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17th Century

John Locke

Father of Liberalism
Father of Classical Liberalism
English Philosopher
Personal Life
John Locke was born on 29 August 1632 in England and
his father was a country lawyer and a small landowner.
He had a very close friendship with a Lady called
Damaris Masham that lasted till his death.
John Locke never married or fathered any children.
During his later years he was invited by Lady Masham
to come and live with her family.

In 1647 , Locke began to attend the prestigious Westminster School in

Became a part of English Loyal society.

He acquired a bachelors degree in 1656 and a masters degree in 1658

He also obtained a bachelor of medicine in 1674

All people have natural
rights the right to life,
liberty, and property.
Government was to
-John Locke-
protect these. If it
didnt overthrow it.
Political Philosophy of John Locke
He defends the principle of

majority rule and the separation

of legislative and executive powers.

His writings contributed

greatly to the development of the

fields of political philosophy

Some of the Lockes Major works are;

A Letter Concerning Toleration.

Two Treatises of Government

An essay Concerning Human Understanding

Some Thoughts Concerning education

The Reasonableness of Christianity

His works inspired generations of philosophers to follow.

A letter
A Letter Concerning Toleration by John Locke was

originally published in 1689

This argues the new understanding of the relationship

between government and religion

Main points of the letter

Toleration prevents Civil disobedience

Civil troubles results from not tolerating

Church and Government must be considered

to be separate units
Ideas included in the letter
A well-established boundary between civil government
and matters of religion
Excommunication by the Church has no relations with
civil rights and liberties, but only the society of the
Civil government can give no new rights to the church,
or the church to the civil government.
The internal laws of the church society should be
created by the members of the church but such laws
should not overlap with civil matters.
Two Treatises
Two Treatises of Government is a work of political philosophy published
anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.

In two treatises of Government former false principle and foundation of sir

Robert Filmer and his followers are detected and Overthrown.

Major ideas of the Two Treatises of Government are ;

people are born with certain rights

the purpose of government is to protect those rights

if a government fails to do so, people can revolt and set up a new

the best kind of government is a representative one
First Treatise
In the First Treatise Locke criticizes Robert Filmers
Patriarcha, which argues for the support of the right of

Filmer theory holds that every man is born as a slave to

the King.

Locke refuses to accept such a theory because of his

belief and the ability of every man to govern himself
Second Treatise
The Second Treatise is Lockes proposed solution to the
political problems at that era.
This text laid the foundation for modern forms of

Locke defines political power as the right to make laws for

the protection and regulation of property.

He claims that all men are originally in a state of nature

In second treatise he explained about the state of nature ,

property and many other political concepts.
State of Nature
Naturally all men are politically independent and equal
without subordination or subjection

Natural rights to life, liberty and property

If the government violated the rights, then government

must change or re-elect.
Every man has the power to own his property
The labor in his body and his hands are property of

Men can own lands , but it has limits.

Locke explained that money fulfills the need for a

constant measure of worth in a trading system but is
still rooted in the property of labor.
Locke identifies three elements necessary for a civil
A common established law.
A known and impartial body to give judgment.
power to support judgments.

At the end of the treatise Locke finally arrives at the

question of forming a new government.
When the state fails to function for the people, it is
overthrown and be replaced.