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Electron

Configuration
Notes
Ground State
The lowest energy state of an atom.

Excited State
State in which an atom has a higher
potential energy then it has in its ground
state.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to determine
simultaneously both the position and
velocity of an electron or any other
particle. (Cant exactly predict where
electrons will be, just give a general idea.)

Orbital
Three dimensional region around the
nucleus that indicates the probable
location of an electron.
Quantum Numbers
Numbers that specify the properties of
atomic orbitals and the properties of
electrons in orbitals.

Principle Quantum Number


(n) The main energy level occupied by the
electron.
Positive numbers only 1, 2, 3, etc
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
(l) The shape of the orbital.
Starts at 0 and then positive integers till n 1
is reached
Ex. If n = 2, then l = 0, 1
Ex. If n = 4, then l = 0, 1, 2, 3
Orbital Letter Designations

l Letter

0 s

1 p

2 d

3 f
Magnetic Quantum Numbers
(m) The orientation of an orbital around
the nucleus.
Starts at l and it each integer to l

Ex. If l = 2, then m = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2

Ex. If l = 3, then m = -3, -2, -1, 0 , 1, 2, 3

Ex. If n = 5, then l = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,
then m = -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Spin Quantum Number
Indicate the two fundamental spin states
of an electron in an orbital.

Can only be + or
Quantum Number Relationships in Atomic Structure
Principle
Number of
Quantum Sublevels Number of
Number of Number of Electrons
Number In Main Orbitals per
Orbitals per Electrons per Main
(Main Energy Main Energy
Sublevel per Sublevel Energy
Energy Level Level
Level
Level)
1 s 1 1 2 2
s 1 2
2 4 8
p 3 6
s 1 2
3 p 3 9 6 18
d 5 10
s 1 2
p 3 6
4 16 32
d 5 10
f 7 14
Electron Configuration
The arrangement of electrons in an atom.

Aufbau Principle
An electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that
can receive it.

Pauli Exclusion Principle


No two electrons in the same atom can have the same
set of four quantum numbers.

Hunds Rule
Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one
electron before any orbital is occupied by a second
electron.
1s2
2s2
2p6
3s2
3p6
4s2
3d10
4p6
5s2
4d10
5p6
6s2
4f14
5d10
6p6
7s2
5f14
6d10
Orbital Sample 1
The electron configuration of boron is
1s22s22p1. How many electrons are
present in an atom of boron? What is the
atomic number of boron? Write the
orbital notation for boron.
Number of electrons =
super scripts added together
Number of electrons = 2 + 2 + 1
Number of electrons = 5

Atomic Number = look on PT


Atomic Number = 5
Orbital Notation = ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz

Start with the first orbital

___ ___ ___ ___ ___


1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz

Move onto the next orbital

___ ___ ___ ___ ___


1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz

According to Hunds rule, we have to fill each orbital of the


2p level with one electron first, then go back and fill with the
second electron

___ ___ ___ ___ ___


1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz
Orbital Sample 2
The electron configuration of nitrogen is
1s22s22p3. How many electrons are
present in a nitrogen atom? What is the
atomic number of nitrogen? Write the
orbital notation for nitrogen.
Number of electrons =
super scripts added together
Number of electrons = 2 + 2 + 3
Number of electrons = 7

Atomic Number = look on PT


Atomic Number = 7
Orbital Notation = ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz

Start with the first orbital

___ ___ ___ ___ ___


1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz

Move onto the next orbital

___ ___ ___ ___ ___


1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz

According to Hunds rule, we have to fill each orbital of the


2p level with one electron first, then go back and fill with the
second electron

___ ___ ___ ___ ___


1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz
Orbital Sample 3
The electron configuration of fluorine is
1s22s22p5. What is the atomic number of
fluorine? How many of its p orbitals are
filled? How many unpaired electrons
does a fluorine atom contain?
Atomic Number = look on PT
Atomic Number = 9

How many of its p orbital are filled =


___ ___ ___ ___ ___
1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz

How many of its p orbitals are filled = 2

How many unpaired electrons does a


fluorine atom contain = 1
Octet of Electrons
When the s and p orbitals are filled.
Octet = 8
s orbital = 2 + p orbital = 6
2+6=8

Nobel Gas
The group 18 elements. No unpaired
electrons and all orbitals of the energy
level are full.
E Config. Sample 1
-

Write both the complete electron-


configuration notation and the noble-gas
notation for iron, Fe.
Write the complete electron-configuration
notation
Figure out number of electrons
In a stable atom, number of protons =
number of electrons
Fe = 26

Start writing electron configuration till


number of electrons is reached
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6
Write the noble-gas notation
Find the highest filled p orbital and its
Noble gas
3p6 = Ar

Write the noble gas in brackets and then


the remainder of the full electron
configuration
[Ar] 4s23d6
E Config. Sample 2
-

Write both the complete electron


configuration notation and the noble-gas
notation for iodine, I.
Write the complete electron-configuration
notation
Figure out number of electrons
In a stable atom, number of protons =
number of electrons
I = 53

Start writing electron configuration till


number of electrons is reached
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p5
Write the noble-gas notation
Find the highest filled p orbital and its
Noble gas
4p6 = Kr

Write the noble gas in brackets and then


the remainder of the full electron
configuration
[Kr] 5s24d105p5
E Config. Sample 3
-

Without consulting the periodic table or a


table in this chapter, write the complete
electron configuration for the element with
atomic number 25.
Write the complete electron-configuration
notation
Figure out number of electrons
Given 25

Start writing electron configuration till


number of electrons is reached
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d5