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LTE/SAE Overview

LTE/SAE Fundamentals Course

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1 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
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2 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Module Objectives
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:

Understand the reasons driving to the LTE/SAE project.


List the LTE/SAE main requirements.
Discuss the future of wireless communications.
Compare LTE/SAE capabilities with other mobile technologies.
Review the 3GPP specification work concerning LTE/SAE.
Identify the major steps in the Network Architecture Evolution
towards an LTE/SAE network.
Underline the LTE/SAE key features.
Briefly explain the basics of the LTE Air Interface.
Name the Standardisation bodies around LTE/SAE.
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3 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work done and scheduled
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
LTE Summary

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4 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work done and scheduled
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
LTE Summary

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5 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
A little bit of History
New technologies developed in the last 15
years in telecommunication brought available
transmission rates to a total new level.
Two systems have affected the life of nearly
everyone:
mobile communication via 2G network
like GSM
Wired & wireless data connectivity
(xDSL & WLAN IEEE 802.11/a/b/g
standards)
3G networks the first step towards a
convergence between both networks

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6 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
The way to LTE: 3 main 3G limitations

1.- The maximum bit rates still are factor of 20 and more
behind the current state of the art systems like 802.11n and
802.16e/m. Even the support for higher mobility levels is not an
excuse for this.

2.- The latency of user plane traffic (UMTS: >30 ms) and of
resource assignment procedures (UMTS: >100 ms) is too big
to handle traffic with high bit rate variance efficiently.

3.- The terminal complexity for WCDMA or MC-CDMA systems


is quite high, making equipment expensive, resulting in poor
performing implementations of receivers and inhibiting the
implementation of other performance enhancements.

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7 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
The way to the Long-Term Evolution (LTE): a 3GPP
driven initiative
LTE is 3GPP system for the years 2010 to 2020 and
beyond.
It shall especially compete with WiMAX 802.16e/m
It must keep the support for high and highest
mobility users like in GSM/UMTS networks
The architectural changes are big compared to
UMTS
LTE shall be ready for commercial launch around
2010.

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8 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
What are the LTE challenges?
The Users expectation ..leads to the operators challenges
Best price, transparent flat rate reduce cost per bit
Full Internet provide high data rate
Click-bang responsiveness provide low latency

User experience will have an Price per Mbyte has to be reduced


impact on ARPU to remain profitable

Throughput Latency
Cost per MByte
Fa
10

ct
or
r
cto

2-3
Fa

HSPA LTE HSPA LTE UMTS HSPA I-HSPA LTE

LTE: lower cost per bit and improved end user experience
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9 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Reduction of network cost is necessary to remain
profitable
Revenues and Traffic
decoupled
Traffic
Traffic volume

Revenue

/bit
Profitability

Network
cost

Time
Voice Data
dominated dominated

Source: Light Reading (adapted)


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10 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work done and scheduled
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
LTE Summary

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11 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
LTE = Long Term Evolution

Next step for


GSM/WCDMA/HSPA A true global roaming technology
and CDMA

Peak data rates of 173


Mbps/58 Mbps
Enhanced consumer experience
Low latency 10-20 ms

Scalable bandwidth of Easy to introduce on any


1.4 20 MHz frequency band

OFDM technology
Decreased cost / GB
Flat, scalable IP based
architecture
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12 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Schedule for 3GPP releases

Next step for


GSM/WCDMA/HSPA A true global roaming technology
and cdma2000
Specification:
MBMS IMS Evolution LTE & EPC
IMS WLAN IW LTE Studies
HSDPA HSUPA
UMTS Rel 99/4 UMTS Rel 5 UMTS Rel 6 UMTS Rel 7 UMTS Rel 8

2000 2003 2005 2007 2008 2009 year

LTE have been developed by the same standardization organization. The target has been
simple multimode implementation and backwards compatibility.
HSPA and LTE have in common:
Sampling rate using the same clocking frequency
Same kind of Turbo coding
The harmonization of these parameters is important as sampling and Turbo decoding are
typically done on hardware due to high processing requirements.
WiMAX and LTE do not have such harmonization.
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13 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Comparison of Throughput and Latency (1/2)
Peak data rates of Enhanced consumer experience:
173 Mbps/58 Mbps - drives subscriber uptake
- allow for new applications
Low latency 10-20 - provide additional revenue streams
ms
Max. peak data rate
350

300
Downlink
250 Uplink
Mbps

200 Latency (Rountrip delay)*


150 GSM/
EDGE
100

50 HSPA
Rel6
0
HSPA R6 Evolved HSPA LTE 2x20 MHz LTE 2x20 HSPAevo
(Rel. 7/8, 2x2 (2x2 MIMO) MHz (4x4 (Rel8)
MIMO) MIMO)

LTE
min max

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 ms

DSL (~20-50 ms, depending on operator)


* Server near RAN

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14 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Comparison of Throughput and Latency (2/2)
Enhanced consumer experience:
- drives subscriber uptake
Control plane latency
<100 ms - allow for new applications
- provide additional revenue streams

ACTIVE
IDLE
(no resources)

Resource
No resource
Allocated

< 100 ms < 50 ms

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15 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Scalable Bandwidth
Scalable bandwidth
Easy to introduce on any
Scalable bandwidth frequency band: Frequency
of 1.4 20 MHz Refarming
(Cost efficient deployment on lower
frequency bands supported)
Urban
2.6 GHz LTE
2.1 GHz UMTS
or
2.6 GHz LTE
LTE
2.1 GHz UMTS

2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020

Rural
900 MHz GSM UMTS
LTE
or

900 MHz GSM LTE

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2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020
16 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Increased Spectral Efficiency
OFDMA technology LTE efficiency is 3 x HSPA R6 in
downlink
increases Spectral HSPA R7 and WiMAX have Similar
efficiency Spectral Efficiency

All cases assume 2-antenna terminal reception


HSPA R7, WiMAX and LTE assume 2-antenna BTS transmission (2x2 MIMO)

ITU contribution from


WiMAX Forum shows
downlink 1.3 and uplink 0.8
bps/Hz/cell

Reference:
- HSPA R6 and LTE R8 from 3GPP R1-071960
- HSPA R6 equalizer from 3GPP R1-063335
- HSPA R7 and WiMAX from NSN/Nokia
simulations

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17 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Reduced Network Complexity

Flat, scalable IP based Flat Architecture: 2 nodes architecture


architecture IP based Interfaces

Flat, IP based architecture

Access Core Control

MME IMS HLR/HSS

Internet

Evolved Node B Gateway

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18 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Requirements Summary
1.- Simplify the RAN:
- Reduce the number of different types of RAN nodes, and their
complexity.
- Minimize the number of RAN interface types.
2.- Increase throughput.
3.- Reduce latency (which is a prerequisite for CS replacement).
4.- Improve spectrum efficiency.
5.- Provide greater flexibility with regard to the frequency bands in which the
system may be deployed (Frequency Refarming)
6.- Migrate to a PS only domain in the core network.
7.- Provide efficient support for a variety of different services. Traditional CS
services will be supported via VoIP, etc.
8.- Minimise the presence of single points of failure in the network above
the evolved Node Bs (eNBs).
9.- Support inter-working with existing 3G systems and non-3GPP specified
systems in order to support handover to/from these systems.
A more detailed list of the requirements and objectives for LTE can be found
in TR25.913 from 3GPP.

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19 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work done and scheduled
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
LTE Summary

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20 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
History and Future of Wireless

1990 2000 2005 2010


mobility
time

HSPA LTE
WCDMA/cdma2000
HIGH GSM/IS95 3G 3G Enhacements 3G Evolution
AMPS 2G
1G
WiMAX Family

802.16a/d 802.16e
LOW

WLAN Family
802.11 802.11a/b/g 802.11n
data rates

< 200 kbps < 1 Mbps < 10 Mbps < 50 Mbps < 100 Mbps < 1 Gbps

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21 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
WiMAX and HSPA/LTE Technology Positioning
Spectrum
Licenced
Licenced HSPA/LTE
HSPA/LTE
HSPA for paired FDD spectrum FDD
FDDband
band
LTE initially for paired FDD
spectrum Licenced
WiMAX initially for unpaired TDD Licenced WiMAX
TDD WiMAX
spectrum TDDband
band

Interworking
Tight interworking between 3GPP
technologies (HSPA, LTE) including
common network management and
handovers GSM
Loose interworking between 3GPP WCDMA
and WiMAX LTE

Terminals and services


LTE terminals include GSM/HSPA for full coverage
WiMAX/LTE initially in USB modems and embedded
in laptops while GSM/HSPA supports also CS voice
HSPA/LTE/WiMAX for broadband IP services

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22 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Different Mobile Technologies Capability Limits

WCDMA HSPA R7 WiMAX TDD LTE R8 FDD WLAN


HSPA R6 (HSPA+) 20 MHz 2x20 MHz 802.11g/n
Theoretical peak bit rate in 160 / 50 54 Mbps
ideal case DL/UL 14 / 5 Mbps 42 / 11 Mbps 80 / 16 Mbps Mbps 260Mbps

Latency (round trip) 50 ms 30 ms 30 ms 10 ms <5 ms

Spectral efficiency data


0.7 / 0.4 1.4 / 0.6 1.5 / 0.6 2.1 / 0.9 <0.51.0
DL/UL [bps/Hz/cell]
Spectral efficiency voice 1823 30 18 4555 12
[users/MHz/cell]

Max path loss 1 Mbps / 64 kbps 162 dB 162 dB 153 dB 162 dB 110 dB

Spectrum IMT-2000 bands IMT-2000 bands 2300, 2500, 3500 IMT-2000 bands 2400, 5400

Cell range in urban area 2.87.4 km 2.87.4 km 0.61.5 km 2.87.4 km 30100 m


(indoor outdoor)

All radio standards show comparable performance under comparable conditions and similar feature set:
Laws of physics apply to all of them (Shannon Theory)
User rates mainly depend on bandwidth, modulation/coding and availability of MIMO (2x2 assumed)
Spectrum Efficiency is determined by Frequency Reuse and Feature Set (e.g. FSPS, MIMO, )
Latency (e.g. PING Performance) depends on chosen Frame Duration or TTI
Coverage depends on frequency band, RF power limitations and duplex mode
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23 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work done and scheduled
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
LTE Summary

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24 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
3GPP LTE specification work completed so far
End 2004 3GPP workshop on UTRAN Long Term Evolution
March 2005 Study item started
December 2005 Multiple Access selected
March 2006 Functionality split between radio and core
September 2006 Study item closed & approval of the work items
December 2007 1st version of all radio specs approved
March 2008 3GPP Release 8 Stage 1 specifications were frozen
December 2008 3GPP Release 8 to be frozen

2H/2005 1H/2006 2H/2006 1H/2007 2H/2007


FEASIBILITY STUDY

Radio
Multiple Access RAN/CN Feasibility study
specifications
Decision functional split closed
Japan approved

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25 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
3GPP LTE specification schedule

2008 2009 2010 2011 & beyond

Operator Trials. Large Scale LTE Networks.


Demonstrate LTE LTE Networks
Friendly-use Launch: VoIP service optimized.
Air Interface
Japan networks commercial
Performance 3GPP R9
solution available

2009 2100 and 1700 MHz frequency bands selected


2010 Additional frequency bands added (700 & 2600 MHz). Inter
RAT Mobility. LTE capable devices.
2011 Network Sharing. Self-optimized networks. Part of 3GPP
Release 9.

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26 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work done and scheduled
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
LTE Summary

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27 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
NSN Network Architecture Evolution (1/4)
3GPP Rel 6 / HSPA
Internet
Node B RNC SGSN GGSN

User plane
Control Plane

Original 3G architecture.
2 nodes in the RAN.
2 nodes in the PS Core Network.
Every Node introduces additional delay.
Common path for User plane and Control plane data.
Air interface based on WCDMA.
RAN interfaces based on ATM.
Option for Iu-PS interface to be based on IP.
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28 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
NSN Network Architecture Evolution (2/4)

3GPP Rel 7 / HSPA SGSN


GGSN
Internet
Node B RNC Direct tunnel
User plane
Control Plane

Separated path for Control Plane and User Plane data in the PS
Core Network.
Direct GTP tunnel from the GGSN to the RNC for User plane data:
simplifies the Core Network and reduces Signalling.
First step towards a flat network Architecture.
30% core network OPEX and CAPEX savings with Direct Tunnel.
The SGSN still controls traffic plane handling, performs session and
mobility management, and manages paging.
Still 2 nodes in the RAN.
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29 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
NSN Network Architecture Evolution (3/4)

3GPP Rel 7 / Internet HSPA SGSN


GGSN
Internet
Node B
Direct tunnel
(RNC Funct.) User plane
Control Plane

I-HSPA introduces the first true flat architecture to WCDMA.


Standardized in 3GPP Release 7 as Direct Tunnel with collapsed
RNC.
Most part of the RNC functionalities are moved to the Node B.
Direct Tunnels runs now from the GGSN to the Node B.
Solution for cost-efficient broadband wireless access.
Improves the delay performance (less node in RAN).
Deployable with existing NSN WCDMA base stations.
Transmission savings
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30 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
NSN Network Architecture Evolution (4/4)
MME
3GPP Rel 8 / LTE
SAE GW
Internet
Evolved Node B
Direct tunnel
User plane
Control Plane

LTE takes the same Flat architecture from Internet HSPA.


Air interface based on OFDMA.
All-IP network.
New spectrum allocation (i.e 2600 MHz band)
Possibility to reuse spectrum (i.e. 900 MHZ)

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31 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
NSN Network Architecture Evolution - Summary
3GPP Rel 6 / HSPA
Internet
Node B RNC SGSN GGSN

3GPP Rel 7 / HSPA SGSN


GGSN
Internet
Node B RNC Direct tunnel

3GPP Rel 7 / Internet HSPA SGSN


GGSN
Internet
Node B
Direct tunnel
(RNC Funct.)
MME
3GPP Rel 8 / LTE
SAE GW
Internet
Evolved Node B
Direct tunnel
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32 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work done and scheduled
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
LTE Summary

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33 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Key Features
EPS ( Evolved Packet System ) /
SAE ( System Architecture Evolution ) /
LTE ( Long Term Evolution )
IP Network
EUTRAN
EPC ( Evolved Packet Core )
( Evolved UTRAN )
IP Network

IP Network

OFDMA/SC-FDMA
MIMO ( beam-forming/ Evolved Node B / PS Domain only,
spatial multiplexing) No RNC No CS Domain
HARQ IP Transport Layer IP Transport Layer

Scalable bandwidth UL/DL resource QoS Aware


(1.4, 3, 5, 10, .. 20 MHz) scheduling
3GPP (GTP) or
QoS Aware IETF (MIPv6)
Self Configuration Prepared for
Non-3GPP Access
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34 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Key Features EUTRAN 1/2

Evolved NodeB
No RNC is provided anymore
The evolved Node Bs take over all radio management functionality.
This will make radio management faster and hopefully the network
architecture simpler

IP transport layer
EUTRAN exclusively uses IP as transport layer

UL/DL resource scheduling


In UMTS physical resources are either shared or dedicated
Evolved Node B handles all physical resource via a scheduler and assigns
them dynamically to users and channels
This provides greater flexibility than the older system

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35 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Key Features EUTRAN 2/2

QoS awareness
The scheduler must handle and distinguish different quality of service
classes
Otherwise real time services would not be possible via EUTRAN
The system provides the possibility for differentiated services

Self configuration
Currently under investigation
Possibility to let Evolved Node Bs configure themselves
It will not completely substitute the manual configuration and optimization.

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36 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Key Features EPC (Evolved Packet Core)

Packet Switched Domain only


No circuit switched domain is provided
If CS applications are required, they must be implemented via IP
Only one mobility management for the UE in LTE.

3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option


The EPC can be based either on 3GPP GTP protocols (similar to PS
domain in UMTS/GPRS) or on IETF Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)

Non-3GPP access
The EPC will be prepared also to be used by non-3GPP access networks
(e.g. LAN, WLAN, WiMAX, etc.)
This will provide true convergence of different packet radio access system

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37 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work done and scheduled
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
LTE Summary

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38 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Multiple Access Methods User 1 User 2 User 3 User ..

TDMA FDMA CDMA OFDMA


Time Division Frequency Division Code Division Frequency Division
Orthogonal subcarriers

f f f f

e s
d
t t co t t

f f f f

OFDM is the state-of-the-art and most efficient and robust air interface

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39 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Air Interface 1/3

OFDMA
Downlink multiplexing
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Acces
Receiver complexity is at a reasonable level
it supports various modulation schemes from BPSK, QPSK,
16QAM to 64 QAM.

SC-FDMA 64QAM
Modulation
Uplink multiplexing
Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access, a variant
of OFDMA
The advantage against OFDMA to have a lower PAPR
(Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) meaning less power
consumption and less expensive RF amplifiers in the
terminal.

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40 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Air Interface 2/3

MIMO
Multiple Input Multiple Output TX RX
LTE will support MIMO as an option,
It describes the possibility to have multiple transmitter MIMO
and receiver antennas in a system. Tx Channel Rx
Up to four antennas can be used by a single LTE cell
(gain: spatial multiplexing)
MIMO is considered to be the core technology to increase
spectral efficiency.
HARQ Hybrid
Automatic
HARQ Repeat Request
Hybrid Automatic Retransmission on reQuest
HARQ has already been used for HSDPA and HSUPA.
HARQ especially increases the performance (delay and
throughput) for cell edge users.
HARQ simply implements a retransmission protocol on
layer 1/layer 2 that allows to send retransmitted blocks
with different coding than the first one.

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41 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Air Interface 3/3

Scalable bandwidth
LTE air interface allows to drive cells with
scalable
1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5 MHz, 10MHz & 20 MHz.
This gives the required flexibility for
operators to use spectrum allocations not
available to a non-scalable wide-band or
ultra-wide-band system. DL: OFDMA
UL: SC-FDMA

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42 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Requirements for LTE Air Interface
OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)

HSDPA (Rel6) Target SAE/LTE

Peak Bit Rate 14.4 > 100 144


(Mbps)
Spectral 0.75 3..4 times 1.84
Efficiency HSDPA
(bps/Hz/cell)

DOWNLINK

UPLINK

SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access)

HSUPA (Rel6) Target SAE/LTE

Peak Bit Rate 5.67 > 50 57


(Mbps)
Spectral 0.26 2..3 times 0.67
Efficiency HSUPA
(bps/Hz/cell)

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SC-FDMA is technically close to OFDMA, but is more power efficient
43 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work done and scheduled
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
LTE Summary

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44 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Standardisation around LTE

Collaboration agreement established in December 1998.


The collaboration agreement brings together a number of
telecommunications standards bodies: ARIB, CCSA, ETSI,
ATIS, TTA, and TTC.
More in www.3gpp.org

Next Generation Mobile Networks. Is a group of mobile


operators, to provide a coherent vision for technology
evolution beyond 3G for the competitive delivery of
broadband wireless services.
More in www.ngmn.org

LTE/SAE Trial Initiative. Is was founded in may 2007 by a


group of leading telecommunications companies.

LSTI Its aim is to prove the potential and benefits that the LTE
technology can offer.
More in http://www.lstiforum.com/

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45 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
Network Architecture TS 23.401 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Long Term Evolution (LTE) access .
TS 23.402 3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE): Architecture enhancements for non-3GPP accesses
TR 23.882 3GPP system architecture evolution (SAE): Report on technical options and conclusions

Evolved Packet Core TR 29.803 3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE): CT WG4 aspects .
TR 29.804 3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE): CT WG3 aspects

TS 36.101 User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception


Evolved UTRAN TS 36.104 Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception
TS 36.141 Base Station (BS) conformance testing
TS 36.201 Physical layer; General description
TS 36.211 Physical channels and modulation
TS 36.212 Multiplexing and channel coding
TS 36.213 Physical layer procedures
TS 36.214 Physical layer; Measurements
TS 36.300 EUTRAN Overall description; Stage 2
TS 36.302 Services provided by the physical layer
TS 36.304 User Equipment (UE) procedures in idle mode
3GPP LTE/SAE TS 36.306
TS 36.321
User Equipment (UE) radio access capabilities
Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification

Specification
TS 36.322 Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol specification
TS 36.323 Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification
TS 36.331 Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol specification

Series TS 36.401
TS 36.410
TS 36.411
Architecture description
S1 general aspects and principles
S1 layer 1
TS 36.412 S1 signalling transport
TS 36.413 S1 Application Protocol (S1 AP)
TS 36.414 S1 data transport
TS 36.420 X2 general aspects and principles
TS 36.421 X2 layer 1
TS 36.422 X2 signalling transport
TS 36.423 X2 Application Protocol (X2AP)
TS 36.424 X2 data transport
TS 36.508 Common test environments for User Equipment (UE) conformance testing
TS 36.521-1 User Equipment (UE) conformance specification Radio transmission and reception Part 1: conformance testing
TS 36.521-2 User Equipment (UE) conformance specification Radio transmission and reception Part 2: ICS
TS 36.523-1 User Equipment (UE) conformance specification; Part 1: Protocol conformance specification
TS 36.523-2 User Equipment (UE) conformance specification; Part 2: ICS
TS 36.523-3 User Equipment (UE) conformance specification; Part 3: ATS
TR 36.801 Measurement Requirements
TR 36.803 User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception
TR 36.804 Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception
TR 36.938 Improved network controlled mobility between LTE and 3GPP2/mobile WiMAX radio technologies
TR 36.942 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Frequency (RF) system scenarios

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NGMN Consortium

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47 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
LSTI (LTE-SAE Trial Initiative)
- joint test bed for LTE worldwide

.. active parties within LSTI

LSTI initiatives goals/objectives


Schedule & Program Office:
demonstrate feasibility and
capabilities of 3GPP LTE-SAE 2007 2008 2009 2010
technology under real world Proof of Concept
conditions. Indoor & outdoor tests Test of OFDM Air Interface
Test of basic
accelerate development of 3GPP functions
specification by identifying Interoperability
IODT
shortcomings out of test phases IOT
reduce risk of market introduction of Trials
Friendly customer
new LTE-SAE technology trials
PR
Public Relation work

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Module Contents

Why LTE?
LTE main requirements
LTE versus other Mobile technologies
LTE Specification work done and scheduled
Network Architecture Evolution
LTE key features
Basics of the LTE Air Interface
Standardisation around LTE
LTE Summary

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Overview of LTE/SAE design benefits

Flat Overall Architecture Access Core Control


2-node architecture
All-IP
LTE BTS MME/GW IMS HLR/HS
(eNodeB)
S

Improved Radio Principles RF Modulation:


peak data rates [Mbps ]: 173 DL , 58 UL OFDMA in DL
Scalable BW: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz SC-FDMA in UL
Short latency: 10 20 ms
RAN MME GW
New Core Architecture
Simplified Protocol Stack
Simple, more efficient QoS eUtran

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Appendix

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51 Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/SAE Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 1.0 / Document Number
The right solution for each segment

W-CDMA/HSPA WiMAX LTE


For operators with 3G spectrum Fixed or mobile network operators with WiMAX Mainstream; 3G evolution leverage large
Broad terminal eco system spectrum installed 3G base
High data security and QoS Device eco system started to evolve Utilizes 2G and 3G spectrum efficient re-
Quick and cost-effective upgrade Optimized wireless-DSL services farming with flexible bandwidth
of existing networks High capacity and low latency Broad terminal eco system expected
Seamless 2G/3G handover Flat and IP based architecture Highest capacity, lowest latency
global coverage, global roaming Very flat and IP based architecture
Short term availability
Proven technology

High speed data rates High speed data with Broadband multimedia
with full mobility limited mobility with full mobility
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