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Emily Moyer & Abby Luke

What is Petroleum?

- Petra
- Oleum

Ancient Egypt 1755 1855 1870 1903 WWII

1556 1849 1859 1901 WWI 1960 1990s

Availability of Petroleum
OPECs Expansive Control
Middle Eastern OPEC
Countries- 65% of oil

OPEC countries
collectively account for
81% of proven
worldwide oil reserves
Crude Oil Refinery

Separation, conversion,
treatment, and storage
Outputs of Refining



Heating oil and fuel oil

Jet fuel
Internal Combustion Engines
Energy from combustion work

Made of fixed cylinder and moving


2 types:

Spark ignition gasoline engine

Compression ignition diesel engine

Why is Petroleum so Special?

High energy density

Low cost of extraction

Easy to transport

Can power almost all types of

Importance to the Transportation
95% of energy consumed
by transportation
industry is petroleum-

Between 1941 and 2000,

miles driven in the US
has increased by 724%

The US consumes 7
million barrels of oil
daily in the form of
gasoline for vehicles
Social Aspects
Environmental Impact-Oil Spills
Highly toxic to organisms

Exxon-Valdez Oil Spill (1989)

BP Oil Spill (2010)

Nonpoint Pollution Sources
70% of oil released into oceans is
due to small spills

Oil collects in streams outside of


Urban runoff accounts for 20% of

ocean petroleum pollution

Leaking storage tanks can

permanently contaminate soil
Air Pollution
Petroleum fueled vehicles account
for most of nitrogen oxide and
carbon monoxide in atmosphere

Acid rain

26% of greenhouse gasses are

released from transportation
Global Warming & Petroleum
Petroleum fueled vehicles = one
of the main causes of global
Image Sources
Image Sources continued
Image Sourced Cont.
Research Sources
Research Sources Continued
Nagel, Miriam C. "Petroleum: Economic Uses and Dependency." Climate Change: In Context. Ed. Brenda Wilmoth Lerner and K. Lee Lerner. Vol. 2.
Detroit: Gale, 2008. 725-727. In Context Series. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Apr. 2017.

MacDonald, Adrian. "Petroleum." Pollution A to Z. Ed. Richard M. Stapleton. Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 101-108. Gale
Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Apr. 2017.

Petroleum." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 4th ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 2008. 3276-3279. Gale
Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Apr. 2017.