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Lecture No.

26

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


ALTERNATE FUELS

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


INTRODUCTION

- Cost of Import
- Emissions

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Types of Fuels

Solid
Liquid
Gas

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Liquid Fuels

Alcohol: 1. Methanol (Methyl Alcohol)


2. Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol)
Advantages:
1. High Octane number, over 100. Hence can be used at higher
compression ratios.
2. Less overall emissions compared to gasoline.
3. After combustion, it forms more moles of exhaust gases which gives
higher pressure and more power during the expansion stroke.
4. It has high latent heat of vapourization (h fg) which results in a cooler
intake process. This rises the volumetric efficiency of the engine.
5. Alcohols have low sulphur content and Low NoX emissions.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Liquid Fuels

Disadvantages
1. Alcohols calorific value is half of the gasoline.
2. Combustion of alcohols produces aldehyde emissions
which is serious emission.
3. It is more corrosive than gasoline on copper, brass,
aluminum, rubber and many plastics.
4. Many people find the strong odor of alcohol very
offensive. Headaches and dizziness have been
experiences when refueling an automobile.
5. There is possibility of vapor lock in fuel delivery system.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Liquid Fuels

Methanol
Research recommends M85 (85% methanol and 15%
gasoline) and M10 (10% methanol and 90% gasoline).
Emissions of M10 are almost same as Gasoline but
advantage of reducing 10% Gasoline.
Emissions of M85 shows a measurable decrease in HC and
CO emissions. However increase in Nox (500%) and
formaldehydes.
Methanol is cheaper than diesel but Methanol has high
Octane number hence NOT recommended for CI engines
but if used alongwith small fractions of diesel for ignition
then methanol can be used with good results.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Liquid Fuels

Ethanol
Brazil is leading country to use the ethanol for automobiles.
E85 is used to eliminate problems using pure ethanol.
Ethanol is made from corn, sugar cane, wood and paper.
Production cost of ethanol is high but may reduced with increase in
production.
Some studies shows that at present in US, crops grown for the
production of ethanol consumes more energy in ploughing, planting,
harvesting, fermenting, and delivery than what amount energy
available in final product. But has to be used to keep on automobiles
motions.
Ethanol has less HC emissions than gasoline but more than methanol.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Lecture No. 27

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Ethanol Vs Butanol

Over ethanol, Butanol has higher heating value, good


solubility with diesel and no corrosion to fuel pipelines.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Liquid Fuels

Water Gasoline Mixture


Water addition to gasoline slows down the burning rate
and reduces gas temperature in the cylinder which
probably suppresses detonation.

Reduction in nitric oxide emissions.

Increases in hydrocarbon emissions.

However there is scope for research by varying amount of


water in gasoline.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Liquid Fuels

Vegetable Oils
Vegetable oil is considered as one of the alternative fuels
for diesel fuels for CI Engines. However the viscosity of
vegetable oil is higher than diesel. Therefore it must be
lowered to allow for proper atomization in engines.
Otherwise incomplete combustion and carbon built up
will damage the engine.

Biodiesel (under research)

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Gaseous Fuels

Hydrogen
Advantages
1. No CO or HC emissions as there is no carbon in the
hydrogen fuel. Most exhaust will be H2O, N2 and Nox.
2. High energy content per volume when stored as a liquid.

Disadvantages
1. As hydrogen fuel displaces equal amount of air, engine may
have poor volumetric efficiency
2. Cost of hydrogen fuel is high
3. High NOx emissions.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Gaseous Fuels

Natural Gas (60-95% Methane and Small Amount of Ethane)


Advantages
1. Octane number is 110 so it can be used with high
compression ratio.
2. Low engine emissions. Less aldehydes than Methanol.
3. Fuel is fairly available abundant worldwide.
Disadvantages
1. Low energy density resulting in low engine performance.
2. Low engine volumetric efficiency because it is a gaseous fuel.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Gaseous Fuels

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (16-25 bar pressure)


Emissions

CO (g/km) = 0.92 (Petrol), 0.05 (CNG), 5.60 (Emission Norms)

HC (g/km) = 0.36 (Petrol), 0.24 (CNG),--

Nox (g/km) = 0.25 (Petrol), 0.93 (CNG), 1.92 (Emission Norms)

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Gaseous Fuels

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)


1. Propane and Butane are known as LPG, obtained as the product
of petroleum refining process. They are compressed and cooled
to form liquid and stored in sealed pressure tanks for further use.
2. They are used widely in buses, trucks, cars.
Advantages:
1. Produced 50% less CO than petrol.
2. Engine life is 50% more than Petrol engine.
3. Overall cost saving is about 50%.
4. LPG has high antiknock characteristics (Octane number is 110 which is
greater than Petrols Octane number 81.
5. Its heat energy content is about 80% of fuel but its high Octane number
compensate for the thermal efficiency.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Gaseous Fuels

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)


Disadvantages
1. Ignition temperature of fuel is somewhat higher than
Petrol, it gives 5% reduction in the valve life.
2. Vehicle weight is increased due to use of heavy pressure
cylinders used to store LPG. Some amount of power is
wasted in carrying there cylinders along with the
vehicles.
3. Safety devices are to be introduced to prevent the
accident due to explosion of gas cylinders.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Gaseous Fuels

Other Possible Fuels


1. Biogas (It consists of mainly methane and CO2. It has
low calorific value and Cetane number but high Octane
number)
2. Producer gas (Coke + Air is reduced to producer gas i.e
CO + N2. It has low heating value.)
3. Coke Oven Gas (Generated during conversion of coal to
coke. H2 and CH4 generates. This gas has heating
value one half that of natural gas.)
4. Biomass Fuel (FT Synthesis)

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


HW (Alternate Fuel
Chapter, 4th Ed. Ganesan)
Multiple choice questions
Q. 1 to 6, and
Q. 8 to 12

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus