity
and positioning of differential at different plane.
It is provided with a slip joint to take care of the change in
length.
Shaft diameter and its thickness decides the torque carrying
capacity and angle of operation.

51
Propeller Shaft
Design requirements
Critical speed is at least 15% above top
speed
Torque carrying capacity requirements
Plunge requirements (suspension trave
Assembly requirements

52
Universal joints
Designed to eliminate
torque and speed
fluctuations (constant
velocity joints)

If only one universal joint is


used, speed fluctuations
will not be neutralized.

To maintain uniform
motion, two universal joints
are used with yoke lugs in
phase.
53
Universal joints

54
Hookes Joint

Condition for Constant velocity drive with two Ho


55
Differential
To transfer the
engine power to the
wheels

To act as the final


gear reduction in
the vehicle

To make the wheels


to rotate at different
speeds while
negotiating a turn.
56
Differential: In Straight Ahead M
Input torque is applied to
the ring gear, which turns
the entire
carrier, providing torque
to both side gears, which
in turn may drive the left
and right wheels.

If the resistance at both


wheels is equal, the
pinion gear does not
rotate, and both wheels
turn at the same rate.
57
Differential: In a Turn
If the left side gear
(red) encounters
resistance, the pinion
gear(green) rotates
about the left side
gear, in turn applying
extra rotation to the
right side gear
(yellow).

58
Axle
Transmits rotary motion and torque fro
engine-transmission-driveshaft to the wheels
Changes torsional direction from longitudi
transverse
Provides speed reduction and torqu
multiplication
Provides a differential action to permit
cornering
Provides mounting points for suspension
brakes

59
Transmission Troubleshooting
Leaking Transmission Fluid
Slipping of Transmission
Damaged Transmission Fluid
Surging of Transmission
Gear Problems
Fluid Leaking
Spilling out of Fluid
Erratic Gear Shifting
Overheating of Transmission

60
Transmission Trend
Passenger Car Transmission in India
Manual transmission is more dominant in India as compared
transmissions.
Majority of the MT are using 5speed GB as compared to 6 sp
But many of the luxurious car manufactures are now using A

Source: Mahr GmbH, Germany


Global Transmission Trend
Estimated global market share (%) for passenger car transm
1% 1% 2%
4% 2%
6%
MT MT
AT AT
47%
50% CVT CVT
46% DCT 41% DCT
AMT AMT

2005 2010

3%

7% 10% MT
AT
43%
CVT
DCT
37%
AMT

2015
Requirements of the Transmissio
Design Process
Product Life Cycle

Product Life Cycle must be developed to deliv


Company goals
New Product Introduction
Prototype Manufacturin
Feasibility Studies/ Transmission Product supp
Production Ready
Design Development Transmission and
New Concepts
developmen

Market feedback, Market research,


Technical Development, Application experience
Research

64
Stages in the Design Process

Timeline
Project set up

Concept design

Detail design

Tolerancing &
drawings

Prototype testing

65
UNIT V
Project Set Up
- The first stage of the design process is to set
targets
Existingresearch
Market product knowledge Product Design Specificatio
Standards
Load data (PDS)

Customer specific requirements


- The PDS contains all the specification data and desig
targets
This document should be approved before work s
on concept design
- The PDS is a live document
This means that changes can be made to it, provi
all parties agree to them
66
Project Set Up
To be included in the Product Design Specificatio
Understanding the customer
needs/wants from - Special considerations
- Customer PDS - Review all validation testing
for unusual manoeuvres
(Vehicle/Transmission)
Rig
- Market Understanding
Vehicle
- Prior Design Experience
Special environmental operatio
General Requirements conditions, eg:
- Number of gear ratios and their - Very high or very low ambient
values temperature conditions
- Packaging envelope constraints - Extremely tight vehicle
- Weight packaging space
Special operational cycles, eg:
- Application specifics
- Unusual off-road usage
- Duty cycle
- Occasional vehicle overload
- Interfaces operation
Gear ratio must be defined.
67
Project Set Up
To be included in the Product Design Specification:
- It may not be possible to meet all requirements, so de
the hierarchy of importance, normally (approximately
Packaging within the vehicle
Assemble-ability
Durability
Ratio
Weight
Cost
Gear shift quality
Noise

68
Project Set Up
To be included in the Product Design Specification:
Design Loads & Duty Cycles
- A design load case may be comprised of a series of loads and
cycles/time at those loads combined into a duty cycle definitio
Design loads are typically modified somewhat
- Maximum net engine output torque including
Reserve capacity for enhanced engine torque or larger engi
application: 0% to 10% typical
Factor for unusually high engine torsionals output: 0% to
typical
- Maximum vehicle skid torque
Max skid torque in each gear for operation on dry, new conc
Usually only significant in lowest ratios (eg: 1st, Reverse)
- Maximum transient overload torque (static overload only)
Factors vary according to specific vehicle and are gene
based off of historical vehicle test results
Typical values range from 1.5x to 2.5x maximum engine torq

69
Project Set Up: Duty Cycle
A key component of the targets is the Duty Cycle
What is a Duty Cycle?
- Calculation of Component Reliability - single loa
Material
Properties
Operating
Conditions
Select
Required
Reliability
Analysis to
Component Operating Analysis to
predict
Geometry Stresses predict life
stress
Applied
Loads (Duty
Cycle)

70
Project Set Up: Duty Cycle
A Duty Cycle is a collection of loadcases
- All automotive transmissions are loaded with mult
loadcases
- Multiple ratios
- Different torque levels for each ratio
10%, 20%, 30% 100% torque
Accounting for Multiple-loadcases - Damage
- Miners Rule (Linear Damage Hypothesis)
To combine the effect of different loadcases
Damage Fraction & Percentage
We need to account for the effect of these many loadcas

71
Project Set Up: Duty Cycle
In-service Loads must be converted into a d
cycle for design and testing
Durability
In-Service Loads Calculation Design Duty Cycle
Time/torque To derive the Equivalent duty cycle
history for the 95th damage for each appropriate for
centile component in the transmission design
transmission

Test Duty Cycle


Equivalent duty
cycle appropriate
for rig testing

72
Concept Design
Activities within Concept Design (part A)
Design gear Synchroniser Spline
teeth and design, sizing design
blanks and and and
Inputs from dog teeth packaging rating
PDS:
Gear ratios Can
Create ratios Yes Output:
Engine
torque and initial Iterative Design and Proposed
duty cycle gearbox of the Gearbox packagin concept
3D concept Concept g be layout
packaging achieved
space
?
Define Define No
shaft roller
sections bearings

73
Concept Design
Generation of Design Options (Layouts/ Topology)
- Create as many different design layouts as poss
to meet the ratio and packaging requirements

Option A Option B Option C

Option D Option E Option F

74
Concept Design
Iterative Design, Analysis and Optimisation, by C

- Gears - Synchronizers
Tooth numbers Shift force
Rating to ISO 6336 Cone to index torque
Contact Ratio targets ratio
Misalignment targets
- Bearings
- Shaft Durability
Durability Misalignment targets
Deflection
- Spline
Stress

75
Concept Design
Activities within Concept Design (part B)
Casing
Design and
Differential

Shift
Proposed Concept Layout Mechanism
Check for Completed
compatibility
and withcomponents
vehicle
Concept
with other
packaging; Check for Design
Assembly Rank against
PDS, other
Iterate on items defined in
Concept Design Part A if
designs
necessary

Once the concepts have been modelled and analysed, their


and weaknesses can be evaluated

The selected concept will then form the basis for the detaile

76
Concept Selection
Evaluation criteria
List all the requirements for the design from
specification

Apply a weighting importance to each requirem


(e.g. 1-5)

Determine what objective measures can be


from concept model
Weight
Number of parts
Safety factors

77
Concept Selection
Concept scoring
Assign a score to each concept according to
extent to which it meets each requirement

Multiply each score by the appropriate weig


factor

The best scoring concept will then form the bas


the detail design

78
Detailed Design
Activities within Detailed Design
Focus on system deflections and gear micro-geom
design
Gear Micro-
Differential
geometry Design
Detailing
Completed
FE, System Deflection
Detailed
and Gear Tooth Design, all
Completed Concept Design Casing Detailing
Contact Detailed Nominal
Analysis
Dimensions
Complete
Detailed Design and
Analysis of Other
Components;
Lubrication system Check for
compatibility with
other components

Iterate on Concept Design


Parts A and B if necessary

79
Detailed Design
Calculation of System Deflections

Load
distribution

Shaft
deflection

Load distribution
factor
Contact
Stress
Stress

Calculation of Durability

80
Detailed Design
Accurate analysis is required to determine whe
targets are met
Simple methods do not give accurate results
- Increased risk of problems later in product life cycle
- Lack of clear direction for optimisation

Detailed analysis methods have their own issues


- Many design options
- Do we have to calculate everything before we make a dec
- How do we manage these methods in the design process?

81
Analysis Methods
Principles

- Hierarchy of design parameters


Understand how design parameters a
other design parameters and transmis
performance

Understand the hierarchy of desig


parameters

Define the most important ones first


Analysis Methods
Hierarchy of Design Parameters
- Some parameters have a big effect on gearb
performance
- Some parameters are needed to define ot
parameters
- e.g. gear centre distance
Gear tangential load
Gear centre distance Gear stress Gear durability

Bearing load Bearing durability

Housing design Housing stiffness Gear misalignment


Analysis Methods
Hierarchy of Design Parameters
- Other parameters have a smaller effect on gea
performance
- They are dependent on preceding parameters
defined
- e.g. gear micro-geometry
Gear centre distance Gear tangential load Gear macro-geomet

Gear tooth contact


and transmission Gear micro-geometry
error
Housing design
and stiffness Gear misalignment
Analysis Methods

Hierarchy of Design Parameters


- Other parameters have little effect on the
gearbox performance
- They can be estimated
Shaft design

- e.g. seal design Seal


design
Gearbox packagin
Engineering Drawings and Toleranc
Activities within Engineering Drawings and Toleranc
- Major issues should be resolved
Complete Drawings
Confirm for Components. Sub- Deliver
Material Assembly and General Completed
Specification Arrangement, with
Drawings
Assembly Instructions

Identify All Carry out all


Tolerance tolerance stack
Completed Detailed Design calculation and
Stack Loops
assess

Define Tolerances If tolerance stacks a


problem, adjust
tolerances if
necessary
If major problem
iterate on Detailed
Design if necessary

86
Engineering Drawings and Toleranc

Applying Manufacturing Tolerances


- Tolerances applied to components based on
knowledge of manufacturing process
e.g. turning, grinding etc

- Functionally critical features identified

- Initial tolerances applied based on experience


These will be updated during the toleran
analysis

87
Engineering Drawings and Toleranc
Tolerance Stacks
Identify
checks required
Gear and shaft
Create master
dimension sheet
deflections from
analysis
Final design
Create tolerance
stacks for each
shaft assembly Yes
Revise dimensions
Check result No on master No Check result
dimension sheet

Yes No

Create tolerance
Create housing
stacks for shaft to Check result Yes
tolerance stacks
shaft clearances

88
Engineering Drawings and Toleranc
Potential Problems

Form and functionality at tolerance extrem


- Symptom (example):
At tolerance extremes, transmission does no
assemble or there is a foul (at zero load)

- Action:
Small iteration: Redefine the tolerances
Large iteration: Nominal dimensions are redefin

89
Engineering Drawings and Toleranc
Potential Problems
Form and functionality at tolerance, tempe
extremes, under load
- Symptom (example): Transmission does not ass
or there is a foul at:
Tolerance extremes
Temperature extremes
Load (i.e. deflected shapes)

- Example: Gears clash due to thermal expansion


axial movement due to compliance of
bearings, housing etc.
- Action (as before)
90
Output of Design Process
A layout that satisfies the key requirements of the PDS

All durability targets are met, including the effect of sys


deflections, at all tolerances, thermal extremes etc.

Bill of Materials and material selection list confirmed

3D models complete with all components defined to nom


dimensions

2D drawings of all components defined with tolerances

2D drawings of sub-assemblies and assemblies, with


assembly instructions

91
THANK
YOU