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1.

1 Lines

Increments

If a particle moves from the point (x1,y1) to the point


(x2,y2), the increments in its coordinates are

x x2 x1 and y y2 y1
1.1 Lines
Slope

Let P1= (x1,y1) and P2= (x2,y2) be points on a nonvertical


line L. The slope of L is
P2(x2,y2)

rise y y2 y1 y

m P1(x1,y1) Q(x2,y1)

run x x2 x1 x
1.1 Lines

Theorem: If two lines are parallel, then they have the


same slope and if they have the same slope, then
they are parallel.
Proof: If L1 || L2, then 1= 2
L1 L2 and m1= m2. Conversely, if
slope m1 slope m2 m1 = m2, then 1= 2 and
m1 m2
1
2 L1 || L2.
1 1
1.1 Lines

Theorem: If two non vertical lines L1and L2 are perpendicular,


then their slopes satisfy m1m2 = -1 and conversely.

L
Proof: ADC ~ CDB
C L1
2
m1 = tan 1 = a/h
Slope m1 1 Slope m2
m2 = tan 2 = -h/a
1 h 2

A D a B
so m1m2 =(a/h)(-h/a) = -1
1.1 Lines

Equations of lines
Point-Slope Formula y = m(x x1) + y1
Slope-Intercept form y = mx + b
Standard form Ax + By = C
y = a Horizontal line slope of zero
x =a Vertical line no slope
1.1 Lines

Regression Analysis
1. Plot the data
2. Find the regression equation y = mx + b
3. Superimpose the graph on the data points.
4. Use the regression equation to predict y-values.
1.1 Lines
Coordinate Proofs
1. State given and prove.
2. Draw a picture.
3. Label coordinates, use (0,0) if possible.
4. Fill in missing coordinates.
5. Use algebra to prove
parallel/perpendicular-slope
equidistant-distance formula
bisect-midpoint
1.1 Lines
B(0,a)
Prove the midpoint of the hypotenuse
of a right triangle is equidistant M(b/2,a/2)
from the three vertices.
Given: BAC is a right triangle A(0,0) C(b,0)
Prove: AM = BM = CM
2 2
b a b2 a2 Since AM = BM = CM, the
AM 0 0
2 2 4 4
midpoint of the hypotenuse
b
2
a
BM 0 a

2


b2 a2

of a right triangle is
2 2 4 4 equidistant from the three
2 2 vertices
b a b2 a2
CM b 0
2 2 4 4
1.2 Functions and Graphs

Function

A function from a set D to a set R is a rule that


assigns a unique element R to each element D.

y = f(x) y is a function of x
1.2 Functions and Graphs

Domain All possible x values

Range All possible y values


1.2 Functions and Graphs
x (, )
0
xa ( a, )
a
a xb ( a, b) open
a b
a xb [ a, b] closed
a b
a xb ( a, b] half opened
a b
a xb [a, b) half opened
a b
1.2 Functions and Graphs
y=mx

Domain(,)
Range(,)
1.2 Functions and Graphs

y=x2

Domain(,)
Range[0,)
1.2 Functions and Graphs
y=x3

Domain(,)
Range(,)
1.2 Functions and Graphs
y = 1/x

Domain x 0
Range y 0
1.2 Functions and Graphs
y x

Domain[0,)
Range[0,)
1.2 Functions and Graphs
Function Domain Range

y=x ( , ) ( , )

y = x2 ( , ) [0, )

y = |x| ( , ) [0, )

y 9 x2 [-3,3] [0,3]

y x2 [-2, ) [0, )
1.2 Functions and Graphs
Definitions Even Function, Odd Function

A function y = f(x) is an
even function of x if f(-x) = f(x)
odd function of x if f(-x) = -f(x)
for every x in the functions domain.
Even Function symmetrical about the y-axis.
Odd Function - symmetrical about the origin.
1.2 Functions and Graphs

Odd Function Even Function


symmetrical about the origin. symmetrical about the y-axis.

(x,y) (-x,y) (x,y)

(-x,-y)
1.2 Functions and Graphs

Transformations
h(x) = af(x) vertical stretch or shrink
h(x) = f(ax) horizontal stretch or shrink
h(x) = f(x) + k vertical shift
h(x) = f(x + h) horizontal shift
h(x) = -f(x) reflection in the x-axis
h(x) = f(-x) reflection in the y-axis
1.2 Functions and Graphs

Piece Functions Domain (-,)


Range [-3, )
x2 x 1
f ( x)
2 x 1 x 1
1.2 Functions and Graphs
Piece Functions
| x| x 2
Domain (-,)
f ( x) x 2 2 x 1 Range [0, )
x 1 x 1

1.2 Functions and Graphs

Composite Functions f(g(x))


f(x) = x2, g(x) = 3x - 1
Find:
1. f(g(2))
25
2. g(f(-1))
2
3. g(f(x))
3x2 1
4. f(g(x))
(3x 1)2 = 9x2 6x + 1
1.3 Exponential Functions

Definition Exponential Function

Let a be a positive real number other than 1,


the function f(x) = ax is the exponential
function with base a.
1.3 Exponential Functions

Rules For Exponents


If a > 0 and b > 0, the following hold true for all real
numbers x and y.
1
1. a a a
x y x y
4. a b (ab)
x x x
7. a x
-x

a
x x p
a x
a a q
2. y a x y 5. x 8. a a p
q

a b b
3. a x y
a xy
6. a 1
0
1.3 Exponential Functions

Use the rules for exponents to


solve for x.

4x = 128

2x = 1/32

(2)2x = 27

2 = 2
x -5

2x = 7

x = -5

x = 7/2

1.3 Exponential Functions

(x y )
3 2/3 1/2 27x = 9-x+1

x3/2y1/3

(33)x = (32)-x+1

33x = 3-2x+2

3x = -2x+ 2

5x = 2

x = 2/5

49 9 1/9 5

4 5 81 32

2 1 1/8 2

80/9 8 9/4 36

1/25 1/49 4 5
1.3 Exponential Functions
Properties of f (x) = ax

Domain: (-, )
Range: (0, )
Increasing for: a > 1
Decreasing for: 0 < a < 1
Point Shared On All Graphs: (0, 1)
Asymptote: y = 0
1.3 Exponential Functions

Natural Exponential Function where e


is the natural base and e 2.718

x
x 1
f ( x) e x
e lim 1
x x
1.3 Exponential Functions
Function f(x) = 2x h(x) = (0.5)x g(x) = ex

Domain (-, ) (-, ) (-, )


Range (0, ) (0, ) (0, )
Increasing or
Decreasing Inc. Dec. Inc.
Point Shared
On All Graphs (0, 1)
1.3 Exponential Functions
Use translation of functions to graph the following.
Determine the domain and range of each.
1. f(x) = -5(x + 2) 3
2. g(x) = (1/3)(x 1) + 2
1.3 Exponential Functions
Definitions Exponential Growth, Exponential Decay

The function y = k ax, k > 0 is a model for exponential


growth if a > 1, and a model for exponential decay
if 0 < a < 1.
t
y new amount
y yO b h
yo original amount
b base
t time
h half life
1.3 Exponential Functions
An isotope of sodium, 24Na, has a half-life of 15
hours. A sample of this isotope has mass 2 g.
(a) Find the amount remaining after t hours.
(b) Find the amount remaining after 60 hours.
(c) Estimate the amount remaining after 4 days.
(d) Use a graph to estimate the time required for the
mass to be reduced to 0.1 g.
1.3 Exponential Functions
An isotope of sodium, Na, has a half-life of 15
hours. A sample of this isotope has mass 2 g.
(a) Find the amount remaining after t hours.
(b) Find the amount remaining after 60 hours.
a. y = yobt/h b. y = yobt/h
y = 2 (1/2)(t/15) y = 2 (1/2)(60/15)
y = 2(1/2)4
y = .125 g
1.3 Exponential Functions
An isotope of sodium, 24Na, has a half-life of 15
hours. A sample of this isotope has mass 2 g.
(c.) Estimate the amount remaining after 4 days.
(d.) Use a graph to estimate the time required for the
mass to be reduced to 0.1 g.
c. y = yobt/h d.
y = 2 (1/2)(96/15)
y = 2(1/2)6.4
y = .023 g
1.3 Exponential Functions
A bacteria double every three days. There are
50 bacteria initially present
(a) Find the amount after 2 weeks.
(b) When will there be 3000 bacteria?
a. y = yobt/h
y = 50 (2)(14/3)
y = 1269 bacteria
1.3 Exponential Functions
A bacteria double every three days. There are
50 bacteria initially present
When will there be 3000 bacteria?

b. y = yobt/h
3000 = 50 (2)(t/3)
60 = 2t/3

1.4 Parametric Equations


Equations where x and y are functions of a
third variable, such as t. That is,

x = f(t) and y = g(t).

The graph of parametric equations are called


parametric curves and are defined by (x, y)
= (f(t), g(t)).
1.4 Parametric Equations

Equations defined in terms of x and y. These


may or may not be functions. Some
examples include:

x2 + y2 = 4
y = x2 + 3x + 2
1.4 Parametric Equations

Sketch the graph of the parametric equation for t


in the interval [0,3]

x 1 2t t x y
0 1 0
y 3t
1 -1 3
2 -3 6
3 -5 9
1.4 Parametric Equations

Eliminate the parameter t from the curve

1 x
x 1 2t 2t 1 x y 3
2
y 3t 1 x
t
2 3 3
y x
2 2
1.4 Parametric Equations
If we let t = the angle, then:
Circle:

x cos t y sin t 0 t 2
t

Since: sin 2 t cos 2 t 1

y2 x2 1
We could identify the
parametric equations as a x2 y 2 1
circle.
1.4 Parametric Equations
Ellipse: x 3cos t y 4sin t

x y
cos t sin t
3 4
2 2
x y
cos 2 t sin 2 t
3 4
2 2
x y This is the equation of
1
3 4 an ellipse.
1.4 Parametric Equations

The path of a particle in two-dimensional space can


be modeled by the parametric equations x = 2 + cos t
and y = 3 + sin t. Sketch a graph of the path of the
particle for 0 t 2.
1.4 Parametric Equations
How is t
represented
on this
graph?
1.4 Parametric Equations


t= t=0


1.4 Parametric Equations

Graphing calculators and other mathematical


software can plot parametric equations much more
efficiently then we can. Put your graphing
calculator and plot the following equations. In
what direction is t increasing?

(a) x = t2, y = t3 (b) x ln t , y t ; t 1

(c) x = sec , y = tan ; -/2 < < /2


1.4 Parametric Equations
Parametric equations can easily be converted to Cartesian
equations by solving one of the equations for t and
substituting the result into the other equation.

(a) x = t2, y = t3
x
3
3
t x, y x 2
1.4 Parametric Equations

(b) x ln t , y t for t 1
y t t y2
x ln t ln y 2

x ln y y e y e y e ; x 0
2 2 x x x
1.4 Parametric Equations

(c) x = sec t, y = tan t


where -/2 < t < /2
Hint: sec2 tan2 = 1
x sec t, y tan t
2 2 2 2

x y sec t- tan t 1
2 2 2 2

x y 1
2 2
1.4 Parametric Equations

Find a parametrization for the line segment with endpoints


(2,1) and (-4,5).

x = 2 + at y = 1 + bt Cartesian Equation
m = (5 1)/(-4 2) = -2/3
when t = 1, a = -6
when t = 1, b = 4 y = mx + b
1 = (-2/3)(2) + b
x = 2 6t and y = 1 + 4t b = 7/3
y = (-2/3)x + 7/3
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
A function is one-to-one if two domain values do
not have the same range value.
Algebraically, a function is one-to-one if
f (x1) f (x2) for all x1 x2.
Graphically, a function is one-to-one if its graph
passes the horizontal line test. That is, if any
horizontal line drawn through the graph of a
function crosses more than once, it is not one-to-
one.
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
To be one-to-one, a function must pass the horizontal line test as
well as the vertical line test.

1 3 1 2
y x y x x y2
2 2

one-to-one not one-to-one not a function


(also not one-to-one)
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
Determine if the following functions are one-to-one.
(a) f (x) = 1 + 3x 2x 4
(b) g(x) = cos x + 3x 2
x
e e
x
(c) h( x)
2

(d) f ( x) 5 x
1.5 Functions and Logarithms

The inverse of a one-to-one function is obtained


by exchanging the domain and range of the
function. The inverse of a one-to-one function f is
denoted with f -1.

Domain of f = Range of f -1 To prove functions are


Range of f = Domain of f -1 inverses show that
f 1(x) = y <=> f (y) = x f(f-1(x)) = f-1(f(x)) = x
1.5 Functions and Logarithms

To obtain the formula for the inverse of a


function, do the following:

1. Let f (x) = y.
2. Exchange y and x.
3. Solve for y.
4. Let y = f 1(x).
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
Given an x value, we can find a y value.
Inverse functions:
1 1
f x x 1 y x 1
2 2
Switch x and y:
1
x y 1
2 Inverse functions
Solve for y: are reflections about
1 y = x.
x 1 y y 2x 2
2
f 1 x 2 x 2
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
1
f x x 1
2
f 1
x 2x 2

Prove f(x) and f-1(x) are inverses.

1 1
f ( f ( x)) f (2 x 2) (2 x 2) 1 x 1 1 x
2

1 1 1 1
f ( f ( x)) f x 1 2 x 1 2 x 2 2 x
2 2
1.5 Functions and Logarithms

Determine the formula for the inverse of the


following one-to-one functions.
3x 1
(a) h( x )
x2
(b) f ( x ) 2 x 3 3

(c) g ( x) 3 x
1.5 Functions and Logarithms

You can obtain the graph of the inverse of a one-


to-one function by reflecting the graph of the
original function through the line y = x.
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
Sketch a graph of f (x) = 2x and sketch a graph of
its inverse. What is the domain and range of the
inverse of f.

Domain: (0, )
Range: (-, )
1.5 Functions and Logarithms

The inverse of an exponential function is called a


logarithmic function.

Definition: x = a y if and only if y = log a x


1.5 Functions and Logarithms
The function f (x) = log a x is called a logarithmic
function.
Domain: (0, )
Range: (-, )
Asymptote: x = 0
Increasing for a > 1
Decreasing for 0 < a < 1
Common Point: (1, 0)
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
Find the inverse of g(x) = 3x.
Definition: x = a y if and only if y = log a x

1
g ( x) log 3 x
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
1. log a (ax) = x for all x
2. alog ax = x for all x > 0
3. log a (xy) = log a x + log a y
4. log a (x/y) = log a x log a y
5. log a xn = n log a x
Common Logarithm: log 10 x = log x
Natural Logarithm: log e x = ln x
All the above properties hold.
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
The natural and common logarithms can be
found on your calculator. Logarithms of other
bases are not. You need the change of base
formula. log x
log a x b
log b a

where b is any other appropriate base.


1.5 Functions and Logarithms
$1000 is invested at 5.25 % interest compounded annually.
How long will it take to reach $2500?

1000 1.0525 2500


t

1.0525
t
2.5 We use logs when we have an
unknown exponent.
ln 1.0525 ln 2.5
t

17.9 years
t ln 1.0525 ln 2.5

ln 2.5 In real life you would have to


t 17.9 wait 18 years.
ln 1.0525
1.5 Functions and Logarithms
Example 7: Indonesian Oil Production (million barrels per year):

1960 20.56 Use the natural logarithm


1970 42.10 regression equation to estimate
oil production in 1982 and 2000.
1990 70.10

How do we know that a logarithmic equation is appropriate?

In real life, we would need more points or past experience.


1.5 Functions and Logarithms

1. Determine the exact value of log 8 2.


2. Determine the exact value of ln e 2.3.
3. Evaluate log 7.3 5 to four decimal places.
4. Write as a single logarithm: ln x + 2ln y 3ln z.
5. Solve 2x + 5 = 3 for x.
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
A

The Radian measure of angle ACB r


s
at the center of the unit circle equals
the length of the arc that ACB cuts C B
from the unit circle.

s
but for the unit circle, r 1
r
so s
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
terminal ray
y x y
sine: sin cosine: cos
r r P(x,y)
r
y x
tangent: tan cotangent: cot y x
x y
r r
cosecant: csc secant: sec x
y x initial ray
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
90
105 75

135
120 60
45
(2,/4)
150 30

165 15
(5,5 /6)
180 0
(4, 11/6)
195 345

210 330

225 315
(-4, /2)
240 300
255 270 285
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Let a point P have rectangular coordinates (x,y)
and polar coordinates (r,). Then

x r cos x y r
2 2 2

y r sin y
tan x 0
x
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
1 3 1 3
2 , 2
(0,1) ,
2 2 2 2
, 2 2 2
2 2 ,
2 2 60 1
3 1 30
3 1
, ,
2 2 3
2 2
2
45 1

(1,0) (1,0) 45
1
3 1 3 1
, ,
2 2 2 2
S A
2 2
2 2 ,
, 2 2
2 2


1 3
,
1 3
,
T C

2 2 (0,1) 2 2
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Even and Odd Trig Functions:
Even functions behave like polynomials with even exponents,
in that when you change the sign of x, the y value doesnt
change.

Cosine is an even function because: cos cos

Secant is also an even function, because it is the reciprocal of


cosine.

Even functions are symmetric about the y - axis.


1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Even and Odd Trig Functions:
Odd functions behave like polynomials with odd exponents,
in that when you change the sign of x, the sign of the y value
also changes.

Sine is an odd function because: sin sin

Cosecant, tangent and cotangent are also odd, because their


formulas contain the sine function.

Odd functions have origin symmetry.


1.6 Trigonometric Functions

Definition Periodic Function, Period

A function f(x) is periodic if there is a positive


number p such that f(x + p) = f(x)
for every value of x. The smallest
such value of p is the period of p.
1.6 Trigonometric Functions

Vertical stretch or shrink; Vertical shift


reflection about x-axis
Positive d moves up.
a 1 is a stretch.

y a f b x c d
Horizontal stretch or shrink; Horizontal shift
reflection about y-axis Positive c moves left.
b 1 is a shrink.
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
2
A is the f x A sin x C D
amplitude. B Vertical shift
B is the period. Horizontal shift
B

A C

2
D y 1.5sin x 1 2
4
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Let be the acute angle of a right triangle with sin = 3/5.
Find the exact values of the other five trig functions.
Show all your work.

y 3 r 5
sin csc
r 5 y 3 5
x 4 r 5 3
cos sec
r 5 x 4
y 3 x 4
tan cot 4
x 4 y 3
1.6 Trigonometric Functions

If sec 2 3 / 3 and sin 1 / 2


find the exact value of cot

3

x 3 -1
cot 3
y 1 2
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Find the amplitude, period, and frequency of the
simple harmonic motion.
3 t
y sin
4 2
2 2
Amplitude Period 4 Frequency
b
2
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Find the exact values without using a calculator:

(a) tan (11/6) (b) sec(-3/4) (c) cot (-5/3)

3 2 3

3 3
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Given that tan = 3/5, in quadrant III, -5
and cos = -1/2, in quadrant II, Find
(a) cos( - ) (b) sin 2 -3
34
(a) cos cos + sin sin

5 1 3 3 5 3 3 5 34 3 102 2

34 2 34 2 2 34 68 3

(b) sin 2 sin 2 = 2 sin cos -1
3 5 30 15
2
34 34 34 17
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Verify the identities. Show all your work.
cos x 1 1 tan 4 x
(a) cot x csc x (b) sec 2 x 1 tan 2
x
sin x

cos x 1 cos x 1 (1 tan 2 x)(1 tan 2 x)


1 tan 2
x
sin x sin x sin x 1 tan x
2

(c) sin( + x) = -sin x

sin cos x + sin x cos


0 cos x + sin x (-1) = -sin x
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Find the exact values without using a calculator.

1 3
(a) cos 1 (b) tan
1
(c) sec-1 (2)
2 3

120 240 150 330 60 300


1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Find the exact values without a calculator.
1 4
(a) sin tan 3
1 (b) cos 2 sin (c) tan(sec-1x)
5 5
x
34 5
3 4 x2 1

5 3
1

3 3 34 cos 2 =cos2 - sin2 x2 1



34 34 9 16 7

25 25 25
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Solve each equation for exact solutions in the interval [0,2).

(a) cos2 x 1 = 0 (b) 2 cos2 x + 1 = -3 cos x


cos2 x = +1 2 cos2 x + 3 cos x+ 1 = 0
cos x = 1 or cos x = -1 (2cos x + 1)(cos x + 1) = 0
x = 0, x = x = 2/3, 4/3 x =

(c) sin2x = 0
2sin x cos x = 0
sin x = 0 or cos x = 0
x = 0, /2, ,3/2
1.6 Trigonometric Functions
Solve each equation for exact solutions in the interval [0,2).

(a) tan x sin x sin x = 0 (b) 2cos x sin x - cos x = 0


sin x(tan x 1) = 0 cos x(2sin x 1) = 0
sin x= 0 or tan x 1 = 0 cos x = 0 or 2 sin x 1 = 0
x = 0, x = /4, 5/4 x = /2, 3/2 or sin x =
x = /6, 5/6
(c) tan2 x = 3
tan x 3
x = /3, 2/3 4/3 5/3
0 1 0 1
1/2 3 /2 3 /3 2 2 3 /3 3
2 /2 2 /2 1 2 2 1
1/2 3 2
3 /2 3 /3 2 3 /3
1 0 1 0
3 /2 1/2
3 2 3 /3 2 3 /3
2 /2 1 2 2
2 /2 1
1/2 3 /2 3 /3 2 2 3 /3 3
0 1 0 1
1/2 3 /2 3 /3 2 2 3 / 3 3

2 /2 2 /2 1 2 2 1
3 /2
1/2 3 2 3 /3 2 3 /3
1 0 1
0

3 /2 1/2 3 2 3 /3 2 3 / 3
2 /2 2 /2
2 2
1 1
3 /3 2 23 / 3 3
1/2 3 /2
1
0 1 0