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p. 129-130
Common Ion Effect
Adding a common ion to an equilibrium system
will shift the equilibrium forward or reverse.
For a weak acid equilibrium this can affect the
pH of the solution.
For example: Adding NaF to a solution of HF.
HF H+ + F -

Adding F- ions will shift the equilibrium to

reactants and produce more HF and reduce [H+]
ions in the process.
This makes the pH increase.
Buffers are solutions in which the pH
remains relatively constant, even
when small amounts of acid or base
are added
Contain a weak acid (HA) and its
salt(NaA); H2CO3 & NaHCO3
Or a weak base (B) and its (BHCl);
(NH3 and NH4Cl)
A buffer system is better able to resist
changes in pH than pure water
Since it is a pair of chemicals:
one chemical neutralizes any acid
added, while the other chemical
would neutralize any additional
AND, they produce each other
in the process!!!
How a Buffer Works
Consider the following buffer system
HCO3- + H+ H2CO3
If you add more H+ this buffer system it will
react with the conjugate base HCO 3- to
produce more H2CO3.
If you add base, OH-, it will grab an H+
from H2CO3 to produce more HCO3- ion as
H2CO3 + OH- H2O + HCO3-
Buffer Capacity
The buffer capacity is the amount of
acid or base that can be added
before a significant change in pH
This depends on the amounts of HA
and A- present in the buffer
Most efficient buffer is when
Henderson-Hasselbach Equation

Derived from the equilibrium expression of

a weak acid and the pH equation.

pH = pKa + log[HA]
This equation allows you to determine the
pH of a buffer solution
pKa = -log Ka