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Historical

evolution of
management
The historical
evolution of
management
The driving force behind the
evolution of management is the
search for better ways to use
organizational resources:
Efficiently
Effectively
Organizations have been shaped
and reshaped for years

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The historical
evolution of
management
Organized activity has existed for
thousands of years, but it was not
until around the turn of the 20th
century that the term
"management" came into
common usage

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The historical
evolution of
management
Early organized activities
1. The great wall of china built between
446 B.C and 223 B.C is an example of
such organized activities

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The great wall of
china

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Egyptian
civilization and the
building of the
pyramids

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The historical
evolution of
management
3. The Roman civilization
characterized by:
highly organized and well led
armies that exercised control
over enormous empires

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The historical
evolution of
management
4. The Greek and Phoenician
civilizations where organized
trade thrived

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The historical
evolution of
management
5. Late 18th century Industrial
Revolution :
Machines substituting human labour
Mass production
Rapid expansion of organizations into
large scale businesses
. All this required both organized
and professional management
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The historical
evolution of
management
This gave rise to a need for
management theories to guide
those managing these
organizations
Hence the emergence and the
evolution of management theories
(also known as approaches or
schools of thought)

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The theories of
management
Esther mbugua

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The theories of
management
1. Classical Theories
. Scientific management theories
. Administrative theories of
management Behavioral (Human
relations )theories
2. Neo- Classical Theories
. Behavioral (Human relations )
theories of management

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The theories of
management
3. Cotemporary management
theories
. Management science theories
. Organizational environment
theories theories

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The Evolution of Management
Theory

Figure 2.1
BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-
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Scientific
management theory
Fredrick Taylor (1856-1915)
Father of scientific management
developed Taylor model.
i. Each job should be divided into
small well controlled tasks
ii. There should be specific
procedures for each task
iii. The procedures must be followed
with no exceptions.

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Scientific
management theory

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Scientific
management theory
Others who supported Scientific
management were
i. Henri Gantt Gantt chart
ii. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth in
their time and motion studies
. To date, scientific management
approach is applied to many
tasks.

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Scientific
management theories

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Scientific
management theories
1. Conclusion
. Application of Scientific
management theory enabled
managers to:
. Shortened the time it took to do a
task,
. Reduce fatigue on the worker
. Increase productivity
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Administrative theories

Esther mbugua

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Administrative
theories
The Administrative theories grew
out of the need to find guidelines
for managing complex
organizations as factories.
i. Henri Fayol (18411925) the
father of the classical
management school of thought

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Administrative
theories
a. He identified the five functions of
management. Planning,
organizing, directing, staffing and
controlling
b. He also came up with 14
principles that needed to be
applied insisting that
management was a skill that
could be learnt.
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Administrative
theories
1. Division of Labor - specialization
2. Authority the right to make
decisions on how to accomplish the
task.
3. Discipline Respect for rules
4. Unity of Command each
employee to receive instructions
from only one person
5. Unity of Direction- all activities
with one objective to be under
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one
Administrative
theories
6. Subordination -of Individual
Interest to the Common Good
7. Remuneration -Fair
Compensation for work done
8. Centralization of decision
making
9. The Hierarchy- Respect for the
chain of command

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Administrative
theories

10.Order. All inputs to be in the right


place at the right time, and the
right people to be on the right jobs
11.Equity. Managers should be both
friendly and fair to subordinates
12.Stability of Staf-To avoid a high
employee turnover as it undermines
the efficient functioning of an
organization.
Administrative
theories
13.Initiative- Subordinates should
be given the freedom to conceive
and carry out their plans, even
though some mistakes may
result.
14.Espirit de Corps-Promoting
team spirit in order to give the
organization a sense of unity.

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Administrative
theories
Others who supported
Administrative management
theories were:
i. Max Weber- Bureaucracy
Theory with 6 principles

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Administrative
theories
1. Division of labour
2. Authority hierarchy (clear chain
of command)
3. Formal selection of employees
4. Formal rules and regulations
5. Impersonality
6. Career orientation

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Authority hierarchy

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Administrative
theories
iii.Mary Parker Follett's
administrative approach which
was more people oriented
iv. Chester Barnard people
come together to achieve what
they cannot achieve alone

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Discussion Questions
1. Based on your experience at work
or school, describe some ways in
which the principles of scientific
management and Administrative
theories are still used in
organizations.
2. Do you believe these
characteristics will ever cease
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Scientific
management theory
2. Today, managers use
scientific management by:
i. Carrying out job analysis and
design
ii. Hiring the best-qualified workers
for a job (specialized)
iii. Using output based pay systems

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How do todays managers use
the administrative theory
i. A managers job is based on
Fayol's functions of management
ii. The 14 principles serve as a
reference from which many
current management concepts
have evolved.

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i. Webers bureaucracy theory led
to the formulation of organization
charts
ii. It also helps ensure that
resources are used efficiently
and effectively.

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Behavioral/Human
relations
theories
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Behavioral / Human
relations theories
The behavioral theory emerged
because:
i. There was increased interest in
the "people factor" in the
organizations
ii. There was concern that the
earlier theories ignored the
human side of the organization

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Behavioral / Human
relations theories
Elton Mayo the most famous
scholar of behavioral theory,
carried out some experiments at
Hawthorne. (1920-1930)
Studies looked at how the
characteristics of the work setting
affected performance

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Behavioral / Human
relations theories
The experiments involved:
i. dividing the workers into groups
ii. Varying the working conditions such
as:
Lighting
Heating
Other physical conditions
Rest periods
Supervision
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Behavioral / Human
relations theories
Findings
i. Productivity increased when people
worked in groups
ii. Productivity still increased even
when the working conditions
worsened
iii. There seemed to be something else
that influenced productivity apart
from the working conditions
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Behavioral / Human
relations theories

Conclusion
People were more productive when they
worked in groups Why?

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Behavioral / Human
relations theories

i.They receive support from peers


and colleagues
ii.The social relations with in the
group that gave them group pride
iii.The special attention that the
groups were receiving
(supervision)
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Behavioral / Human
relations theories

iv. Comradeship, and shared enthusiasm


fostered devotion hence they gave
each other moral support when
things are bad

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Behavioral / Human
relations theories

Implications today
i. The increased use of teams at
work
ii. Managers being trained on how to
manage their subordinates
( people skills)
iii. Increased attention on Human
Relations Management
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Behavioral / Human
relations theories
2. Abraham Maslow (1954) a
behavioral scientist advanced the
theory that human behavior is
driven by a hierarchy of needs
. Management at work should
support the satisfaction of these
needs

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Behavioral / Human
relations theories

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Behavioral / Human
relations theories
Question for discussion
i. How can each of the five levels of
needs be fulfilled in a work setting?

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Behavioral / Human
relations theories

3. Douglas McGregor Came up


with a two factor theory: X and Y
. Theory X assumes employees are
inherently lazy and will avoid work
if they can and that they inherently
dislike work.
. They need to be closely supervised
with a comprehensive systems
rewards and punishment 47
Behavioral / Human
relations theories

Theory Y assumes that employees


are ambitious and self-motivated and
self-controlled.
They enjoy their mental and physical
work and they possess the ability for
creative problem solving at work.
Theory X has been linked to Maslow's
lower level needs while theory Y has
been linked to the higher level needs
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Theory X vs. Theory Y

Figure 2.3
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Contemporary
theories
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1. Management
science theories

i. Quantitative theory
ii.Total quality
management
iii.Management
information systems
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Quantitative theory

The quantitative theory involves


the use of quantitative techniques,
such as:
Statistics,
Information models
Computer simulations
To help management in making
decisions by:
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Quantitative theory

i. Presenting various scenarios


ii. Enabling the calculation of risk
and benefit of the various
scenarios

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Total Quality
Management (TQM)

A concept of the 1990s that


focuses on the total organization to
deliver product / service quality to
customers
The TQM advocates were;
Joseph Juran
Edward Deming
Kaoru Ishikawa
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Total Quality
Management (TQM)

The theory analyzes the:


Inputs,
The conversion processes.
Outputs
The theory has four significant
elements
1.Employee involvement All
employees to be involved in
quality management 55
Total Quality
Management (TQM)

2. Customer focus Everything starts


and ends with the customer
(customer is king)
3. Bench marking Bench mark your
self against others who may be
better than you
4. Continuous improvement
Small incremental improvements
(there is always room for 56
improvement)
Quality
measurement
attributes
Afordability Beauty
Durability Hardiness
Reliability Serviceability
Efectiveness Availability
Efficiency Versatility
Safety Timeliness
User friendly Disposability
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Total Quality
Management (TQM)
Sara goes to bed extremely late every
night and this has an effect on her
school performance. Help solve Saras
problem using Kaoru Ishikawa courses
and effects diagram

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Management
Information
Systems (MIS)
This is the use of information
technology to carry out the
functions of management.
MIS provides information vital for
effective decision making.

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2. Organizational
environment
theories
i. Systems theory
ii. Contingency (situational)
theory
iii.Chaos theory
iv.Team building theory

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i. Systems theory

The theory views the organization a


system (a set of interrelated
elements functioning together as a
whole)
It gets inputs from the environment
It converts those inputs into out puts
It discharges those outputs to the
environment
Management involves nurturing these
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relationships
Systems theory

Inputs Conversion Outputs

People Manageme Products


Resource nt Services
s functions Ideas
Informati Key Waste
on business
activities

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ii. Contingency
Theory
According to this theory there is no one
best way to manage
The management structures should fit
the characteristics of the situation.
It recognizes that organizations face
different situations at different times
If this is the way my situation is, then
this is the best way for me to manage.

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ii. Contingency
Theory

Managing an army
Managing a Church
Managing a political party
Managing a commercial
organization
Managing a hospital
Managing a university
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iii. Chaos Theory
Advocated by Tom Peters
Just as there are chaotic and
random global events, so are
there equally chaotic events in
organizations.
Yet the assumption of many
theories have been that
organizational events can always
be controlled
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iii. Chaos Theory
The theory recognizes that events
can rarely be controlled given the
turbulence of the environment.
Managers must look for ways of
managing this transformation
from order to disorder to avoid
organizations being torn apart

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iv. Team building
theory
This theory emphasizes on team
work at all levels of decision
making

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References

1. Richard L Daft - New era of management


2. Robins DeCenzo Fundamentals of
management
3. Dr. Yasin Olum- Modern management
theories and practice
4. Dr. M. Thenmozhi Evolution of
management theory
5. Jones George Contemporary
management

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