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Buffers

p. 129-130
Common Ion Effect
Adding a common ion to an equilibrium system
will shift the equilibrium forward or reverse.
For a weak acid equilibrium this can affect the
pH of the solution.
For example: Adding NaF to a solution of HF.
HF H+ + F -

Adding F- ions will shift the equilibrium to


reactants and produce more HF and reduce [H+]
ions in the process.
This makes the pH increase.
Buffers
Buffers are solutions in which the pH
remains relatively constant, even
when small amounts of acid or base
are added
Contain a weak acid (HA) and its
salt(NaA); H2CO3 & NaHCO3
Or a weak base (B) and its (BHCl);
(NH3 and NH4Cl)
Buffers
A buffer system is better able to resist
changes in pH than pure water
Since it is a pair of chemicals:
one chemical neutralizes any acid
added, while the other chemical
would neutralize any additional
base
AND, they produce each other
in the process!!!
How a Buffer Works
Consider the following buffer system
HCO3- + H+ H2CO3
If you add more H+ this buffer system it will
react with the conjugate base HCO 3- to
produce more H2CO3.
If you add base, OH-, it will grab an H+
from H2CO3 to produce more HCO3- ion as
follows
H2CO3 + OH- H2O + HCO3-
Buffer Capacity
The buffer capacity is the amount of
acid or base that can be added
before a significant change in pH
This depends on the amounts of HA
and A- present in the buffer
Most efficient buffer is when
[A-]
=1
[HA]
Henderson-Hasselbach Equation

Derived from the equilibrium expression of


a weak acid and the pH equation.

[A-]
pH = pKa + log[HA]
This equation allows you to determine the
pH of a buffer solution
pKa = -log Ka