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Chapter 1

Introduction
Outline
I. What is power electronics?

II. The history

III. Applications
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IV. A simple example

V. About this course

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I. What is power electronics?
1) Definition

2) Relation with information electronics

3) The interdisciplinary nature


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4) Position and significance in the human society

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1) Definition
Power Electronics:
is the electronics applied to conversion and control of
electric power.

Range of power scale :


milliwatts(mW) megawatts(MW) gigawatts(GW)
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A more exact explanation:


The primary task of power electronics is to process and
control the flow of electric energy by supplying voltages
and currents in a form that is optimally suited for user
loads.

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Conversion of electric power
Electric Other names for electric
Power Power Power
input output
power converter:
Converter -Power converter
-Converter
Control -Switching converter
input -Power electronic circuit
-Power electronic converter
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Changeable properties in
Two types of electric power
conversion

DC(Direct Current) Magnitude

Frequency, magnitude,
AC (Alternating Current)
number of phases

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Classification of power converters
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output
Power DC AC
input
AC to AC converter
AC AC to DC converter ( Fixed frequency : AC controller
(Rectifier) Variable frequency: Cycloconverter
or frequency converter)
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DC DC to DC converter DC to AC converter
(Chopper) (Inverter)

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Power electronic system
Generic structure of a power electronic system

Power Power Power


input output
Converter

Control input
Feedforward/Feedback Feedback/Feedforward
Controller
( measurements of output signals )
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( measurements of input signals )


Reference
(commanding)

Control is invariably required.


Power converter along with its controller including the
corresponding measurement and interface circuits, is
also called power electronic system.

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Typical power sources and loads
for a power electronic system

Power input Power Power output


Source Load
Vi ii Converter io Vo

-Electric utility -Electric Motor


Feedback/
-battery -light
-other electric energy source Feed forward
-heating
-power converter Controller -power converter
Reference -other electric or
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electronic equipment

The task of power electronics has been recently


extended to also ensuring the currents and power
consumed by power converters and loads to meet
the requirement of electric energy sources.

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2) Relation with information electronics
A Classification of electronics by processing object
Information electronics: to process information
Electronics
Power electronics: to process electric power

Other classifications of electronics


Vacuum electronics: using vacuum devices,
e.g, vacuum tubes devices
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Electronics
Solid (Solid state) electronics: using solid state devices,
e.g, semiconductor devices

Physical electronics: physics,material,fabrication,


and manufacturing of electronic
Electronics
devices
Applied electronics: application of electronic
devices to various areas
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3) The interdisciplinary nature
William E. Newells description

Electronics Power

Power
Electronics
Power

Continuous,
discrete
Control

Power electronics is the interface between


electronics and power.
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Relation with multiple disciplines

Systems & Signal


Control theory processing
Circuit
Simulation &
theory
computing

Electric Power
machines Electronics
electronics
Power

Power Solid state


systems physics
Electromagnetics

Power electronics is currently the most active


discipline in electric power engineering worldwide.
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4) Position and significance
in the human society
Electric power is used in almost every aspect and
everywhere of modern human society.

Electric power is the major form of energy source


used in modern human society.

The objective of power electronics is exactly about


how to use electric power, and how to use it
Power

effectively and efficiently, and how to improve the


quality and utilization of electric power.

Power electronics and information electronics make


two poles of modern technology and human
society information electronics is the brain,and
power electronics is the muscle.

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II. The history
Application of
fast-switching
Invention of fully-controlled
Thyristor semiconductor
devices GTO
GTR IGBT
Mercury arc rectifier Power diode Power MOSFET Power MOSFET
Vacuum-tube rectifier Thyristor Thyristor Thyristor
Thyratron (microprocessor) (DSP)
1900 1957 mid 1970s late 1980s
Power

Pre-history 1st phase 2nd phase 3rd phase

The thread of the power electronics history precisely


follows and matches the break-through and evolution
of power electronic devices
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III. Applications

Industrial
Transportation
Utility systems
Power supplies for all kinds of electronic equipment
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Residential and home appliances


Space technology
Other applications

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Industrial applications
Motor drives
Electrolysis
Electroplating
Induction heating
Power

Welding
Arc furnaces and ovens
Lighting

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Transportation applications
Trains & locomotives
Subways
Trolley buses
Magnetic levitation
Power

Electric vehicles
Automotive electronics
Ship power systems
Aircraft power systems

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Utility systems applications
High-voltage dc
transmission(HVDC)
Flexible ac transmission(FACTS)
Static var compensation &
harmonics suppression: TCR,
TSC, SVG, APF
Power

Custom power & power quality


control
Supplemental energy sources :
wind, photovoltaic, fuel cells
Energy storage systems

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Power supplies for electronic equipment
Telecommunications

Computers

computer
Office equipment server
Power

Electronic instruments

Portable or mobile
electronics

Telecommunication
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Residential and home appliances
Lighting
Heating
Air conditioning
Refrigeration & freezers
Power

Cooking
Cleaning
Entertaining

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Applications in space technology
Spaceship power systems

Satellite power systems

Space vehicle power


systems
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Other applications
Nuclear reactor control

Power systems for


particle accelerators

Environmental
Power

engineering

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Trends
It is estimated that in developed countries now 60%
of the electric energy goes through some kind of
power electronics converters before it is finally used.
Power electronics has been making major
contributions to:
--better performance of power supplies and better control of
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electric equipment
--energy saving
--environment protection
reduction of energy consumption leads to less pollution
reduction of pollution produced by power converters
direct applications to environment protection technology

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IV. A simple example
A simple dc-dc converter example
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Input source:100V
Output load:50V, 10A, 500W
How can this converter be realized?

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Dissipative realization

Resistive voltage divider


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Dissipative realization
Series pass regulator:
transistor operates in active region
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Use of a SPDT switch
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SPDT: Single pole double throw


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The switch changes the dc voltage level
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Addition of low pass filter
Addition of (ideally lossless) L-C low-pass filter, for
removal of switching harmonics:
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Choose filter cutoff frequency f0 much smaller than


switching frequency fs
This circuit is known as the buck converter

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Addition of control system for
regulation of output voltage
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Major issues in power electronics
How to meet the requirement of the load or gain better
control of the load

How to improve the efficiency


--for reliable operation of power semiconductor
devices
--for energy saving
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How to realize power conversion with less volume, less


weight, and less cost

How to reduce negative influence to other equipment in


the electric power system and to the electromagnetic
environment
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V. About this course
Four parts of the content
Power electronic devices: Chapter 2 and 9
Power electronic circuits: Chapter 3, 4, 5 and 6
Control techniques: Chapter 7 and 8
Applications: Chapter 10
Power

Relation with other courses


Pre-requisite course Continuing course

Fundamentals Control systems


Power
of analog / digital for electric
electronics
electronics drives

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Arrangement
Text books
-
2009
- N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, W. P. Robbins. Power edectronics:
converter, applications, and Design, 3rd edition, John Wiley &
Sons, New York, 2003, Higher Education Press, Beijing, China,
2004

Lectures
Power

- 48 hours , all in English


- After-class reading in Chinese and English will be assigned.

Labs
- 8 hours, 5 projects

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