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CHAPTER 5

CHEMICAL BONDS
WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS
CHAPTER..
Explaining the stability of inert gas

Explaining the conditions for the formation of


chemical bonds.

Explaining the formation of ions and ionic bonds.

Stating the meaning of covalent bonds and


explaining its formation.

Comparing and contrasting the formation of ionic


and covalent bonds.
WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS
CHAPTER..
Listing the properties of ionic and covalent
compounds.

Explaining the differences in the electrical


conductivity of ionic and covalent compounds.

Describing the differences in the melting and boiling


points of ionic and covalent compounds.

Comparing and constructing the solubility of ionic


and covalent compounds.

Stating the uses of covalent compounds as solvents.


Chemical
bonds

Condition Properties Uses of the


for the Formation of ionic and covalent
formation of ionic covalent compound
of chemical bonds compounds as solvents
bonds
Formation
of covalent
bonds
CHEMICAL BONDS
5.1 Formation of compounds

5.2 Formation of ionic bonds


LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Explain the stability of inert gases.
Explain the conditions for the formation of the
chemical bonds.
State the type of chemical bonds.

Explain the formation of ions.

Write electron arrangements for the ions formed.

Explain and illustrate the formation of ionic


bonds.
Illustration electron arrangement of an ionic
bond.
5.1 FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS
Very few elements exist naturally as free
elements
Only elements such as: gold, diamond, silver and
noble gas exist naturally as free elements.
Other elements exist in the form of compound
(H2O, CO2, CH4).
Most mineral on the earths crust exist in the
form of oxides, sulphides, carbonates and
silicates. (bauxite or aluminium oxide, Al2O3,
magnesium carbonate, MgCO2)
5.1 FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS
Elements tend to combine with each other to
form compound naturally.
Because the compounds formed are more stable
than the free elements.
There are two types of chemical bonds:

I. Ionic bonds
II. Covalent bonds
THE STABILITY OF NOBLE GAS
The noble gas of group 18 = stable, inert,
inreactive
Element Symbol Electron
Arrangement
Helium He 2
Neon Ne ?
Argon Ar 2.8.8
Do not donate or receive electron, as their valence
shell are full (achieve duplet or octet)
Will not form compounds or molecules. Are
chemically unreactive and exist as monatomic
gases.
FORMATION OF CHEMICAL BONDS
Other than noble gas, other elements can combine
among themselves or with atoms of another
elements through the formation of chemical bonds
To achieve stable noble gas electron arrangement.

Conditions for the formation of chemical bonds:

I. Electron in completely filled shells do not take


part in bond formation
II. Only valence electron are involved.

III. The combining atoms will change their electron


arrangement to achieve duplet or octet electron
arrangement.
FORMATION OF CHEMICAL BONDS
There are two ways for the atoms to achieve
stable electron arrangement:

a. Transferring electrons (Ionic bond)

b. Sharing electrons (Covalent bond)


IONIC BONDS
Formed when a metal combine with a non-metal
to produce a compound.
Metal + Non-metal = ionic compound

Ionic bond formed through the transfer of


electrons from the metals atom to the non-metal
atoms.
Metal atom lose their valence electrons to achieve
a stable noble gas arrangement.
Thus, positively charged ions are formed.

M Mx+ + xe-
(metal atom) (positively charged ion)
IONIC BONDS
The non-metal atoms accept the electrons
donated by the metal atoms to achieve stable
noble gas electron arrangement.
Thus, negatively charged ions are formed.

Q + ne- Qn-
(Non-metal atom) (Negatively charged ions)
Opposite charged ion are attracted by strong
electrostatic forces which is called ionic bond.
Metal atom electron Non-metal atom
transfer
donates accepts
electrons electrons

Positive Ionic Bond Negative


ion (Strong ion
electrostatic
forces attraction)
FORMATION OF THE IONIC BOND
Donate electron
Group 1 ( Metal atom)

Li Li

Li (2.1) Li+ (2)


neutral Positively charged (cation)
No. proton = No. electron No. proton > No. electron
Proton = +3 Proton = +3
Electron = -3 Electron = -2 (lose 1e-)
Charged = 0 Charged = +1
Donate electron

Group 2 ( Metal atom)

Mg Mg

Mg(2.8.2) Mg2+ (2.8)

neutral Positively charged (cation)

No. proton = No. electron No. proton > No. electron

Proton = +12 Proton = +12


Electron = -12 Electron = -10 (lose 2e-)
Charged = 0 Charged = +2
Receive electron
Group 17 ( Non-metal atom)

F F

F (2.7) F- (2.8)

neutral Negatively charged (anion)

No. proton = No. electron No. electron > No. proton

Proton = +9 Proton = +9
Electron = -9 Electron = -10 (gain 1e-)
Charged = 0 Charged = -1
Receive electron

Group 16 ( Non-metal atom)

O O

O (2.6) O2- (2.8)

neutral Negatively charged (anion)

No. proton = No. electron No. electron > No. proton

Proton = +8 Proton = +8
Electron = -8 Electron = -10 (gain 2e-)
Charged = 0 Charged = -2
Positively Ion Negatively Ion
(Such as Na+ ) (Such as Cl- )
Cation Anion

Positive Negative

Group 1, 2, 13 Group 15, 16,17

Metal Non- metal

Donate Electron Receive electron

No. proton > No. electron No. proton < No. electron

Electron arrangement stable Electron arrangement stable


IONIC BOND Transfer electron

Sodium atom Chlorine atom


(2.8.1) (2.8.7)
Metal Non-metal
Donate Electron Receive electron

Sodium ion Chlorine ion


(2.8) (2.8.8)
Cation Anion

Held together by electrostatic forces


IONIC BOND
Transfer electron Transfer electron

Held together by electrostatic forces


EXERCISE
1. Draw the figure of electron arrangement for
following compound:
a) MgO
b) CaCl2
c) KCl
d) CaS
IONIC BOND

Transfer electron

Transfer electron
O
[ ] +
[ ] -
SODIUM METAL+ CHLORINE GAS=
TABLE SALT

+
Molecule
H 2O NH3 CH4

Number of each
kind of atom in O = 1 N=1 C=1
molecule H=2 H=3 H=4
Valence
electrons for O=6 N=5 C=4
each atom H=1 H=1 H=1

Total number
O=1x6=6 N = 1 x 5 = 5 C = 1 x 4 = 4
of valence
H=2x1=2 H=3x1=3 H=4x1=4
electrons
6+2=8 5+3=8 4+4=8
Skeleton
Structure
Arrangement of
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