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1: Psychoanalytic Approach/
Perspective by Sigmund Freud

By: Alexys Adams

11.1- Alexys Adams

Psychoanalytic perspective- an approach developed by Sigmund Freud that sees personality as the product of driving forces within a person that
are often conflicting and sometimes unconscious

Freuds levels of Awareness

Freud saw consciousness as an iceberg:

-The tip of the iceberg was the conscious level: the level of consciousness that holds all our thoughts, perceptions,and impulses that we are aware

the major portion of the iceberg, Freud thought was below the surface.

-preconscious/subconscious: the level of consciousness that holds thoughts, perceptions, and impulses of which we could potentially be aware.
(Middle bottom)

-Unconscious: the level of awareness that contains all thoughts, perceptions, and impulses of which we are unaware. (Practically at the bottom)
11.1 Continued

But what also lies beneath the surface of the iceberg: Freuds structure of Personality:

Comprised of three major personality structures:

Id: the unconscious part of the personality that seeks pleasure and gratification (at birth)

-pleasure principle: the basis on which the id operates; the urge to feel good and maximize gratification (sexually and agreseive nature)

Ego: the conscious part of the personality that attempts to meet the demands of the id in a socially appropriate way (the negotiator between instinctual needs of
the id and demands of membership in human society)

-Reality principle: the basis on which the ego operates; finding socially appropriate means to fulfill id demands. The desires of the id can only be met by
successfully deal with the environment

Superego:the part of the personality that represents your moral (right vs wrong) conscience

-defense mechanism: a process used to protect the ego by reducing the anxiety it feels when faced with the conflicting demands of the id and superego

Section 11.1
Freud developed the idea that personality operates at 3 different levels
of consciousness-
Id- unconscious part of the personality which seeks pleasure and
Ego- the conscious part of the personality that tries to meet the
demands of the id in a way that is pleasing to society.
Superego- part of the personality that represents your moral
conscience. The psychoanalytic perspective says that personality is
the product of driving forces within a person that are often conflicting
and sometimes unconscious.
Section 11.2
The Trait Approach: Consistency and Stability in Personality

You will need to know these words:

Traits tendency to behave in a certain way across most situations

Trait approach a personality perspective that attempts to describe personality by

emphasizing internal, biological aspects of personality called traits
11.2.1 Gordon Allports Trait Theory
Gordon Allport (1897-1967) believed in 3 types of traits to help understand
someone's uniqueness

Central traits your core qualities that friends would use to describe you, also the
tendencies you have for most situations

Secondary traits tendencies that are less consistent and more situation specific

Cardinal traits very basic and permanent element to our personalities but most
difficult to find
11.2.2 Cattells Factor Analytic Trait Theory
Raymond Cattell (1905-1998) tried to document the relationships among traits, he
used factor analysis

Factor Analysis a computer program that when info. Was entered separated
people by related traits into factors

Surface traits basic traits that describe peoples personalities

Source traits universal tendencies that underlie and are at the core of surface
11.2.3 The PEN Model, Eysenck narrows the Traits
Eysenck and Rachman (1965) while building on Cattells studies found 2 factors
that measured people's key characteristics

First there is Introversion and Extraversion personality traits that involve energy
directed inward, calm or peaceful and personality traits that involve energy
directed outward, easygoing, lively, or excitable

Then there is Emotional stability and Neuroticism refer to control over ones
emotions and the degree in which one is emotionally unstable

The Eysenck and his wife created a third dimension called Psychoticism this is the
degree to which one is hostile, nonconforming, impulsive, and aggressive
11.2.4 The Five Factor Trait Theory
Paul Costa and Robert McCrae had the Five Factor theory which proposes that
there are 5 core dimensions to ones personality

Openness degree to one's thoughtful and rational in considering new ideas

Conscientiousness degree to which one is aware of and attentive to other people

Extraversion degree to which ones energy is directed inward or outward

Agreeableness degree to which one gets along well with others

Neuroticism degree to which one is emotionally stable or unstable

11.2.4 O.C.E.A.N
11.2.5 Genetic Contributions to Personality

The trait approach towards personality not only assumes that traits are inherited, but also that some personality traits are
consistent and stable

Temperament is the differences in behavior that are shown in newborn infants. These differences appear to be strongly
related to genes and are quite stable over time.

Behavioral genetics study of the degree to which personality traits are influenced by genetics and hereditary factors

There are two ways to study this, one is to look at adopted children, and another is to look at identical twins. In both
cases, studies have shown evidence that genes strongly relate to personality.

Personality neuroscience is research that focuses on genes that direct neurotransmitter functioning, specifically serotonin
and dopamine.

Several studies have shown an association between the serotonin transporter gene and anxiety-related personality
traits. Other studies have shown an association between the dopamine receptor gene and the personality trait of
novelty seeking. Results from these studies show a relationship between biology, environment, and personality.
11.2.6 Stability and Change in Personality
Research supports the idea that some personality traits are stable through the course of adulthood whereas others change. Factors
such as age, culture, and gender are also important when considering stability and change

As part of the developmental process, children, teenagers, and young adults often have a change in values and attitudes. However,
studies have suggested that at least some traits are consistent from childhood to adulthood.

Some traits include but are not limited to: extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

Studies have also shown that big changes in personality can also occur adulthood. For example, it has been seen that people
generally become more conscientious, agreeable, and emotionally stable.

Studies in age differences have shown that older men and women tend to be lower in extraversion and openness, but more agreeable
and conscientious

Studies in gender differences have shown that women report themselves as being higher in neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness,
and openness, whereas men report themselves as being higher in assertiveness and openness

Many people also become more androgynous, which is when someone exhibits both male and female traits
11.2.6 The Influence of the Environment on Traits
Situational factors also influence the stability and consistency of traits

Personality-Situation Interaction is the relationship between traits, situations, and

behavior. When someone is faced with similar situations, a person will behave the
same wave. However, when faced with a different situation, behavior may change.

From these findings, psychologists can see that although some traits are
consistent through age and from culture to culture, whereas other traits can be
affected by society, environment, and daily situations
11.2.7 Contribution and Criticisms of the Trait Approach
The trait perspective towards personality has been useful in the field of personality assessment

Knowing a persons tendencies or traits can also help a psychologist predict future behavior, however,
these predictions can be affected by the nature of the situation

The trait perspective has also caused further research into the biological aspects of personality and how
certain personality traits are consistent and stable

The trait perspective has been criticized however:

The first critique is that it does not explain why a person behaves a particular way

The second critique is that it portrays personality too simplistically

11.3 - Janelle Black

The social cognitive approach sees personality

as influenced by both environment and ones
It has two theories, the theory of Reciprocal
Determinism, and Locus of Control.
The Theory of Reciprocal
Albert Bandura speculates that
personality is influenced by
environment, behavior, and
Julian Rotters Locus of Control- The influences of having
expectations regarding an outcome.
Internal vs. External
Internal Locus of control means believing any outcome
results from working towards it.
External Locus of control means believing any outcome is the
result of fate or luck.
Humanistic Approach
Humanistic Approach- emphasizes personal choice and free will in shaping a
healthy individual

Individual is seen as an active participant in their natural potential

There are two main theories in the Humanistic Approach

Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Carl Rogers Self Theory

Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Humans are motivated by different things and this approach may explain why
people behave the way they do

Criticised for giving too simple of a view to explain motives

Doesnt explain how some people deprive themselves of lower needs while
obtaining higher needs
Nelson Mandela remained in prison in favor of the right to criticize ones government
Carl Rogers Self Theory
Humans natural strive for fulfillment and enhancement
Rogers referred to this Actualizing Tendency

Actualizing tendency is set at birth

Self-concept- a persons perception of themselves and their abilities

Other people affect your self-concept through unconditional positive regard

Unconditional positive regard- acceptance and love of anothers thoughts and

feelings without expecting anything return
Can be thought of as unconditional love
Contributions and Criticisms of the Humanistic Approach

Contributed to psychology by making people more aware of themselves and

how they interact with others

Criticised for having too naive of an assumption and overlooking that not all
people are inherently good
Personality Inventories
Self-report forms that describe you
True/false questionnaire
Main problem is the test takers
Projective Tests
Less structured than personality test
Measure personality
Most famous test is the Rorscach
Inkblot Test
Consists of 10 cards and you indicate
what you see
Rating Scales and Direct
Formatted similarly to checklists
You check statements that most
apply to you
Relatives can also complete it about
the person to ensure honesty
Clinical Interviews
Used most by clinical psychologists
Involves the clinician asking the
client questions to identify the
Typically takes place during the first