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The First Law of

Thermodynamics
Meeting 6

Section 4-1
So far weve studied two
forms of energy transfer
Work Energy (W)
*Equivalent to raising a weight

Heat (Thermal) Energy (Q)


*Caused by a temperature difference
A note about work and heat:
2

W W12 or W, but not W2 W1


1

and
2

Q Q12 or Q, but not Q 2 Q1


1

Both Q and W are path dependent!


Work and Heat are forms of energy
transfers that happens at the boundary of a
system.
As Work and Heat cross the boundary, the
system Energy changes.
Work and Heat are not stored on the system
but the Energy yes.
The Business of the First Law
Energy is not destroyed but it is conserved.
In fact during a thermodynamic process it is
transformed in one type to another.
The first law expresses a energy balance of
the system.
The energy fluxes in a system (Work and
Heat) is equal to the change in the system
Energy.
The system energy forms

Prior to state the First Law, is


necessary to define the system energy
forms.
System energy consists of
three components:
E U KE PE
U is internal energy,
KE is kinetic energy, and
PE is potential energy.

NOTE: All values are changes (deltas)


Internal energy..
Internal energy is the energy a molecule
possesses, mostly as a result of:

All these are forms of kinetic energy. We will


neglect other forms of molecular energy which
exist on the atomic level.
Translation
Kinetic energy is possessed by a molecule as it
moves through space. It transfers this energy
to other systems by means of collisions in which
its linear momentum changes. Collisions with
such things as thermometers and
thermocouples are the basis for temperature
measurement.
It is a characteristic of both polyatomic
molecules and atoms.
Vibration
Molecules (not atoms) also vibrate
along their intermolecular bonds.

The molecule has vibrational


(kinetic) energy in this mode.
Rotation
Molecules (and atoms) can also
rotate and they possess kinetic
energy in this rotational mode.
They have angular momentum
which can be changed to add or
remove energy.
We will not worry about the microscopic
details of internal energy

Internal energy is a property


of the system.

Often it shows up as a change in


temperature or pressure of the system
but it can also show up as a
change in composition if its a mixture.
The kinetic energy is
given by:
1
KE m( Vf Vi )
2 2

2
1
m( V 2 V1 )
2 2

2
The energy change in accelerating a mass of
10 kg from Vi= 0 to Vf = 10 m/s is?

1
KE m(Vf2 Vi2 )
2

2
1 m N
(10 kg 100 2 ) 1 500 N m
2 s kg m
2
s
J kJ
500 N m 0.5 kJ
N m 1,000 J
Gravity is another force acting
on our system. It shows up in
the potential energy change.

PE mg(z f z i )
mg(z 2 z 1 )
Work can be done by a change in
elevation of the system
NOTE THE CONVERSION
TO GET FROM m2/s2 to kJ/kg
2
m kJ
1000 2 1
s kg

REMEMBER IT! YOU


WILL NEED IT.
TEAMPLAY
Lets say we have a 10 kg mass that we
drop 100 m. We also have a device
that will convert all the potential energy
into kinetic energy of an object. If the
objects mass is 1 kg and it is initially
at rest, what would be its final velocity
from absorbing the potential from a 100
m drop? Assume the object travels
horizontally.
Conservation of Energy

E = U + PE + KE = Q W

Change in Changes during t Net amount Net amount


total energy in the amount of the of energy of energy
in system various forms that transferred transferred
during t the energy of the to system as out of system
system can take heat. as work.
Some comments about this
statement of the first law
Q W = E
All terms on the left hand side are forms of
energy that cross the boundary of the system
Q in is positive, W out is positive
Right hand side is a change in system energy
Algebraic form of first law
The right hand side of the energy
equation consists of three terms:
E = U + KE + PE
KE - Motion of the system as a whole with
respect to some fixed reference frame.
PE - Position change of the system as a
whole in the earths gravity field.
U - Internal energy of the molecule--
translation, rotation, vibration, [and energy
stored in electronic orbital states, nuclear
spin, and others].
We previously had
conservation of energy
E = U + PE + KE
We can change the total energy E of a
system by
Changing the internal energy, perhaps
best exemplified by heating.
Changing the PE by raising or lowering.
Changing the KE by accelerating or
decelerating.
Conservation of Energy
for Stationary System
Stationary means not moving
-so PE and KE are zero and
the first law becomes

Q W U
First Law Forms
for Stationary Systems

Differential Form: Q W dU

Rate Form: dU
Q W
dt

Integrated Form: 1 Q 2 1 W2 U 2 U1
We can also write the first law
in differential terms
dE = Q W, and
dU + dPE + dKE = Q W

Differential Differential
Change in the
amount of amount of energy
amount of energy
energy trans- transferred out
of the system
ferred in (+) (+) or in (-) by
during some time
or out (-) by work interaction.
interval.
heat transfer.
If we are analyzing a transient
process, well need the rate
form of the first law

dE dU dKE dPE
Q W
dt dt dt dt
Where: Q

W
Q W
dt dt
Rate form will allow us
to calculate:
Changes in temperature with time
Changes in pressure with time
Changes in speed with time
Changes in altitude with time
Hints to set up a problem
1. Define the system carefully indicating clearly
its boundaries.
2. Enroll all the simplifying hypothesis to the
case.
3. Draw the heat and work fluxes at the
boundaries including their signals.
4. Sketch a process representation on a
thermodynamic diagram Pv or Tv.
System Energy Change

E = Q W
E = (15 - 3) + 6
= (Qin Qout) = 18 kJ

(Wout Win)
Example 4-1
0.01 kg of air is compressed in a piston-cylinder.
Find the rate of temperature rise at an instant of
time when T = 400K. Work is being done at a
rate of 8.165 KW and Heat is being removed at a
rate of 1.0 KW.

Solution on the black board


Example 4-2
Isothermal Process
An ideal gas is compressed reversibly and
isothermally from a volume of 0.01 m3 and a
pressure of 0.1 MPa to a pressure of 1 MPa. How
much heat is transferred during this process?

Solution on the black board


Example 4-3
Isobaric Process
The volume below a weighted piston contains
0.01 kg of water. The piston area is of 0.01 m2
and the piston mass is of 102 kg. The top face of
the piston is at atmospheric pressure, 0.1 MPa.
Initially the water is at 25 oC and the final state
is saturated vapor (x=1). How much heat and
work are done on or by the water?

Solution on the black board


Isobaric Process
For a constant-pressure process,
Wb + U = PV + U
= (U+PV) = H
Thus,
Q - Wother = H + KE + PE (kJ)

Example: Boil water at constant pressure


Example

An insulated tank is divided into two parts by a


partition. One part of the tank contains 2.5 kg of
compressed liquid water at 60oC and 600 kPa
while the other part is evacuated. The partition
is now removed, and the water expands to fill the
entire tank. Determine the final temperature of
the water and the volume of the tank for a final
pressure of 10 kPa.
Example
m = 2.5 kg
Evacuated
T1 = 60oC
Partition
P1 = 600 kPa
H2O P2 = 10 kPa

E = Q - W
Solution - page 1
First Law: Q - W = E
Q = W = KE = PE = 0
E = U = m(u2 - u1) = 0
u1= u2
No Work and no Heat therefore the internal
Energy is kept constant
Solution - page 2
State 1: compressed liquid
P1 = 600 kPa, T1 = 60oC
vf = vf@60 C = 0.001017 m3/kg
o

uf = uf@60 C = 251.11 kJ/kg


o

State 2: saturated liquid-vapor mixture


P2 = 10 kPa, u2 = u1 = 251.11 kJ/kg
uf = 191.82 kJ/Kg, ufg = 2246.1 kJ/kg
Solution - page 3
u 2 u f 251.11 191.82
x2 0.0264
u fg 2246.1
Thus, T2 = Tsat@10 kPa = 45.81oC
v2 = vf + x2vg
= [0.00101+0.0264*(14.67 - 0.00101)] m3/kg
= 0.388 m3/kg
V2 = mv2 = (2.5 kg)(0.388m3/kg) = 0.97 m3
Example
One kilogram of water is contained in a piston-
cylinder device at 100oC. The piston rests on lower
stops such that the volume occupied by the water is
0.835 m3. The cylinder is fitted with an upper set of
stops. The volume enclosed by the piston-cylinder
device is 0.841 m3 when the piston rests against the
upper stops. A pressure of 200 kPa is required to
support the piston. Heat is added to the water until
the water exists as a saturated vapor. How much
work does the water do on the piston?
Example: Work

Upper stops
m = 1 kg
Lower stops
T1 = 100oC
Wb
V1 = 0.835 m3
Water
V2 = 0.841 m3
Q
T-v Diagram
T

211.3 kPa

200 kPa

101.3 kPa

v1 v2 v
Solution - page 1
3 3
V1 0.835 m m
v1 0.835
m 1 kg kg
State 1: saturated liquid-vapor mixture
T1 = 100oC,
vf=0.001044 m3/kg , vg=1.6729 m3/kg
vf < v < vg ==> saturation P1=101.35 kPa
Solution - page 2
Process 1-2: The volume stay constant until the pressure
increases to 200 kPa. Then the piston will move.
Process 2-3: Piston lifts off the bottom stop while the
pressure stays constant.

State 2: saturated liquid-vapor mixture


P2= 200 kPa , v2 = v1 = 0.835 m3

Does the piston hit upper stops before or


after reaching the saturated vapor state?
Solution - page 3
3 3
V3 0.841 m m
v3 0.841
m 1 kg kg

State 3: Saturated liquid-vapor mixture


P3 = P2 = 200 kPa
vf = 0.001061 m3/kg , vg = 0.8857 m3/kg
vf < v3 < vg ==> piston hit the upper stops
before water reaches the saturated vapor state.
Solution - page 4
Process 3-4 : With the piston against the upper
stops, the volume remains constant during the
final heating to the saturated vapor state and the
pressure increases.

State 4: Saturated vapor state


v4 = v3 = 0.841 m3/kg = vg
P4 = 211.3 kPa , T4 = 122oC
Solution - page 5

Wb ,14 PdV PdV PdV PdV


1 1 2 3

0 mP2 ( v 3 v 2 ) 0
m 3 kJ
(1 kg)( 200 kPa)(0.841 - 0.835) 3
kg m kPa
1.2 kJ (> 0, done by the system)
Example: Heat Transfer

Upper Find the require


stops heat transfer for
Lower the water in
stops
Wb previous example.
Water

Q
Solution - page 1
First Law: Conservation of Energy

Q - W = E = U + KE + PE
Q14 = Wb,14 + U14
U14 = m(u4 - u1)
Solution - page 2
State 1: saturated liquid-vapor mixture
v1 v f 0.835 0.001044
x1 0.4988
v g v f 1.6729 0.001044
u1 u f x1u fg
kJ kJ kJ
418.94 0.4988( 2087.6 ) 1460.23
kg kg kg
Solution - page 3
State 4: saturated vapor state
v4 = 0.841 m3/kg = vg
u4 = 2531.48 kJ/kg (interpolation)

Q14 Wb ,14 m(u 4 u1 )


kJ
1.2 kJ (1 kg)(2531.48 - 1460.23)
kg
1072.45 kJ (> 0, added to the water)
TEAMPLAY EX. 4-6
A pressure cooker with volume of 2 liters operates
at 0.2 MPa with water at x = 0.5. After operation
the pressure cooker is left aside allowing its
contents to cool. The heat loss is 50 watts, how long
does it take for the pressure drop to 0.1 MPa?
What is the state of the water at this point?
Indicate the process on a T-v diagram.
Ex4.6)

2atm
Q=50W
2litros Processo a v constante
T P1=2atm
x=0,5
P2=1atm
0
dQ dW dU
1 Lei :
dt dt dt
dU
Q Mdu Q dt v
dt
M (u2 u1 ) Q dt
Vol. Estado1 = Vol. Estado2
P1=0,2MPa v=(1-x)vL+xvG
Tsat=120C
v=0,5*0,001+0,5*0,8919
v1L=0,001m3/kg v1=v2=0,446m3/kg
v1G=0,8919m3/kg Ttulo estado2:
u1L=503,5KJ/kg v vL 0,446 0,001
x2 0,266
u1G=2025,8KJ/kg vG vL 1,672
x=0,5 Energia interna estado2:
P2=0,1MPa u2=(1-x)u2L+xu2G
Tsat=100C u2=0,734*418+0,266*2087,5
v2L=0,001m3/kg u2=862KJ/kg
v2G=1,6729m3/kg Energia interna estado1:
u2L=418,9KJ/kg u1=(1-x)u1L+xu1G
u2G=2087,5KJ/kg u1=0,5*503+0,5*2025,8
u1=1264KJ/kg
Massa de gua
v=V/MM=V/v
M=2*10-3/0,446
M=0,004kg
Aplicando na 1Lei:
3
M(u 2 u1 ) 4 10 (1264 862)10 3
dt
Q 50
dt 32s
TEAMPLAY EX. 4-7
A powerful 847 W blender is used to raise 1.36kg of
water from a temperature of 20oC to 70oC. If the
water loses heat to the surroundings at the rate of
0.176 W, how much time will the process take?
Ex4.7)
1HP=745W Wmec0
1lbm=0,453kg
C=(F-32)/1,8
1Btu=1,055J

Wmec=1,2HP=894W
68F=20C (gua no estado lquido) M=1,359kg Q<0
158F=70C (gua no estado lquido)
Q=10Btu/min=0,176W
3lbm=1,359kg dU dT
cv=cp=4,180KJ/kgC
QW MC v
dt dt
dT 0,176 ( 894) C
0,157
dt 1,359 4,180 10 3
s
(70 20)
t 317s 5'17"
0,157
TEAMPLAY EX. 4-10
Air, assumed to be ideal gas with constant specific
heats, is compressed in a closed piston-cylinder
device in a reversible polytropic process with n =
1.27. The air temperature before compression is
30oC and after compression is 130oC. Compute the
heat transferred on the compression process.
Ex4.10) W Pdv

T2 Pv n const.
P
T1=30C(303K) P V P1 V1 MR(T2 T1 )
T1 W 2 2
2 T2=130C(403K) 1n 1n
Trabalho especfico
n=1,27 R(T2 T1 ) 297 100 KJ
1 w2 110
n=1 1n 0,27 kg
Calor 1 Lei
1
1 q 2 1 w 2 (u 2 u 1 )
v 1 q 2 C v T 1 w 2
KJ
1 q 2 0,7165 110 110 38,3
kg

Para comprimir do estado 1 ao 2 necessrio transferir


38,3 KJ por kg de ar comprimido.