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Electromechanical Energy

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Energy

Conversion

Nicols Toro Garca

Mquinas II.

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

The electromechanical energy conversion theory allows

the representation of the electromagnetic force or

torque in terms of device variables, such as the

currents and the displacement of the mechanical

systems.

system, a mechanical system, and a means whereby

the electric and mechanical systems can interact.

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

Consider the block diagram

depicted below.

Coupling

Field

Electric Mechanic

System System

WE = We + WeL + WeS

Energy Energy Energy stored in

supplied Energy losses of

transferred to the the electric o

by an the electric

coupling field by magnetic field

electric system. Basically,

the electric

source I2R

system

WM = Wm + WmL + WmS

Energy Energy Energy stored in

Energy losses of

supplied transferred to the the moving

the mechanical

by a coupling field member and

system

mechanic from the compliance of the

al source mechanical 5

mechanical

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

The energy transferred to the coupling field can be represented

by

WF = We + Wm

Total energy Energy Energy transferred to

transferred transferred to the coupling field

to the the coupling field from the mechanical

coupling by the electric system

field WF = Wf system

+ WfL

Energy stored in Energy dissipated as

the electric heat (I2R)

system

6

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

The electromechanical systems obey the law of conservation of energy.

WF = Wf + WfL = We + Wm

WfL WmL

WeL

WE

WM

WeS Wf WmS

7

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

the following formula,

WF = We + Wm

Energy Energy

transferred to transferred to the

the coupling field coupling field

by the electric from the

system mechanical

system

8

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

Consider the electromechanical system

given below,

k

r L

i f

+ m

+

N fe

V ef

- - D

x

x0

9

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

The equation for the electric

system is- di

V ri L e f

dt

system dx dx

f is-

m D K ( x x0 ) fe

2

dt dt

10

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

The total energy supplied by the

electric source is -

di

WE V i dt ri L e f i dt

dt

The equation for the mechanical

system is-

dx

WM f dx f dt

dt

11

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

Substituting f from the equation of

motion-

dx 2 dx

WE f dx m 2 D K ( x x0 ) fe dx

dt

dt PotentialEnergy Total energy

Kinetic energy Heat loss

due the friction

stored in the spring transferred to the

stored in the m ass

(Wall)

coupling field

from the

m echanical

system

12

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

WM f e dx

* Recall

W f We WM

W f e f idt f e dx

dW f e f idt f e dx

13

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

If dx=0 is assumed, then

d

W f WE e f idt i dt

dt

W f id

dx0

14

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

Recalling the normalized magnetization

curve,

W f id

(i, x)

d

Wc di

15

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

(i, x)

(i, x) (i, x)

d di dx

i x

(i, x)

Wf i di

i dx 0

16

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

i i ( , x )

i ( , x) i ( , x)

di d dx

x

i ( , x)

Wc di d

dx 0

17

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

From the previous relationship, it can be

shown that for one coil,

i*

Wf i d L( x) i

0

i*

W f i L ( x ) di

0

For a general case,

W f i j d j

j 1 dx0

18

Electromechanical Energy

Conversion

For two coupled coils,

1 1

W f L11i 1 L12i1i2 L22i 2 2

2

2 2

1 n n

Wf L pqi p iq

2 p 1q 1

19

Electromagnetic Force

Recalling,

k

r L

i f

+ m

+

N fe

V ef

- - D

x

x0

20

Electromagnetic Force

Wf We WM

Wf e f idt f e dx

f e dx e f idt Wf

d

ef

dt

f e dx id dW f

21

Electromagnetic Force

d

dWe e f idt i dt i d

dt

f e dx i d dW f

(i, x) (i, x)

d di dx

i x

W f (i, x) W f (i, x)

dW f di dx

i x

can be shown W

f e i, x i

f

x x 22

Electromagnetic Force

W f id

Recall,

d

Wc i W f Wc di

Wc W f

i i

x x x

W f

f e (i, x) i

x x

23

Electromagnetic Force

i W f Wc W f i Wc

W f

f e (i, x) i

x x

Wc

f e (i, x) i i

x x x

Wc

f e (i, x)

x

24

(a) Schematic magnetic-field electromechanical-energy-

conversion device.

(b) Simple force-producing device.

Figure 3.3

Schematic of an electromagnetic relay.

Figure 3.4

Integration paths for Wfld.

Figure 3.5

(a) Relay with movable plunger for Example 3.2.

(b) (b) Detail showing air-gap configuration with the

plunger partially removed.

Figure 3.6

Example 3.3.

(a) Polynomial curve

fit of inductance.

(b) Force as a function

of position x for

i = 0.75 A.

Figure 3.7

Practice problem 3.3. Plot of force vs. x for = 1.5

mWb.

Figure 3.8

Magnetic circuit for Example 3.4.

Figure 3.9

Graphical

interpretation

of energy

and coenergy

in a singly-

excited

system.

Figure 3.10

Effect of x on the energy and coenergy of a

singly-excited device:

(a)change of energy with held constant;

(b)change of coenergy with i held constant.

Figure 3.11

Magnetic system of Example 3.6.

Figure 3.12

Multiply-excited magnetic energy storage

system.

Figure 3.13

Integration path to obtain Wfld(10, 20, 0).

Figure 3.14

Multiply-excited magnetic

system for Example 3.7.

Figure 3.15

Plot of torque components for the multiply-excited

system of Example 3.7.

Figure 3.16

(a)Magnetic circuit with permanent magnet and

movable plunger.

(b)Fictitious winding added.

Figure 3.17

Integration path for calculating Wfld (if = 0, x )

in the permanent magnet system of Fig. 3.17.

Figure 3.18

Magnetic circuit

for Example 3.8.

Figure 3.19

Magnetic circuit for Practice Problem 3.8.

Figure 3.20

(a)Generic magnetic circuit containing a section

of linear, permanent-magnet material.

(b)Generic magnetic circuit in which the

permanent-magnet material has been

replaced by a section of linear magnetic

material and a fictitious winding.

Figure 3.21

(a)Actuator for Example 3.9.

(b)Equivalent circuit for the actuator with the

permanent magnet replaced by linear

material and an equivalent winding

carrying(Ni)equiv ampere-turns.

Figure 3.22

Model of a singly-excited electromechanical

system.

Figure 3.23

Solenoid magnet for Example 3.10.

Figure 3.24

Two-coil

rotor for

Problem

3.1.

Figure 3.25

Actuator with rotating vane for Problem 3.7. (a)

Side view. (b) End view.

Figure 3.26

An RC circuit for Problem

3.8.

Figure 3.27

An RL circuit for Problem

3.9.

Figure 3.28

Plunger actuator for Problem 3.12.

Figure 3.29

Electromagnet lifting an iron slab (Problem 3.14).

Figure 3.30

Conductor in a slot

(Problem 3.17).

Figure 3.31

Solenoid coil (Problem 3.18).

Figure 3.32

Lossless electric energy storage system.

Figure 3.33

Capacitor plates (Problem 3.20).

Figure 3.34

Schematic electrostatic

voltmeter (Problem

3.21).

Figure 3.35

Two-winding

magnetic

circuit for

Problem

3.22.

Figure 3.36

Loudspeaker for Problem 3.25.

Figure 3.37

Magnetic support system for Problem 3.27.

Figure 3.38

Central core of loudspeaker of Fig. 3.37 with winding

1 replaced by a permanent magnet (Problem 3.28).

Figure 3.39

Permanent-magnet system

for Problem 3.29.

Figure 3.40

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