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# Electromechanical

Energy
Conversion
Nicols Toro Garca
Mquinas II.
Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
The electromechanical energy conversion theory allows
the representation of the electromagnetic force or
torque in terms of device variables, such as the
currents and the displacement of the mechanical
systems.

## An electromechanical system consists of an electric

system, a mechanical system, and a means whereby
the electric and mechanical systems can interact.
Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
Consider the block diagram
depicted below.
Coupling
Field
Electric Mechanic
System System

WE = We + WeL + WeS
Energy Energy Energy stored in
supplied Energy losses of
transferred to the the electric o
by an the electric
coupling field by magnetic field
electric system. Basically,
the electric
source I2R
system
WM = Wm + WmL + WmS
Energy Energy Energy stored in
Energy losses of
supplied transferred to the the moving
the mechanical
by a coupling field member and
system
mechanic from the compliance of the
al source mechanical 5
mechanical
Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
The energy transferred to the coupling field can be represented
by

WF = We + Wm
Total energy Energy Energy transferred to
transferred transferred to the coupling field
to the the coupling field from the mechanical
coupling by the electric system
field WF = Wf system
+ WfL
Energy stored in Energy dissipated as
the electric heat (I2R)
system

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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
The electromechanical systems obey the law of conservation of energy.

## Energy Balance in an Electromechanical System

WF = Wf + WfL = We + Wm

WfL WmL
WeL
WE
WM

WeS Wf WmS
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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion

## If the losses are neglected, we will obtain

the following formula,

WF = We + Wm

Energy Energy
transferred to transferred to the
the coupling field coupling field
by the electric from the
system mechanical
system

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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
Consider the electromechanical system
given below,

k
r L
i f
+ m
+
N fe
V ef

- - D

x
x0

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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
The equation for the electric
system is- di
V ri L e f
dt

## The equation2 for the mechanical

system dx dx
f is-
m D K ( x x0 ) fe
2
dt dt

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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
The total energy supplied by the
electric source is -
di
WE V i dt ri L e f i dt
dt
The equation for the mechanical
system is-
dx
WM f dx f dt
dt

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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
Substituting f from the equation of
motion-

dx 2 dx
WE f dx m 2 D K ( x x0 ) fe dx
dt
dt PotentialEnergy Total energy
Kinetic energy Heat loss
due the friction
stored in the spring transferred to the
stored in the m ass
(Wall)
coupling field
from the
m echanical
system

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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion

WM f e dx
* Recall
W f We WM
W f e f idt f e dx
dW f e f idt f e dx

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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
If dx=0 is assumed, then
d
W f WE e f idt i dt
dt
W f id
dx0

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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
Recalling the normalized magnetization
curve,
W f id

(i, x)
d

Wc di

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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion

(i, x)
(i, x) (i, x)
d di dx
i x
(i, x)
Wf i di
i dx 0

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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion

i i ( , x )
i ( , x) i ( , x)
di d dx
x
i ( , x)
Wc di d

dx 0

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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
From the previous relationship, it can be
shown that for one coil,
i*
Wf i d L( x) i
0

i*
W f i L ( x ) di
0
For a general case,

W f i j d j
j 1 dx0
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Electromechanical Energy
Conversion
For two coupled coils,

1 1
W f L11i 1 L12i1i2 L22i 2 2
2

2 2

## For the general case with n-coupled coils,

1 n n
Wf L pqi p iq
2 p 1q 1

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Electromagnetic Force
Recalling,

k
r L
i f
+ m
+
N fe
V ef

- - D

x
x0

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Electromagnetic Force
Wf We WM
Wf e f idt f e dx

f e dx e f idt Wf
d
ef
dt
f e dx id dW f
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Electromagnetic Force
d
dWe e f idt i dt i d
dt
f e dx i d dW f
(i, x) (i, x)
d di dx
i x
W f (i, x) W f (i, x)
dW f di dx
i x

## Substituting for d and dWf in fedx=id - dWf, it

can be shown W
f e i, x i
f

x x 22
Electromagnetic Force
W f id
Recall,
d

Wc i W f Wc di

Wc W f
i i

x x x
W f
f e (i, x) i
x x

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Electromagnetic Force

i W f Wc W f i Wc
W f
f e (i, x) i
x x
Wc
f e (i, x) i i
x x x
Wc
f e (i, x)
x

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(a) Schematic magnetic-field electromechanical-energy-
conversion device.
(b) Simple force-producing device.
Figure 3.3
Schematic of an electromagnetic relay.
Figure 3.4
Integration paths for Wfld.
Figure 3.5
(a) Relay with movable plunger for Example 3.2.
(b) (b) Detail showing air-gap configuration with the
plunger partially removed.
Figure 3.6
Example 3.3.
(a) Polynomial curve
fit of inductance.
(b) Force as a function
of position x for
i = 0.75 A.
Figure 3.7
Practice problem 3.3. Plot of force vs. x for = 1.5
mWb.
Figure 3.8
Magnetic circuit for Example 3.4.
Figure 3.9
Graphical
interpretation
of energy
and coenergy
in a singly-
excited
system.
Figure 3.10
Effect of x on the energy and coenergy of a
singly-excited device:
(a)change of energy with held constant;
(b)change of coenergy with i held constant.
Figure 3.11
Magnetic system of Example 3.6.
Figure 3.12
Multiply-excited magnetic energy storage
system.
Figure 3.13
Integration path to obtain Wfld(10, 20, 0).
Figure 3.14
Multiply-excited magnetic
system for Example 3.7.
Figure 3.15
Plot of torque components for the multiply-excited
system of Example 3.7.
Figure 3.16
(a)Magnetic circuit with permanent magnet and
movable plunger.
Figure 3.17
Integration path for calculating Wfld (if = 0, x )
in the permanent magnet system of Fig. 3.17.
Figure 3.18
Magnetic circuit
for Example 3.8.
Figure 3.19
Magnetic circuit for Practice Problem 3.8.
Figure 3.20
(a)Generic magnetic circuit containing a section
of linear, permanent-magnet material.
(b)Generic magnetic circuit in which the
permanent-magnet material has been
replaced by a section of linear magnetic
material and a fictitious winding.
Figure 3.21
(a)Actuator for Example 3.9.
(b)Equivalent circuit for the actuator with the
permanent magnet replaced by linear
material and an equivalent winding
carrying(Ni)equiv ampere-turns.
Figure 3.22
Model of a singly-excited electromechanical
system.
Figure 3.23
Solenoid magnet for Example 3.10.
Figure 3.24
Two-coil
rotor for
Problem
3.1.
Figure 3.25
Actuator with rotating vane for Problem 3.7. (a)
Side view. (b) End view.
Figure 3.26
An RC circuit for Problem
3.8.
Figure 3.27
An RL circuit for Problem
3.9.
Figure 3.28
Plunger actuator for Problem 3.12.
Figure 3.29
Electromagnet lifting an iron slab (Problem 3.14).
Figure 3.30
Conductor in a slot
(Problem 3.17).
Figure 3.31
Solenoid coil (Problem 3.18).
Figure 3.32
Lossless electric energy storage system.
Figure 3.33
Capacitor plates (Problem 3.20).
Figure 3.34
Schematic electrostatic
voltmeter (Problem
3.21).
Figure 3.35
Two-winding
magnetic
circuit for
Problem
3.22.
Figure 3.36
Loudspeaker for Problem 3.25.
Figure 3.37
Magnetic support system for Problem 3.27.
Figure 3.38
Central core of loudspeaker of Fig. 3.37 with winding
1 replaced by a permanent magnet (Problem 3.28).
Figure 3.39
Permanent-magnet system
for Problem 3.29.
Figure 3.40